D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi
   
                 
          The Thread

This is not our history's story,
but rather dream weaved thread
that relates what might have been
and some probable possibilities.

Unknown artist's sculptures
at University College depict
obelisk's change to frames
of three church-like towers.

A gray, four-sided obelisk
is topped by golden pyramid
while robin-egg frameworks
go from small pyre to large house.


Heliopolitan creation myth
drew parallel between sun's arc
from night to day and dead's rise
from realm of darkness to light.

Osiris, his wife Isis and post-
humous son Horus of eternity
were worshipped together as
a pyramidal trinity in Egypt.

Earth and corn effigies of Osiris
buried in month of Khoiak
reflect rites of cultivators
based on direct sense of nature.

Olde Eleusinian Mysteries
were sacred, religious rituals
in Greece that revered gods
Demeter and Persephone.

Frazer thought worship of
Demeter developed or evolved
distinctly in its origin from
homage given to god Osiris.

In ode poem "To Demeter",
Homer gave praise to Demeter
or grain goddess who perhaps
emerged in Mycenaean age.

Tradition of Macedonia
attributed chant to Doi
(Demeter's original name)
who searched for Persephone.

"Doi-dole-Doidule
Dozhdo da zavrne
Da na doi zemlata"
(courtesy O. Belchevsky)

Leuce (daughter of Oceanus)
was led by Hades to underworld
and after death metamorphosed
to white poplar in Elysium.

Shifting leafed Populus alba
was tree of Autumn Equinox
and symbol of transformation
through death and rebirth.

Helios carried flaming ball
in chariot pulled by pairs
of horses fed herbs grown on
Isles of Blessed or Nesoi Makaron.

Is makarios (a god's
blessedness) different from
or same as eudaimonia
(a human being's happiness)?

Nestor was Poseidon's
grandson who with Apollo built
tall walls of Troy that controlled
Hellespont entry and Black Sea.

The Voyage of Argo by Apollonius
of Rhodes told sail of Argonauts
along coast of Pontus Euxine
and branch (Ister) of Ocean Stream.

Respected scholar Eratosthenes
dated siege of Troy at 1194 B.C.
based on genealogies collated
by historian Hecataeus.

Apollo's wrath of pestilence
was directed at Achaean army
when priest Chryse was dismissed
with scorn by King Agamemnon.

In "Iliad", Homer imagined
that Paris' refusal to return Helen
from citadel to Menelaus' tent
prolonged war for ten years.


Generally, the theme of "Iliad"
was wrath of demi-god Achilles
and its tragic results for him,
friend Patroclus and comrades.

Judgement of Paris was not seen
as theme of poem because Iliad's
lines (24, 30-36) were interpreted
as interpolation by Aristarchos.

Hector or breaker of horses
killed by Achilles or breaker
of men who dragged his enemy
by rope through slit tendons.

Achilles gained immortality
through heroic deeds though
he's slain by Paris' arrow
guided by Apollo 'fore Troy's fall.

Those whose wishes are for futurity
are not those who act with spontaneity.
Former match tortoise's longevity
while latter catch moment's eternity.

At birth, Achilles' mortal heel
untouched by holy fire: at death,
immortal soul spirited away
by Thetis from his funeral pyre.

His body was ambrosia anointed
to preserve it from decay and
taken by Thetis to White Island
known as Leuce in Pontus Euxine.

Nesos Leuke was triangular isle
at Ister and Borysthenes'
mouths where mortals could not
remain and there was Elysium.

Longitude of 30 14' 41" east.
Latitude of 45 15' 53" north.
Area of seventeen hectares.
Circumference of 1973 metres.

Leuce should not be confused
with island known as Tendra
where Achilles' sanctuary found
and name-stone was unearthed.

In poem called "Aetiopida"
by Aretines, Ajax and
Odysseus took Achilleus'
white ashes to White Island.

Apollodorus described how
Achilles dies and afterwards
comrades-in-arms mix bones
with Patroclus' on Leuce.

Isle of white sand and birds
known as Island of the Blessed,
but today called Ostriv
Zmiyinyy off of Danube Delta.

Old sailors' tales told of clash
clang and cling of armaments
during day and drunken
carousing and singing in night.


Both Euxine (modern Black Sea)
and Propontis became domain
of sea-god Achilles whose temple
could be found on this his isle.

Temple was 29.87 square metres,
built of uncut limestone,
and design was specific
to epoch called Cyclopean.

Excavations on Leuce in forties
revealed inscription to Achilles--
"Glaucus has dedicated me
to Achilles Lord of Leuce".

To Achilles, too, were named
great centres of Laconian
Achilleios and Messenian
Achilleion and Chilia famed.  

Egyptian priests told Herodotus
that Alexander (Paris) and Helen
arrived at Canobic Mouth
of river Nile due to ill winds.

Alexander's servants retreated
to shrine of Heracles and then
put sacred brands on themselves,
thus surrendering to godhead.

Proteus who came after Pheros
which may be title of ("Pharaoh")
banished Alexander and kept
Helen and property for husband.

Oral tradition said Achilles
was fourth of Helen's five husbands--
which included heroes Theseus,
Menelaus, Paris and Deiphobus.

Persistent belief of romance
held that Helen was carried off
after death to island of Leuce
where she married Achilles.

According to Philostratus,
Achilles married Helen
and son was Euphorion
who was type of winged being.

It was surmised Odysseus' trip
was not linked to west, but
with his search of unfriendly
sea renamed hospitable.

Rome was founded on seven hills
by Romulus or first of seven kings
in 753 B.C. based upon
Ab Urbe Condita calendar.

There was story memory-stored
that senators killed Romulus
whose body was cut into pieces
and scattered throughout land.

In The Golden Bough, Frazer
said that Romulus' day of death
was celebrated with sacred rites
connnected with fertilized fig.

Fourth century Macedonian
kingship seemed modelled
on Bronze Age monarchy
of priestly and martial power.

Hetairoi or Companions
were landed nobility serving king
and may recall Myrmidons
of Achilles who were called same.

Macedon's king was acclaimed by
army on parade where oaths
of lawful intentions were made
and rule of law limited king.

Philip (382-336 B.C.) traced line
back to Telemenus who founded
Argos who in turn came from
Heracles (son of Zeus and mortal).

One of three Argaed brothers
or Perdicas did boldly seize sun
to found Kingdom of Macedonia
with capital Aegeae in 650 B.C.

King Philip's lifetime injuries
included loss of his right eye,
shattered right collar bone
and wounded upper leg bone.

Olympic success was legendary:
winner of horse race in 356,
four-horse chariot in 352,
and two-horse chariot in 348.

Coinage of Macedonia
favoured his first-place win
by portraying naked youth
riding prancing horse.


Some historians imagined
that youth holding victory palm
was image of Alexander who
though never competed at an event.

Philip II of Macedon invited
many scholars to royal court
including Platonist philosopher
named Hermias of Artarneus.

Renowned philosopher Aristotle
was hired to teach Alexander
for three years at Mieza
between older Aegeae and Pella.

Tutor was born in Stageira
of Macedonia and father
who may have been Macedonian
was physician of King Amyntas II.

"It is said, I think, that even you
the best of princes, should
undertake the study of
the greatest things" On the Cosmos.

Word "cosmos" may have come from
Macedonian adjective KOS
meaning "winding/slanted" and
noun MOS meaning "bridge".

Macedonian star gazers
had seen cluster of stars
in our Milky Way Galaxy
looking like winding bridge.

As young man, Philip was held
hostage by city-state of Thebes
for period lasting three years
to check state's ambitions.

He learned polity from Pelopidas,
and war science from Pammenes
and Epaminondes whose wins
were at Leuctra and Mantinea.

Syntagma of Macedonian
phalanx under Philip II
was composed of sixteen
synomotia of sixteen men.

Hammond said that Philip lipped
word asthetairoi that combined
words astoi and heteairoi
meaning "townmen companions"

On brother's death, Philip was
regent of his young nephew:
his pressing concerns were
pretenders and foreign foes.

Plutarch said that wife Olympias
carried out rites of possession
and ecstacy in barbarous way
through Dionysian orgies.

Onomarchos gained big win
during period of Sacred War;
so while Philip was supreme leader,
he was not an invincible one.

At Battle of Crocus Field (352 B.C.),
his soldiers wore crowns of laurel
(as if favourites of Apollo)
and enemy threw away their arms.

Fallen Phocian peltast
gazed at crimson anemone
whose petals blew far away
with his expiring breath.

As champion of Apollo,
Philip crucified or hanged
Onomarchos and drowned
three thousand desecrators.

In this year, Chinese sages
recorded sighting supernova
or appearance of bright star
that disappeared in short time.

According to Hellemans/Bunch,
SN352 was first recorded
observation of a supernova
in our Milky Way Galaxy.


Aristotle's Physics (350 B.C.)
proposed geocentric theory
which described stars as
permanent and unchanging.

Variations in brightness
of "wandering stars" or
Jupiter, Venus and Mars
could not be accounted for.

Since comets or "bearded stars"
were erratic and unexpected,
he concluded some of them
were emissions from earth.

We caught sight of it ourselves
"for star in thigh of Dog had
a tail, though a dim one".
Meteorologica, Book I (c.329)

A.G. Pingre (A.D. 1783) surmised
that this comet had appeared
in the year 340 B.C. within
constellation known as Leo.

Observation of a supernova
by Tycho Brahe in A.D. 1572
led him to contradict
Aristotle's unchanging rule.

In Tychonic cosmology,
sun and moon circled earth;
but, our own known planets
revolved in orbit around sun.

On Hveen, Brahe looked down to see
comet of 1572 was beyond moon,
tail pointed away from sun and
it followed elliptical path.

He concluded that comet was
further away than moon, followed
elongated orbit and passed
through planetary spheres.

This dealt blow to Aristotle's
notion of planetary spheres;
as well as, concept of perfect
and unchanging heavens.

Poet dreamt of tian, di and ren.
infinite possible necessities
finite probable choices
random unpredictable chances

Peace of Philocrates ended
when Macedonians laid siege
to Byzantium after having
captured Athenian corn ships.

Philip's fleet was temporarily
trapped in Black Sea when
Bosphorus was blocked with help
from isles Chios, Cos and Rhodes.

His fleet slipped by Byzantium
with a wily ruse, but barking dog
warned the city's defenders
thereby foiling his final siege.

In winter campaign, Philip fought
Scyths in Dobrudja region
at mouth of Ister (Danube) and
secured north-east Macedonia.

He may have married Scythian
princess to secure loyalty of king
through way of Macedon's kings
called "political polygamy".

When nomadic tribe was defeated,
Philip erected statue of Heracles
(symbol of Macedonian authority)
at mouth of river called Ister.

Herodotus compared Ister
or greatest of all rivers which
issues forth along Scythian border
to Nile's volume which exceeds it.

Philip--as leader of Amphictyons
and champion of Delphic Apollo--
attacked Greek position
at Chaeronea in summer of 338.

Life of King Philip was saved
by Alexander's cavalry charge
for which son was never fully
or wholly forgiven by father.

Victory ended independent
city-states and marked start
of unity with Hellenes League
under Macedonian Hegemon.

Some Greeks saw Philip and
Macedonians as barbarians:
would Aristotle have classified
them in a similar manner?

Philip's design might have been
to liberate Greeks under
Persian rule in Asia Minor
and/or full conquest of Persia.


At first Council meeting in 337,
Philip proposed League conduct
religious war against Persia
for desecration of temples.

O tell me, Pythian Apollo,
in most unambiguous words,
will my plans become the future
or is my future already planned?

"esteptai men ho tauros,
echei telos, estin ho thuson."

Wreathed is the bull. All is done.
There is also the one who will smite him.

In autumn of same year, there was
quarrel between father and son
at wedding banquet where Attalus
taunted son about legitimacy.

Philip drunkingly drew sword
against son and shortly thereafter
son and mother fled to Epirus,
but son continued on to Illyria.

Relations between father
and son remained strained as seen
by Philip's refusal to consent
to son's choice of bride to wed.

It was surmised that Olympias
planned assassination of Philip
and calculated that her son
gained most in succession terms.

Philip entered public theatre
in final act as king and Hegemon
within line of twelve statues
of gods and himself thirteenth.

Dressed in white robe and thus
appearing more than mortal man,
Philip was ironically stabbed
by one of his own bodyguard.

"When a devoted bull of mighty size,
A sinning nation's grand atonement, dies;
With such a plenty from the spouting veins,
A crimson stream the turfy altars stains."

As acorn strives for form of tree,
so strove descendant of gods to be
god, but approximated actuality
came through his seed's potentiality.

He died three hundred and thirty-six
years before Christian era:
life and deeds of this king
were shown with historical facts.


Cult of Philip II was established
at Amphipolis and Thasos,
as Amyntas (Philip's father)
had been worshipped at Pydna.

Regal bronze was struck during
Philip's reign and posthumously
bore head of Apollo on obverse
to stress his worship to this god.

Gods Apollo and Heracles
had same father who was Zeus,
but mothers were different or
Latona and Alcmena.

Apollo stood for rationality
as typified by liking for lyre,
presiding over poetry and
pronouncing oracles in verse.

Heracles stood for irrationality
as seen when he killed Linus
(who taught him lyre), his dear wife
Megara and his own children.

When Heracles visited Delphi,
Pythia gave cold reception;
so, he tried to plunder temple
and carry away sacred tripod.

In confused state, prophetess
gave reply to Alexander
who tried to drag her to shrine
where she said "You're invincible...".

Unlooted royal tomb of Philip II
was found by late archaeologist
Manolis Andronikos
on 8 November 1977 at Vergina.

Gold larnax was embossed by
eight-point sun or star within
larger eight-point sun or star
thus comprising 16 points in toto.

It may be that Sumerian murals
earlier depicted SN11400 or
Vela X as eight-point star
within larger eight-point star.

Larnyx contained cremated
bones and also wreath weighing
714 grams worthy of king,
champion, hero and divinity.

Funeral wreath was adorned
with sixty-eight acorns
and displayed three hundred
and thirteen oak leaves.

Tit tit tapper woodpecker
had adopted sacred oak thus
supplanting role of Demeter
as goddess of acorn laden tree.

IF Macedonian solar calendar
was 365 days then it may be
possible to explain what may
be symbolic number of 313.

There were 313 years dating from
founding of Macedonia by Perdicas
Temenid in 650 B.C. to death
of Philip II in year 336 B.C.

There three ivory head portraits
were most authoritative
family sculptures of Philip,
his wife Olympias and son.


Antechamber of Philip's tomb
housed another gold larnax
which may contain ashes
of youngest wife--Kleopatra.

However, some experts believed
that room actually contains
remains of Philip III Arrhidaeus
by traces of cold cremation.

Alexander was born 20 July 356 B.C.
which coincided with burning
of temple of Artemis (Apollo's twin)
in Ionian city of Ephesus.

Philip was thrice blessed with news
that Parmenio had won victory,
horse attained chariot prize
and son Alexander was born.

King Alexander III of Macedon
saw himself as an Argead
because its kings could trace roots
to Argos and man-god Heracles.

Mother--Olympias--as daughter
of Neoptolemus I (king of Molossians)
could trace ancestry back to
Neoptolemus son of Achilles.

Neoptolemus was also known
under name Pyrrhus which meant
"meaning of fire", "red" and "flame"
or red-haired sacrifice(r).

Ancient Egyptian kings burned
red-haired men whose ashes
fed fields at Osiris' grave
according to views of Manetho.

Both Heracles and Achilles were
renowned for deeds; for example,
former sacked city of Troy
and latter laid siege to it.

According to Eratosthenes,
Olympias shared secret to son
of his conception and urged him
to be worthy of divine parent.

Whether Queen Mytale
changed her name to Olympias
due to Olympic win or birth
of Zeus' son is unknown.

Two features were unique to him
or heterochromous eyes
and head angled to side after
injuring neck on Ister campaign.

According to A. Donski,
the word pezhateri
may be the only preserved
Macedonian word he used.

Pezhateri meant "foot
companions" and was formed
as compound of two words
"pez" (on foot) and "hateri".

Plutarch wrote how Alexander
managed horse Bucephalas by
by turning him to sun and how
Aristotle guided pupil by reason.

Later, the thirty year old horse
that knelt to take up his master
was honoured with the founding
of city called Bucephalia.

There were those whose thoughts,
though, flew through the ether
to see ox-marked black horse
as horn-of-plenty unicorn.


However, sophist Callisthenes
who was Aristotle's nephew
refused obeisance to monarch
and died caged with disease of lice.

Unearthed Pella mosaic showed
god Dionysos on panther's back
and another mosaic depicted
Alexander's bravery in hunt.

Alexander crossed river Ister
near Pine Tree Island to pursue
Getae and landed river's far-side
on this his adventure to Asia.

Orator Demosthenes showed
witness who made assertion
that Alexander died in Illyria--
reflection of common rumour.

Distinguished sculptor Scopas
wrought marble masterpiece
of Achilles escorted to Leuce
by sea gods in Bacchic spirit.

He competed in contest
of Alexander and Crateros
at Delphi: he carved reliefs
of Amazons at Temple of Artemis.

Scopas of Paros mastered
three dimensional space and
trait of pathos; so much so
that Alexander patronized him.

It was at Chaeronea where
left-wing cavalry broke through
line of Theban Sacred Band
without leaving survivor's tale.

He spared house of Pindar
because poet had given praise
to Alexander I of Macedon,
but also wrote of Isle of Blessed.

"Where ocean breezes blow
around Island of Blessed
and flowers of gold blaze".
(Pindar, Olympian Odes 2)

At Troy, Alexander showed not
interest in namesake's lyre,
but rather noticed pitch-covered
shield of ancestor Achilles.

At Alexander's request, Aristotle
wrote annotated text of Iliad:
so-called "casket copy" was kept
under pillow along with dagger.

While Alexander acknowledged
that his father had given him life;
yet, he respected Aristotle
who taught him to live well.

After Battle of Issus, silver
Tetradrachm was issued with young
face of Heracles and on its
reverse side was throned Zeus.


During siege of Tyre, citizens
dreamt Apollo deserted city
while Alexander dreamt how
Heracles had beckoned him.

Tyrians tied statue of Apollo,
nailed it down and accused
god of support for Alexander
who gave offering to Heracles.

In twelfth labour, Heracles
subdued three headed
Cerberus that symbolized
past, present and future.

As celebration of task
completed, he crowned himself
with remnants of Leuce
which turned white on brow.

When he had performed series
of twelve labours, he became
god after death as immortal
parts carried aloft in chariot.

At Tyre, Herodotus had viewed
two pillars--one of refined gold
and one of emerald that shone
by night at shrine of Heracles.

Herodotus surmised there were
two cults of Heracles: one saw
man as hero and other made
sacrifice to Olympian as god.

When Artaxerxes II retook
Egypt using mercenaries,
Greeks interpreted it to mean
repeat invasion of Greece.

However, Alexander reasoned
if allied army secured Egypt
(in strategic rear position) then
Persian Empire would fall.

Egypt was also original object
of southerly march since it was
supplier of grain that could
solve food shortages of Greece.

Osiris was called Unnefer,
Lord of Eternity, Osiris
of Mysteries and also
he who one may not name.


A god born of no month nor year
and dead body rent in pieces,
scattered, buried where found;
so out of both time and space.

Osiris and bull of Apis
were models for Serapis
who wore corn measure on head
as guardian of corn supply.

He visited Sun Temple at
Heliopolis eclipsed by
Alexandria as phoenix buried
its father and fathered itself.


Romance said Alexander
was invested by priesthood
with titles of "Pharaoh"
and "son of gods" at Memphis.

Besieger of Tyre and Gaza
founded Alexandria-by-Egypt
whose location near Pharos
was dreamt by Odyssey's lines.

Initially, he wanted to found
Alexandria on isle itself;
but, there was not enough space
to suit cosmopolitan city.

Ensured main streets of city
intersected at right angles;
as well, he showed where stoa
and temples were to be located.

Alexandria was laid out on
Hippodamian gridplan wherein
its two main streets were set
north-south and west-east.

He founded grand total of
eigthteen cities named
after himself--some flourished,
but others floundered.

He was addressed by priest of
Zeus-Ammon shrine at Siwa site
(where Heracles visited)
with divine title "O, pai Dios".

He was so pleased with accuracy
of oracular responses that
he decided to choose oasis
near Siwa as his burial place.

Oracle of Siwa honoured
younger god identified with
Dionysos who was directed
to oasis' water source by ram.

Natives of desert oasis
were still giving their worship
to Alexander and Zeus Ammon
for nine hundred years to A.D. 529.

An amateur archaeologist
whose name was Souvaltzis
did twice claim to have found
tomb of Alexander at Siwa.

Prior to Battle of Gaugamela,
Alexander's prayer referred to
divine sonship when he said
"if he were truly sprung from Zeus".

Babylon and Susa were spared,
but Persepolis' palace set afire
in revenge for wrongs of Persians
who had burned Greek temples.

When Alexander and his army
stayed at Babylon, diary
of astronomy made reference
to sky high prices of corn.


In India, wounded Alexander
suggested that mother Olympias
be granted immortality by himself
or by friends upon his death.

In his Anabasis, Arrian
recorded Alexander's visit
to city of Nysa which proudly
claimed Dionysos as founder.

Earth god's origin was Thrace,
(but like Osiris as deity of
agriculture and corn) was put
together and regenerated.

At Macedonian assembly,
he asked that friend be awarded
heroic honours and to himself
divine honours (caelestes honores).

Cleomenes was told by him
to erect heroons to friend
on Pharos and in Alexandria,
but Ptolemy cancelled them.

Did typhoid fever claim life of
Hephaestion and/or malaria
end life of world conqueror
just short period afterward?

In some sense, Alexander
was invincible because
he lost not battle -- except perhaps
with bacteria and/or mosquitos.

Folklore tale told how
he died "from mosquitoes,
his kingdom has collapsed".
(Prof. Alexandar Donski)

Or were they rather poisoned
by slow-acting strychnine
given through unmixed wine
which they drank in profusion?

He was drinking at Medius' party
where he awoke with fever
and passed away tenth of June
at young age of thirty-two.


Alexander tried to throw himself
into Euphrates to give idea
that he had disappeared
like an apotheosized god.

Tetradrachm of Alexander
minted at city of Amphipolis
portrayed Zeus holding
eagle, sceptre and ear of corn.

His funeral train departed
for Damascus after postponement
of year and carried along with it
solid gold sarcophagus.

Body showed no signs of decay
after six days and appeared
so much alive that pagan priests
hesitated to even touch it.

Egyptian and Chaldean priests
cleaned out body and saved it
by embalment in sweet honey;
he smelled sweet in life, too.

There was great rivalry among
Alexander's generals in Babylon
for possession of corpse that was
viewed as unique status symbol.

Plan was devised to send body
to Macedonia, but suspiciously
Testament ordered Ptolemy
to transport corpse to Egypt.

Forged Testament of King
Alexander (son of Ammon
and Olympias) assigned
Kingdom of Egypt to Ptolemy.

It directed Ptolemy "care of
transportation to Egypt
of my body" and design of
sarcophagus to lay it in.

In bold action, Ptolemy
commandeered cortege of
covered wagon, ionic columns
and vaulted ceiling in power play.

He wished to consolidate
his position so he left for Siwa
where priests had declared
divinity of Alexander.

Cortege resembling tomb
of Macedonians was sent
to spiritual capital of Memphis
where coffin was safely held.

It may be that body was stored
in sarcophagus of Nektanebo II
whom Alexander Romance
imagined was his real father.


Ptolemy kept coffin here
for years while mausoleum called
Soma was built at crossroads
of Canopic Way and Street of Soma.

Alexander lay at heart of
this city which he himself
had founded, created and named
as Alexandria-by-Egypt.

It had been intended that
city would be established
on mile and half Pharos
or one day's sail from coast.

Most prominent landmark
of entire area was actually
four hundred foot lighthouse
built on small island of Pharos.

According to Herodotus,
Nile had seven mouths, but
two of them called Bucolic
and Bolbitine were man-made.

Isis' tears swelled stream
in summer at corn-god's death
when harvest was completed
and lands were barren fields.

Texts attest that Alexander
bore royal titles of divinities
who were two Egyptian gods
named Son of Ra and Horus.


Horus underwent forms of life,
death and rebirth when mother
Isis fluttered in hawk's form
over corpse of dead husband.

In myth, Horus's father or Osiris
(personification of corn) who
dies and thrives again each year
represented death and rebirth.

Effigy of corn was buried
with ceremonial funeral rites,
so that god may live again
through sympathetic magic.

"Thus from one god I became
three gods" said Osiris
in Papyrus of Nesi-Amsu
(three hundred and eleven B.C)

Ptolemy I Soter chose
Alexandria as his capital
thus displacing Memphis
for the title by 320 B.C.

First king of Ptolemies
set up cult of Alexander
perhaps as early as 290 B.C.
to support himself and dynasty.


During Ptolemaic period,
official documents were dated
both by year of its king
and by year of Alexander's priest.

Macedonian dynasty ran
in Egypt through Ptolemy
who was actually son of
Philip of Macedon and Arsinoe.

In Ptolemy's final years,
step-brother wrote Memoirs
which became one of Arrian's
authorities on Alexander III.

Royal palaces included
the Soma which contained
burial places of Egypt's kings
and Alexander the Great.

Ptolemy II declared parents
as Saviour gods in joint cult
connected with yearly festival
called Ptolemaieia.

Hellenistic king added cult
of himself and his sister
to that of Alexander under
title theoi adelphoi.


Mosaic picture that dated
from third century B.C.
personified city of Alexandria
with martial characteristics.

He wore headdress whose shape
resembled ship's prow and
held crosspiece staff that
symbolized mast of vessel.

Ptolemy X Alexander was
expelled from Egypt after
he sold namesake's gold coffin
and replaced it with glass.

Caesar wished to continue
Ptolemaic regime through
his only son and to make
Alexandria empire's capital.


Caesar sent unique diadem
that was symbol of royal power
of Alexander the Great to king
in Rome whose name was "Jupiter".


Ptolemaic Kingdom ended
with death of Caesarion
whose mother was Cleopatra
and father was Julius Caesar.

Fixed Alexandrian calendar
devised in 30 B.C. assigned
first day of year to rising
of Nile or on August 29th.

Augustus saw royal mummy
of four empire conqueror,
put golden crown on head
and strew flowers on coffin.

Dio Cassius recorded
how Augustus bent over body
to kiss face and accidentally
broke fragil corpse's nose.

Emperor sealed his papers
at first with image of sphinx,
then with head of Alexander
and finally with his own head.

Augustus also set-up cult
of his great uncle Caesar
based on cult of Alexander
and gave model for futurity.

It was difficult to move
455 ton Karnak obelisk,
so he took two other obelisks
from Sun Temple in Heliopolis.

Love poet Ovid was exiled for
his erotic poetry to Tomi
(on Euxine Sea) that defended
Thrace and Danube Delta.

It may be that Macedonius
who wrote erotic poetry
at time of Justinian the Great
was influenced by Ovid's rhyme.

Macedonian poet Damaios
dedicated poem preserved
in koine language of second
century B.C. to god Osiris.

Altogether there were
six Macedonian poets
after time of Alexander
over period of centuries.

They were Antiphanes,
Damaios, Macedonius,
Perses, Posidippos
and finally Timolaos.

Aristotle's Lyceum acted as
inspiration for museum and
library that displayed noted
scholar's annotated Iliad.

While Eratosthenes was known
as chief librarian; yet,
his roles as cosmographer
and geometer built reputation.

His map of known world (c. 220 B.C.)
basically restored old Ionian
concept of two continents;
namely, Asia and Europe.

Meridian of Alexandria
ran its way south-north through
Alexandria to Byzantium
and on to Borysthenes' mouth.

Plutarch used Eratosthenes
as one source in his life of
Alexander the Great with respect
to secret of his divine birth.

Plutarch inferred concept
of unity of mankind
from Alexander who undertook
mixing lives in loving cup.

Another scholar who is Strabo
described Euxine as bow
and placed Leuce 500 stadia
from the mouth of Tyras river.

This geographer reckoned length
of western Pontus Euxine from
Byzantium to Borysthenes
(Leuce area) as 3800 stadia.

Egypt's capital had population
second only to Rome by time
of Caesar and first in three ways:
industry, commerce and culture.

Large population was comprised
of four groups who were Greeks,
Macedonians, Jews and native
Egyptians in diverse districts.

Jewish community constituted
forty percent of Alexandria
and formed largest Jewish
population outside of Jerusalem.

Ptolemy Philadelphus asked for
translation of Septuagint
by seventy scribes brought from
from Jerusalem to Alexandria.


There was commemoration
held on island of Pharos
that marked translation of
Old Testament into Greek.

The he goat who waxed great
in Book of Daniel 8:8
may refer to Alexander
whose realm split to four ones.

The Messiah was prophesized
"who shall confirm the covenant
with many for one week"
as Gabriel told Daniel.

At Jewish Feast of Tabernacles,
Christ portrayed himself
through brilliant image of
"I am the light of the world".


"The city of God is eternal.
There none are born, for none die.
This is true and full felicity".
(Saint Augustine of Hippo)

Christian Church of Alexandria
was founded by Saint Mark
whose corpse was smuggled out
of city in pickled pork barrel.

Gospel of St. Mark marked
that the Messiah "is risen;
he is not here; behold
the place where they laid him".

[Le sphinx] est le visage
d'un jeune homme comme l'age
de Jesus et d'Alexandre.
(Professeur Schenouda)

Growth of Christian religion
was limited to Alexandria
(foreign city and colony)
until second century's end.

There was no evidence to suggest
Emperor Tiberius was aware
of Christ as the one Messiah
or even existence of Jesus.

Human man named Jesus
was born in year uncertain
in Herod's reign mistaken
by Dionysius Exiguus (c. A.D. 525).

Jesus Christ was crucified
upon instigation of irate mob
on Jewish charges of blasphemy
that meant capital punishment.

"They have taken away the Lord
out of the sepulchre,
and we know not where they
laid him." Saint John 20:2

Resurrection of Christ and
ascension provided basis for
this revelatory religion to have
longterm, widespread appeal.

Earliest non-Christian mention
of Christ was by Josephus;
although passage was oddly
not present in Arabic version.

Schenouda a dit Osiris
est le symbole de l'im-
mortalite et Christ
vit ne finissant jamais.

Frazer declared tomb of Osiris
at Abydos was to Egyptians
"what church of Holy Sepulchre
at Jerusalem was to Christians".

Plutarch of Chaeronea wrote
Lives and is known as Middle
Platonic philosopher who tied
one in theory with many in use.

Mad Caligula did don
Alexander's own breastplate
at some ceremonial events
and did demand worship as god.

Alexander had been viewed
as man of abstinence while
imitator indulged in excess
and was demonized by church.

Pliny the Elder confirmed
tumulus of Achilleus
was situated on Leuce
where temple honoured him.

Rome the Eternal City burned
and Nero used Christians
or religious sect with small
following as scapegoat.

As missionary, Paul visited
Philippi, Thessalonica and
Beroea where he was joined
by companion named Sopater.

Sopater, son of Pyrrhus,
converted his father
to Christianity and called
Sosipater by church.

Crispus, chief of synagogue
at Corinth was converted
to Christianity and then
baptized by Paul on mission.

Paul--head of Christian church--
was taken to Rome, found guilty
of treason against state and
beheaded as his punishment.

Capitol of Rome burned on
19th of December A.D. 69
during civil war and Temple
of Jerusalem in August A.D. 70.

Gibbon stated that Temple
of Jerusalem was destroyed
by hands of Jews themselves
rather than by those of Romans.

Holy City of Jerusalem
did fall as consequence of
Jewish attempts to overthrow
Roman government in Judea.

Original bishop and presbyter
resembled each other through
their similar office duties
and order of importance.

At end of first century,
however, title of bishop
put above nomenclature
of presbyter in church offices.

By third century's start,
bishop was steward of Church
while presbyter's role was
limited to realm of spiritual.

In tomb mosaic discovered
under St. Peter's, Christ
was portrayed as sun god
riding two horse chariot.

The Life of Apollonius of Tyana
written by Damis of Ninevah
was encouraged by Julia Domna
or second wife of Severus.

Byzantium's walls were breached
by Severus' siege, it was renamed
as Augustina Antonina and
reduced to village status.

Severus placed secret books
in Soma or Sema, then sealed it
to prevent damage to corpse
from throng of tourists.

There was Greek and Macedonian
ruling class when Caracalla
laid offering of cloak, rings
and girdle at mausoleum.

Last imperial visitation
recorded was by Caracalla
according to historians
Herodian and Anticheus.

He delusionally thought
that he was Alexander; so
his portrait bore face halves
of Alexander and himself.

He shammed plan to get phalanx
of thousand Alexandrian youth
who were slain as he oversaw
from nearby Temple of Serapis.

From this time, in Alexandria,
Greeks and Macedonians
were viewed by Rome as rebels
and city's natives as allies.

Apollonius was transformed
by Philostratus from real-life
magician into miracle worker
whose acts resembled Christ's.

Pupil of Plotinus (Porphyry)
taught views on theurgy
or virtuous state of mind
as stated in Chaldean Oracles.

He critically commented
on Christian ideas and ideals
after his person was assaulted
by overzealous Christians.

Great religious persecution
began at time of Festival
of Terminalia when edict issued
to destroy Christian churches.

Diocletian issued edict
to persecute Christians:
Constantine was to harrass
Melitians and Arians.

Constantius believed that
Apollo ruled political change
as sun's course reversed itself
when he met Helena at inn.

Constantine was born on
February 27th (c. A.D. 272-282),
but exact year was unknown
since he claimed youthfulness.

Birthplace was probably Naissus
or city in proximity to
River Danube in province
later known as Dacia Ripensis.

Son of concubine of Claudius
was Constantius whose son
by concubine was Constantine
whose illegitimate son was Crispus.

Father left wife/mistress
Helena to marry Theodora:
son put aside wife/concubine
Minervina to marry Fausta.

Eusebius contrasted lifespan
of him who lived twice as long
as Alexander the Great who
died at young age of thirty-two.

While many emperors were
by flattery like Alexander,
it is worthwhile to identify
Constantine with Philip II.

Generally, both generals
engaged mainly in civil wars,
were equally skilled diplomats
and planned war with Persia.

Specifically, characters were
duplicitous and disingenuous,
jealous of first-born sons,
and religious only as pretense.

Constantine had vigorous
appearance with shoulders
broad, thick neck and
hooked nose on manly face.

Sometime between 293 and 296
Constantine served near Danube
under Galerius who resided
in palace at Thessalonica.

At appointment of his father
as Caesar, young Constantine
joined Diocletian's retinue
as hostage of guarantee.

As hostage of Galerius,
he served as staff officer
and of Diocletian as
tribunis primi ordinis.

Internal revolt erupted
in Egypt when Domitianus
was recognized as emperor
and Achilleus led rebels.

Constantine outdid Diocletian
in quelling rebellion of
Achilleus in eight month's siege
of Alexandria in year A.D. 296.

Hierocles who was Governor
of Egypt (A.D. 305) utilized
figure of Apollonius
in pagan attack of Christianity.

It was in 306 that Alexander
who was Vicarius of Africa
cut all grain supplies to Rome
and declared himself emperor.

At York, army and King Crocus
named Constantine emperor
since no legitimate heirs
were there after Constantius.

Maximian picked Constantine
as Augustus in year 307
and offered Fausta as bride,
(daughter and Maxentius' sister).

Flavius Valerius Constantinus
known as Constantine the Great
saw vision of Apollo and Victory
in shrine of Apollo Grannus.

Panegyric of 310 may relate
his only real epiphany
when he witnessed pair of gods--
his later sights were fancies.

An anonymous encomium
of Constantine showed how
ancestor Claudius slew Goths
at mouth of Danube river.

Gods offered Constantine
four laurel crowns foretelling
longer life than Gerenian Nestor
according to pagan panegyrist.

Flatterer of Autun compared
Constantine's good looks with
"the great king" (Alexander)
and "Thessalian hero (Achilles).

It was uncertain if he saw
sign of Labarum prior to
Battle of Milvian Bridge
because he gave account later.


Probably, version of vision
was deceptive lie to provide
religious context to what
was natural phenomenon.

Eusebius' Life of Constantine
published after hero's death
recalled emperor's vision
quarter century earlier.


It was viewed as miraculous
by some Christians that enemy
would err by adventure
on outskirts outside Rome.


Constantine's father-in-law
(who had ruled for twenty years
as senior emperor) resented
second place to son Maxentius.

Constantine blamed Maxentian
for treason by Fausta's oath
which led to father-in-law's forced
suicide and erasure of name.

He saw himself as Sol Invictus
or Apollo and as Conservator
of Constantius I Chlorus
who reigned as Augustus in West.

To commemorate victory at
Battle of Milvian Bridge,
his name followed by QUOD.
INSTINCTV.DIVINITAS.MENTIS.

"Whereby the Highest Divinity
may perhaps be moved to wrath...
against me myself...whose care
He has committed the government".

These words of Constantine
written through his own letter
show God gave him power
as long as he satisfied His will.

Sozomenus explicitly stated
Macedonians became subject
to Constantine following
battle of Cibalis (A.D. 314).

Constantine saw Visigoths
as principal threat to empire's
Lower Danube region or what
was known as Scythia Minor.

Constantine was bestowed
title Maximus on many
occasions; for example,
Gothicus Maximus (A.D. 315).

He assumed title Gothicus
in 315/319 in order to mark
victory and alleged descent
from Claudius II Gothicus.

Was Constantine aware that
"his ancestor" executed
obscure monk Valentinus
on 14th day of February?

Valentine refused to be
converted to Roman gods
by Claudius II; instead,
he tried to convert emperor.

Celeiul was port on Danube
dedicated to Achilles where
Constantine built stone bridge
whose ruined pillars survive.

In 321, Christian emperor
disallowed magical practices
that posed danger to health
and welfare of mankind.

Particular law on magic was
recorded and codified within
Code of Justinian 9:18
and Codex Theodosianus 9:16.

His eldest son Crispus
was named after Claudius'
brother thus implying
he's grandson or grand-nephew?

Lactantius who was preceptor
to Crispus believed that
new Millenium was linked
to second coming of Christ.

On Vicennalia, Constantine
relinquished not title of
Augustus to son Crispus
who was appointed Caesar.

Prior to civil war, Constantine
required troops to pray
to God while Licinius' army
worshipped ancestral gods.

Standard called Labarum
(Gallic word) was carried by
special guard of fifty men
known for courage and piety.

Crispus' decisive naval win
in Hellespont meant that
Licinius had to withdraw from
Byzantium when sea control lost.

It was ironic King Philip II
abandoned siege of Byzantium
while siege by Constantine
was made unnecessary step.

Chalcedon or "city of the blind"
had been started by Megara
on east shore of Bosporus
before Byzantium chosen.

Sites considered for Nova Roma
were Jerusalem, Naissus,
Nicomedia, Thessalonica,
Sardica and finally--Troy.

Constantine laid out lines of
walls near marker of Ajax
and built gated-wall before God
told him to look elsewhere.

August emperor's decision
to abandon site of Troy
after construction began
was curiously odd and abrupt.

If Alexander's remains
were stealthily taken from
Alexandria then it may
explain end of Troy program.

In "The Oration", Constantine
spoke mistruths when he said
Virgil described our Saviour
going to war against Troy.

Was village of Troy used as ruse
to convince Greeks/Macedonians
that it was necessary to move
Alexander from city of "Alex"?

Virgil wrote in Aenead
"Quidquid id est,
timeo Danaos et
dona ferentes."

Alexander's body had been
seen by emperors, masses,
Christians and pagans
for six hundred fifty years.

In one of life's perplexing
mysteries, it vanished
completely and seemingly
without rhyme or reason.

Was his body transported
by secret mission to Nova Roma
to bring good fortune to city
and then to isle of Leuce?

Troy ploy was similar to
Caracalla's beastly sham
at Alexandria or Odysseus'
Trojan horse subterfuge.

When God pointed way to town
of Byzantium, it was then
an unimportant bishopric
under its metropolitan.

Aurelius Victor stated that
Constantine founded city
of Constantinople without
naming it (Dio Caes. 41.12).

Presbyter of Alexandria
(Arius) originated heresy
of three unlike hypostases,
rather than unity of the three.

Record of church synod
indicated it was convened
in 636th year from reign
of Alexander the Macedonian.

Controversy raged between
pluralists and unitarians
who claimed respectively Son
either creature or divinity.

Hosius or Ossius acted
as ecclesiastical adviser to
emperor and may have shown
word homoousious to him.

Constantine suggested word
homoousious (of one essence)
to link Father to Son as
formula which all could accept.

Arcane debate revolved on
single diphthong in Greek
between contestants called
Homoousians and Homoiusians.

Church's power structure
followed kind of Arian model
since Constantine was at head,
followed by bishops and deacons.

As young boy, Athanasius
played sacred game wherein
he was alloted episcopal chair
and others deacon or presbyter.

Athanasius went to Council
as deacon and some years later
elected Bishop of Alexandria
on votes of extremists.

While Alexander the Great sought
self-imposed exile in Illyria,
Arius was ordered deported
to Roman province of Illyricum.

Michael Grant noted design
of Christian church was
basilica with inside columns or
"Greek temple turned inside out".

In Theurgia, Iamblichus
criticized false diviners
who scattered limbs of Osiris
in "extravagant absurdity".

Cornelian law written
under Sulla stated that
magicians shall be burned alive,
thrown to beasts or crucified.

Julian was born about time
Iamblichus died (c.325) and, as
student, sought out Aedesius
or disciple of that "Neoplato".

It was probably Constantine
who asked Council of Nicaea
to fix proper date of Easter
on same day for all to pray.

Constantine used pious
fraud when he claimed Sibyl
pointed to Lord and Passion
in prophetic acrostic.

Rhetor Sopater came from
beautiful garrison town called
Apamea that was built at time
of Seleucid empire (300 B.C.).

Apameia was called Pella
at one time when Macedonians
took abode therein and
Pella had become metropolis.

Sopater spent winter on Danube
clearly in attendance at court
of Licinius before Oct. 316
and later in Nicomedia.

Sopater was respected
as philosopher and follower
of one called Iamblichus
known later as a "Neoplatonic".

Constantine asked rhetor
Sopater to sit at right hand
to chagrin of emperor's
closest Christian courtiers.

According to Edward Gibbon,
Sopater's personal friendship
with emperor provoked Prefect
Ablavius to resent him.

D. Woods wondered if Sopater
undertook false con-
version to Christianity
at time of Nicene debate?

His tenth book on Alexander III
was composed from Lives,
Erato of Cephalion and
History of Macedon.

There were three types of rites
at city's foundation
that are listed in importance:
Christian, secular and pagan.

Sopater did symbolic acts
intended to protect
city of Constantinople
through use of magical arts.

Emperor sentenced Sopater
to be beheaded at same time
as Athanasius' foes removed
him for grain threat. (N. Baynes)

Head of the dead Osiris
was treasured as holy relic
at sanctuary of Memphis
and seen in wonder at Abydos.

Substitute of corn spirit
(in legend of Phrygia) who lost
reaping contest was wrapt up
in corn sheaves and beheaded.

Sopater may represent
Osiris who was yearly slain,
torn to pieces and buried
in order to quicken soil's seed.

In his Vitae Sophistarum,
Eunapius viewed execution
of Sopater as main cause
leading to death of Constantine.

Ablavius himself was executed
by order of Constantius II
just short time after death
of his father Constantine.

Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea
called Crispus "an Emperor
most dear to God and in all regards
comparable to his father".

Moral rectitude of young man
came to notice of his father
who was impatient of an equal
and loathe to share spotlight.

Son held incommunicado
under arrest at father's court:
Caesar was seen by Augustus
as his inaccordant enemy.

At august ceremony of
father's twentieth year reign,
his twenty-one year old son
was held on trumped up charge(s).

Sextus juxtaposed event
of condemnation of Crispus
with seizure of Cyprus
by herdsman Calocerus.

He was taken under armed guard
to private trial, put to death
on orders of his father
and honorable name erased.

Both Crispus and Maximian
upon deaths had names erased;
maybe suspected of treason
on accusations of Fausta.

Constantine's surviving son
was nine year's old, so he
temporarily used prefects
to supervise different regions.

Indeed though, Constantine
needs little excuse to murder
not only son, but also wife,
son-in-law and father-in-law.

Stepmother Fausta blamed
Crispus of amorous advance
thus leaving sons Constantine II,
Constantius II and Constans.

Of old, king held responsible
for bad sky and poor crops;
so son soon sacrificed for
favourability and fertility.

"And Judah said unto Israel
his father, 'Send the lad
with me, and we will arrive
and go'". (Genesis 43:8)

Lactantius related how Isis
mourned for lost son Osiris
(god as son not husband)
until lost boy was discovered.

In his "De Ave Phoenice",
poet showed pagans how
Christian phoenix might be
acceptable to their beliefs.

Phoenix brought pieces of
ashes, bones and cinders
in clawed feet for the Lord's
dwelling towards the sun.

Job's phoenix was viewed
as symbol of rebirth:
"I shall die in my nest, and
multiply my days as the sand".

Herodotus wrote that they
have another sacred bird called
by name of phoenix which was
great rarity even for Egypt.

Sophist Nicagoras acted as
sacred herald of Eleusinian
Mysteries in his capacity
as official chair in Athens.

Graffiti left at Valley
of Kings near city of Thebes
showed he sojourned in 326
at bid of Constantine.

"I, the torchbearer...[Nicagoras]
son of Minucianus, an Athenian,
investigated the tombs many
lifetimes after divine Plato".

Family connection to Plutarch
and sage nephew known as
Sextus of Chaeronea
was also told by inscription.

In 325, Constantine planned
trip to Egypt ostensibly
to witness with Nicagoras
rebirth of phoenix bird.

It may be guessed phoenix
referred to bird, obelisk,
Osiris, Christ, Crispus,
Alexandria or Alexander.

Alexander was like phoenix
since he was Pharaoh, Horus,
Son of Ra: he was invincible
conqueror of four empires.

He hellenized worship of
Osiris through popular god
Serapis whose temple lay
in close proximity to Soma.

He founded Alexandria
which became influential
cosmopolitan city supplying
grain/corn to old and Nova Roma.

Rise and fall may be part
of non-periodic cycle
of Rome, Alexandria, City
of God and Constantinople.

Corresponding founding
fathers over millenium
were Romulus/Remus, Alexander,
Christ and Constantine.

Hosius of Cordova
was present in Alexandria
in 325 apparently to prepare
for his announced visit.

Egyptian trip cancelled
when Constantine forewarned
of contentious Arians
opposing Bishop Alexander.

Perhaps there was another
reason that phoenix sighting
was called off--Alexander
the Great was no longer there.


It may be that Constantine
was more concerned about
trouble with Greeks/Macedonians
than schismatic heretics.


It was Constantine's desire
that Tutmosis III's obelisk
dating from fifteenth century
stand in city of namesake.

Constantine chose to import
two obelisks: one came from
Deir el Bahri to his city
where it lay for century.

Lateran Obelisk was taken
to Alexandria (where it stayed
after his death) and to Rome
after Constantius II's death.

Helena sought physical
sign to strengthen faith
in son of God or Jesus Christ.
She praised name of grandson.

Constantine removed earthly
remains to diminish faith
in Zeus's son or Alexander.
He erased name of Crispus.

Sozomenus refuted view
he converted to one god
when Sopater said no sin
was cleansed for Crispus' death.

Bronze medallion was struck
in A.D. 326 depicting one
of his sons giving to him
globe on which phoenix perched.

Populace of Constantinople
expected free grain rations
out of Egyptian ports of call
beginning in year 332.

It was evident Athanasius
used intimidation and force
through military authorities
to cower and silence enemies.

Corruption of civil service
was rampant as money bought
everything and without coin
nothing at all could be sought.

Melitian bishop Arsenius
had house burned after he was
flogged by Athanasius'
thuggish-like bishops.

Athanasius charged with
occult murder of Arsenius
when severed hand was given
as proof at bishop's trial.

Athanasius was also accused
of starving Constantinople
by magically preventing
wheat from leaving Alexandria.

A.H.M. Jones suspected bishop
threatened to terminate all
shipments of corn if Arians
and Melitians readmitted.

And Eusebius levelled
charge that Philumenus
was given gold for treason
(assassination of emperor).

These charges were more serious
than those drawn against Sopater;
notwithstanding, Constantine
acquitted bishop as man of God.

Ambitious Ablavius
was promoted from junior clerk
serving governor of isle Crete
to Praetorian Prefect of East.

Athanasius received well wish
from Bishop Alexander of
Thessalonica or one of
Macedonia's Christian centres.

"Black" bishop had power
to interrupt administration
of city, prevent Arius' arrival
and delay shipments of corn.

He was exiled by Constantius II
for sedition, bloodshed and
theft of corn for own use
destined for destitute.

He was banished five times
over period of seventeen years
by four emperors; however,
he still achieved sainthood.

He died at Alexandrian see
on 2 May 373 and his body
was moved to Constantinople
and finally to city of Venice.

Copper coin minted A.D. 333-334
shows personified city of
Constantinopolis and image of
Victory on ship's prow.

Also, Emperor won victory
in 334 beyond Danube
against Sarmatians; as well as,
in strategic area of Dacia.

He wanted to invade Persia
due to its persecution of
Christians, end of treaty
or duplicity with Metrodorus.

His flatterers compared him
to Alexander in Persian war;
but he died being unfulfilled
as did Philip II of Macedon.

Pagan temples were despoiled
to ridicule their idols
and their gold melted down
to finance building program.

He may have belatedly
accepted Arian's doctrine
since it was majority's belief
and fathers like two Eusebii.

His clinical baptism
was delayed thus erasing
sins when on deathbed
he wore white vestment.

Constantine and his mother
Helena were designated as
Saints by Eastern Catholic
and Orthodox Churches.

In metaphorical terms,
three figures of Constantine,
Crispus and Sopater are
equivalent to holy trinity.

Constantine was father
whose tomb was encircled
by stones of Apostles
of which his was thirteenth.

His counterpart was Philip
who spent his final hour
leading group of twelve gods
of whom he was thirteenth.

He rose as Alexandros
Philippou Makedonon
or two-horned god who marked
perimeter of city with grain.

Crispus or his eldest son
was proverbial scapegoat
who died at hands of father
to cleanse father's sins.

His counterpart was Christ
referred to as Lamb of God
who was sacrificed on cross
to expiate man's sins.

He rose per se as Helena
who journeyed to Jerusalem
to find site of burial and
crucifiction at love's temple.

Sopater was spirit or wind
which affected ships of sail
that carry grain from Egypt's ports
to Nova Roma or Constantinople.

His counterpart was Osiris
whose dismembered parts
and head were scattered about
to aid planting of corn crops.

He rose in a way as Bishop
Athanasius who traded in grain
and controlled all shipments
from ship's port--Alexandria.

Great benefit was provided
to Catholic Church through its
annual allocations of corn
distributed to clergy and poor.

Constantine was Caesaropapism
wherein secular head through
sacred stewardship sets
religious beliefs of subjects.

In order for him to do his will,
he turned away from fractious
disputes at Alexandria
to found Christian capital.

While he supported Christianity
as his personal belief, it wasn't
state's religion until Theodosius
issued edict Cunctos populous.

In terms of Rome's foundation,
Alexander born 397 AUC,
Christ born c.753 AUC and
Constantine born c.1025 AUC.

In respect to Olympic calendar,
Alexander died 323 B.C. or 124th OL,
Christ died A.D. 33 or 203rd OL and
he died A.D. 337 or 278th OL.

Ammianus wrote of Julian's
preparedness for war
with Persia then seemingly
digressed on Pontus Euxine.

"Leuce sine habitatoribus
ullis Achilli est dedicata
in quam si furient
quidam forte delati".

Here there were seven
Danube mouths: they began
with Peuce and ended
with mouth called Septimum.

Nephew of Constantine
believed himself Alexander
the Great within another body
through transmigration of soul.

In heat of Persian battle,
Julian forgot breastplate
and died by dart or spear
in thirty-second year of life.

It is highly probable Soma
was damaged by tsunami
that struck Alexandria
on July 21 A.D. 365.

Theophilus (fanatic bishop)
struck blow to cult statue
of Serapis and then led
frenzied mob to mayhem.

Chrysostom believed that
mix up of dynastic names
contributed to forgotten
deeds of Constantine the Great.

Temple of Artemis
levelled by Chrysostom
who asked himself "Where is now
the tomb of Alexander?"

Creed of Acts of Council
of Ephesus (A.D. 431) may define
--in transliterated Greek--
faith of Nicene Council.

"Holon homoousion theoi
kai meta tou somatos
all' ouchi kata to
soma homoousion toi theoi"

Church of Athanasius
was built on top of Soma
and replaced much later
by Mosque of Attarine.

John of Salisbury (c.1159)
said that phoenix was spotted
in a significant omen
at foundation of Nova Roma.

North-west corner of Euxine
was associated with Achilles
and cult of Pontarchos
centred on city of old Olbia.

From Psilon or one mouth of
river Danube one sailed along
with Aparktias wind
to Leuce or Achilles' Isle.

Votive offerings were left
at altar of Achilles' temple
which included bowls,
rings and precious stones.

While Leuce was deserted;
nevertheless, it had temple's
oracle where many storm-tossed
sailors gave their sacrifice.

Birds attended to his temple
when everyday they would
wet wings, sprinkle altar
and wash its pavement stones.

In service to its demi-god,
there were three kinds of birds
on isle; namely, 1) gulls
2) cormorants and 3) sea crows.

Fish swam past fragment
of temple's winged griffin
or white leaf in north bay
at White Island of Black Sea.

Prophet Teiresias warned
Odysseus to shun "isle of
blessed" belonging to sun-god
Hyperion where there's danger.

Oh, Alexander! Your final wish
was to be thrown into Euphrates
leaving no trace of earthly body
to foster belief in your forever.

Surviving Nereid (daughter
of Alexander) sang to
sailors "He lives and reigns
and rules the cosmos".

On Island of Blessed, he saw
through dream his own obelisk
and figure whose eyes gleamed.
(Romance of Alexander)

Is your resting place in city
you founded (Alexandria--by--Egypt)
or in Elysian Fields of Leuce
on your own meridian name?



Dedicated to the students of Dawu Middle School,
Xushui County, Hebei

Auctor Iura Sua Ex Legibus Sibi Vindicat
Dennis Rossi, MMV