D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi




Shuling He was the father of Confucius or Kong Qiu 孔丘.  In the Zuo zhuan he is portrayed as a man exhibiting a critical feat of strength in the midst of a military siege. pg 3

All references to him in the historical record concern military actions under Lu command.  pg 14



                                       The Analects

1.5  The  Master  said:  To  guide  a  state  great  
enough to possess a thousand war chariots: be
attentive  to  affairs  and  trustworthy;  regulate  
expenditures  and treat  persons  as  valuable;  
employ  the  people  according  to  the  proper  

The Analects of Confucius
R. Eno, revised  2015 



The Thirty Six Stratagems

The prevailing view is that the Thirty-Six Stratagems may have originated in both written and oral history, with many different versions compiled by different authors throughout Chinese history. Some stratagems reference occurrences in the time of Sun Bin, approx. 150 years after Sun Wu's death.

Illustration of One Method


Deceive the enemy with an obvious approach that will take a very long time, while surprising him by taking a shortcut and sneak up to him. As the enemy concentrates on the decoy, he will miss you sneaking up to him.                   



According to Ralph D. Sawyer and Mei-chün Sawyer, who created one of the latest translations, the Seven Military Classics include the following texts:

Jiang Ziya (Taigong)'s Six Secret Teachings (六韜)

The Methods of the Sima (司馬法)
(also known as Sima Rangju Art of War)

Sun Tzu's The Art of War (孫子兵法)

Wu Qi's Wuzi (吳子)

Wei Liaozi (尉繚子)

Three Strategies of Huang Shigong (黃石公三略)

Questions and Replies between Tang Taizong and Li Weigong




Jiang Ziya (Taigong)'s Six Secret Teachings (六韜)

The Civil Strategy

Moral, effective government is the basis for survival and the foundation for warfare.

The Military Strategy

The ruler must visibly cultivate his Virtue (德) and embrace government policies that will allow the state to compete for the minds and hearts of the people; the state will thus gain victory without engaging in battle.



The Methods of the Sima (司馬法)

(also known as Sima Rangju Art of War)

The writers of the Methods stress that the Virtue (德) of the people will decline both when civilians act in ways that are appropriate for soldiers, and when soldiers act in ways that are appropriate for civilians.



Sun Tzu's The Art of War (孫子兵法)


So it is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you will not be put at risk even in a hundred battles.

If you only know yourself, but not your opponent, you may win or may lose.

If you know neither yourself nor your enemy, you will always endanger yourself.



Wu Qi's Wuzi (吳子)

Harmony and organization are equally important to each other: without harmony, an organization will not be cohesive; but, without organization, harmony will not be effective in achieving collective goals.



Wei Liaozi (尉繚子)

According to the text, agriculture and people are the two greatest resources of the state, and both should be nurtured and provided for. Although the Wei Liaozi does not specifically mention Confucianism, the text advocates a government based on humanistic values, in line with that school of thought. The ruler should be the paradigm of virtue in the state.



Three Strategies of Huang Shigong (黃石公三略)

Philosophically, the book is a synthesis of Confucian, Legalist, and Daoist ideas. Confucian concepts present in the text include an emphasis on the importance of the commander's cultivation of benevolence (仁) and righteousness (義), humanitarian government via the promotion of the welfare of the people, rule by Virtue (德), and promotion of the Worthy (賢人). Legalist concepts present in the text include an emphasis on strengthening the state, the implementation of rewards and punishments through the strict and impartial enforcement of the law, and the assumption that power is best concentrated in a single, majestic sovereign. The book's general Daoist perspective is recognized by its emphasis on a passive, harmonious social ideal, the ideal of achieving victory without contending, the importance of preserving life, the importance of Dao and De, and the fundamental evilness of warfare.



Questions and Replies between Tang Taizong and Li Weigong