D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

Starry Eyed

The poems of D. Carlton Rossi are written in Free-Form.  One “F” symbolizes Freedom or the expression of the poet.  The other “F” represents Form or the order recognized by the philosopher.  The letters are integrated in such a way to resemble the Chinese character for day or sun with the exception that they are not joined.


© D. Carlton Rossi

Two poems written by DCR are intricately connected to Mr. Sun Dawu in both their poetic and philosophical content. In terms of philosophy, “The Question Mark” deals mainly with the relation of part to whole. The Question Mark helps a person understand himself/herself by looking at himself/herself  through the eyes of another. The poem is dedicated to Sun Dawu.  It was written two days before our arrest. This is the tenth anniversary of that fateful day.

“Golden Sol” primarily concentrates on the relationship of subject to object by observing the stars.  It helps us understand ourselves by looking at ourselves from the viewpoint of another or of an alien race far from earth or ourselves far from our water planet we call Earth. 




The Question Mark

Where may answer be found
to what I wish to know?

Perhaps discovered nowhere as
it's indefinite prop pose all.

If a partial answer is possible
then I'll consider closing clue.

Question is punctuated by
sphinx seeming mistory.

Answer is part of quest i on
while also apart from it.

As part relates to part and whole,
so, too, is answer to question.

Should I consider the relations
as base to right half of bulb?

A usefool but unuseful answer
since it sheds not even art.light.

Should I deem relations of circular-
ocular yin-yang pat form?

While the relations are complementary;
nevertheless, it is an abstract tu.

Interrogate point might mimitate
distant Dipper and Polaris.

Or no to do so is of
an arbitrary pattern.

Finally, should I regard the human
face to solve the enigma?

Period part is nothing as partial zero
or left closed-lidded seeyecret.

Contiguous part is incomplete no. two
or raised right eyebrow and bridge.

If sets though are linked,
they're almost opposites on my face.

High brow with shut adjoining eye:
brow low with open adjacent orb.

Maybe two sets of questions
should be asked and answers quested.

I see with one of my eyes open
another's eye multiple-mirror mine.

Dedicated to SUN Dawu (Langwuzhuang,Xu Shui,Hebei)

© D. Carlton Rossi, May 25, 2003  



The poem called “The Question Mark” originated from preparation for a lecture given to students of the Dawu School at the auditorium in May 2003. At that time, DCR was helping Sun establish a university at Dawu village in co-operation with several universities and colleges in China, Canada and Japan.

DCR examined the actual punctuation mark called the question mark. He concluded it could be considered as two related parts; namely, question and answer.  The question part can be seen in the wave and the answer part is the period at the bottom of the wave.

At the lecture he asked the question “Who is Sun?” The actual answer was intended for a younger audience, but the intent could be expressed in the following sentence “Sun is a philosopher.” The word “Sun” is found in the question, but it is also found in the answer just as both the wave and period are found in the punctuation mark and as the period is found in both the punctuation mark and at the end of the statement.  In other words, the answer is embedded in the question. More simply put, once you have defined the question you are half-way to finding the answer.

It may also be said that the wave is the poet and the period is the philosopher.  This viewpoint develops in the poem called La Lune. Light was divided into its two component parts of wave and particle; however, they overlap in some aspects or respects.


“La lumière du soleil—composée de deux faces—éclaire le visage de la lune méniscale.”


Sunlight (consists of two faces) which illuminates the meniscus moon (or concavo-convex lensed moon).


In one way, Sun shows a development from particle to wave over the last decade as he makes a transition from philosopher to poet.


                           Big Dipper Asterism

The Big Dipper is an asterism of seven stars. It points north to the eighth star or Polaris.  Marcus Terentius Varro said that the word trion means "plough ox" and derives from tero, one of whose meanings is "thresh grain by rubbing". This implies that the seven stars (oxen) perpetually wheel about the pole star like oxen on a threshing floor.

Confucius’ view (expressed in the Analects) of the north star was that “he who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.” 

The Chinese look upon the seven stars of the Great Bear as forming a natural clock… the tail appeared to move round the pole somewhat like the hand of a clock or watch.

see Confucianism folder, Feng Shui file, The Laws of Nature, Chapter II, Ernest Eitel, 1883




D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007            

             D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright, 2005,2006


The poem called “Golden Sol” is a metrical, rhythmical poem in the form of a dialogue that integrates subject-object in a complex way.  On one level it may be considered as a dialogue between Alexander the Great and his admiral Nearchus.  They look at the same stars.  However, it is evident that they see different patterns.  The conflict is resolved when one goes beyond oneself and sees the stars from the vantage point of someone else a great distance away. 

“Golden Sol” is the only poem written by DCR in cooperation with another person. DCR cooperated through the internet to write his poem with Robert Bradford who is an amateur astronomer in the United States. In one sense the discussion with Bradford mirrors the dialogue between Alexander and Nearchus in “Golden Sol” in regard to star patterns. The computer programs used were Starry Night 5 and Celestica. 




    The Wounded Alexander Passing Through His Fleet In India,  A. Castione 1898-99


DCR wanted to convey the synthesis of static and dynamic as both he and the astronomer looked at the same stars.  At first, DCR saw a seahorse (dynamic) and an anchor (static) in the stars.  The androgynous seahorse represented Alexander and the anchor represented Nearchus.  However, the astronomer saw a different pattern or that of a whale.  DCR then modified his view after considering the astronomer’s observation and saw two whales one of which was dynamic (Alexander as the male killer whale) and one static (Nearchus as the female-like Eubalaena whale). The third mammal was a dolphin in the constellation Delphinus.  Both poet and astronomer came to agreement on the pattern of the constellation.




                    至聖 星座  (TM 2007-2019  D. Carlton Rossi)                     

Golden Sol

These pearly eyes number more
than grains of sand on ocean's shore.
Yet orb shines as autumnal star
like lustrous Achilleus from afar.

My Lord, Eubalaena breaches
in milky sea off heaven's beaches.
Leviathan grazes at her leisure
on krill of shrimp-size measure.

Nearchus, son of Androtimus,
behold bold killer Orcinus!
He agilely attacks the dolphin
known as Delphinus fleet-of-fin.

Do we see what there is to see
or rather what there appears to be?
I perceive three in Herakles kneeling
and another four in Aquila veering.

New moon rises while golden Sol
shows itself as eighth in dorsal.
Orca above and Eubalaena below
swim in harmonious celestial flow.

(© D. Carlton Rossi)



There is a reference in The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great to Nearchus sighting whales.  The date would be about September 20th or 21st which coincides roughly with Confucius’ birth date.  Confucius was born on the 20th day after the eclipse of the sun which took place in the 10th month of 552 B.C.

"“when they were sailing along the coast from Kyiza, just at daylight they saw a stream of water spurting out from the sea as though it were being forced up by squalls of wind; and alarmed at this they asked the guides what this thing was and what caused it; and they replied that there were whales moving along under the surface spouting water. Nearchus says that the oars fell from the hands of the sailors in fright; and he went along the line of ships to rouse their spirits and cheer them…”

The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great, Lionel Pearson, pp.136-137.
Anabasis of Alexander and Indica, Chapter XXX, p.436.


In the preparation of his poem DCR was confronted by a scientific question.  The question was “Were there more stars in the heavens than grains of sand on the earth?”  He had to consult a mathematical expert on this issue to determine the answer. There are approximately 300 sextillion stars in the universe or much more than the grains of sand.  The answer reminded the poet of an anecdote from Plutarch.  When Alexander learned from Anaxarchus that there was an infinite number of worlds his reaction was to weep.  He explained his behavior by asking a question. “Do you not think it a matter worthy of lamentation that when there is such a vast multitude of them, we have not yet conquered one”?

Another basic question perplexed DCR.  Both westerners and easterners have seen many patterns in the sky.    However, why has no one included our sun in any constellation?  It is obvious that our sun appears in the day and the stars appear at night. Under what special circumstances though might we see both constellations and our sun at the same time so that we join the universe of constellations?  It might be possible to see constellations and our sun when there is an eclipse of the sun or if one were outside the boundaries of earth and looking back in space and time.



            Eclipse of May 28, 1900                Visible Stars and Planets

               Thomas Smillie, Wadesboro, NC              Edward Walter Maunder


It is not so uncommon for individuals to have observed stars at the time of a total eclipse of the sun.  Historically speaking, Clavius records that during the eclipse of August 21, 1560 “there was darkness greater than that of night, no one could see where he trod and the stars shone very brightly in the sky”. (Maunder, p.186).  More recently, on May 28, 1900, there was a total eclipse of short duration about which was stated that even second magnitude stars were visible.  Some stars that several observers saw were Sirius, Castor, Pollux, Aldebaran, Rigel, Betelgeux, Capella and Tauris Epsilon. If the duration of the eclipse is longer it means that at mid-totality the darkness increases and a greater number of stars is recognized.  

Maunder, Edward Walter, The Total Solar Eclipse, British Astronomical Association, Knowledge Office, London: 1901.


          T. Adams, FSU, www.hep.fsu.edu/~tadams/oldcourses/fall02/ast1002/...


                       Negative of the Eclipsed Sun taken by Eddington’s team in 1919

Modern scientists have used Gravitational Lensing to observe the bending of light by gravity.  This process involves the measurement of the location of stars during a total eclipse of the sun.   The first demonstration of the Theory of Relativity was made in this way by Eddington in 1919.

Henry Davis Russell wrote a paper in the February 1937 edition of “Scientific American” called “A Relativistic Eclipse”.  Russell considered taking Sirius’ companion as a gravitational lens and Sirius itself as the light source. He speculated that if an observer stood on a planet of Sirius B during the intermediate stage of an eclipse then it might be observed that “a bright crescent has appeared on the opposite side of the eclipsing disk”.

John J. Stachel, J. Renn, Abhay Ashtekar, Revisiting the Foundations of Relativistic Physics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands: 2003, p.85

The year was 326 B.C.E.  Alexander had just conquered four empires. He was in India. Through the symbol of a loving cup at a banquet of 9000 he proposed Homonoia or a reconciliation of all races. “He brought together into one body all men everywhere, as it were, their lives, their characters, their marriages, their very habits of life”. (Plutarch, Alexander)  Finally, the fleet under Admiral Nearchus sailed westward along the coast.

What were the pattern of the stars they saw? Furthermore, what were the patterns of the stars one might have seen if one were standing on a planet near Sirius B and looking back at earth in that year? The patterns are fairly similar because our Earth is relatively close to Sirius B.   To answer these questions it was necessary to use an astronomy program to understand how things may have been perceived. We utilized Starry Skies 5 and Celestica. 

It is unlikely that either star has a planet around it.  The brightest visible star or Sirius A is spinning too rapidly.  The brightest X-ray source or Sirius B is a White Dwarf which previously probably consumed all planets that might have been around it.  Furthermore, a binary star system does not favor planets.  It is possible though that there is a planet, but it hasn’t yet been seen. 

Both poet and astronomer decided to concentrate on the constellations Hercules (武仙), Aquila (天鷹) and Delphinus(海豚).  Some seven stars were chosen from Hercules and Aquila.  These were to form the basis of a new constellation (technically speaking an asterism).  The eighth star was our sun or Sol.

These western constellations are associated with Chinese constellations, too. The earlier kneeling Hercules of Greek astronomy includes nine Chinese constellations. The most important one is called the Emperor’s Seat.  

The second constellation is Delphinus.  It includes two Chinese constellations.  They are called the Good and Bad Gourd.




                                 Altair and Vega

The constellation Aquila represents the eagle of western tradition. It is responsible for spiriting the soul.  It includes five Chinese constellations. Particular stars of this general region are quite familiar to most Chinese. In Chinese myth, the herdsman Ch'ien Niu (the star Altair) is separated from his lover Chih Nu (the star Vega) by the Sun King or T'ien-tsin for neglect of their duties. They are separated by the river (Milky Way). The princess is sorrowful and asks help of the birds (Aquila and Cygnus "swan"). Her sorrow is heard by the swallows who form a bridge. The Milky Way is found, too, in the painting of KGSC. (TM 2007D. Carlton Rossi)  More particularly, you will see Aql 53 or Altair as part of KGSC (TM 2007D. Carlton Rossi).

In ancient times, the Yellow River was believed to be a continuation of the Milky Way. Zhang Qian was said to have been commissioned to find the source.  He talked to the Weaving Girl and was presented a shuttle with instructions.  


                古詩十九首 GUSHI SHIJIU SHOU 

                                      (Nineteen Old Poems)

                    之十 ZHI SHI (no.10)















   D. Carlton Rossi    TM    2007-2019


In Kong Greatest Sage Constellation (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007) the sun was at the critical position of the dorsal fin of Orcinus.  In honour of Kong Zi or Confucius the constellation is called Kong Greatest Sage Constellation (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007) or  至聖 星座 ( D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007).The constellation represented a harmonization of subject-object.  It also represented a harmonization of western and eastern astronomy, mythologies and cosmologies.





   “In this rendition, we see in the background the three bright stars that make up the Summer Triangle: Altair, Deneb, and Vega. Altair is the white dot above Sirius A; Deneb is the dot to the upper right; and Vega lies below Sirius B. But there is one unfamiliar addition to the constellations: our own Sun is the second-magnitude star, shown as a small dot just below and to the right of Sirius A.”  



                  Achilles                  Alexander


“Golden Sol” begins with a reference to the “autumnal star” which is associated with Achilles. “Bright as the autumnal star above his head.” Homer, The Iliad, ed. Molesworth, Book Five, lines 1-5. This star is Sirius B.  Alexander’s gaze would be directed to this star because he identified himself closely with the hero—Achilles.

The hidden star, Sirius B, was also associated with the Egyptian god whose name was Osiris.  His wife was Isis (Sirius A). The annual eclipses of the Sirius system by the sun are precisely 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9.54 seconds. Therefore, the heliacal rising of Sirius marked the first day of the ancient Egyptian calendar.  At that time, Isis’ tears would flood the valley of the Nile to mourn the death of her lost husband. The Milky Way was regarded as the celestial Nile.  It was believed that the Milky Way descended from the celestial lakes and continued in the lakes and Nile below.  (Gerald Massey 2008)


                       Sorrow of Twin Stars (Gaohu Instrument)


The Star Sirius is overhead


Hindu tradition associates the AUM sound with this binary star system.  The orbit of Sirius B produces the tone of F and the sound “A”.  The orbit of Sirius A produces the tone of F# and the sound “U”.  Their vibratory dance in a combined double helix linear motion produces the tone G and the sound “M”.  AUM is a unified and harmonic sound.                             



                 Optical baseband audio scintillation of the star Sirius.



Orcas have the ability to produce harmonic sounds with different fundamental frequency (Dahlheim, Awbrey 1982, Ford 1984.  Pulsed sounds have been observed with clear harmonics or sidebands and energy redistribution to the higher harmonics. (Ford 1984). It is typical for killer whale calls to show harmonic loading to 10kHz or more (Hoelzel & Osborne 1986; Ford 1991; Miller & Bain 2000).

Southern Right Whale harmonics were detected off the Auckland Islands. The vocalizations were predominantly below 1 khz; although some extended upwards to 5 khz. (Webster & Dawson 2010).  In a recording of Northern right whales the Cornell Lab of Ornithology concludes “the calls appear as harmonics at multiple frequencies of the primary call”.

The Chinese regarded Sirius B as the wolf star because of its white color.  The Chinese called Sirius by the name of 天狼星 tian láng xing; tenrosei) or literally the heavenly wolf star. They knew this place as the bridge between heaven and hell. 

There are actually three Sirius stars; namely Sirius A, B and C.  Sirius A and B are remarkable in terms of their relationship.  They are pulled together and switch positions every 49.9 years.  One may consider their corresponding partners to be Eubalaena and Orcinus respectively while the smaller dolphin would correspond to Sirius C.

每隔49.9 ,天狼星 A B, 在它们的轨道允许的情况下尽可能亲密接触, 从而在它们之间造成巨大的磁性风暴。当它们互相接近时,随着潮汐力量的加强,颗星星的转速不断加快, 最后突然翻, 实际上相互交换位置。 中国人把Sirius 命名为天狼星。他们把这个地方作为天堂和地狱之间的桥梁, 召集人和法官之间的桥梁。在较高级的头脑里,汇集了个人的经验的结晶。在每一个生命之间, 灵魂会判断有助于他未来成长的过去的进步及境况。只要它和欲望, 灵感相结合并且需要体验, 就会形成肉体。一个人的灵魂无法通过这座"桥梁" ,除非他的灵魂达到了完善的程度。 天狼星是北半球最明亮的星。它看起来是一个白色的星球,大约比我们的太阳亮10倍。大约在公元前100年,司马迁在《史记宫书》中描述它白比


Orcinus had been chasing its quarry—the dolphin. However, it gives up the chase because of the special time, place and occasion.  The aggressive meat-eating killer whale and the sedate, plankton-eating Eubalaena meet.  They perform a dance in a new constellation abbreviated KGSC (TM 2007 D. Carlton Rossi).  In the poem “Golden Sol”, it is unclear whether it is Alexander or the poet who transports himself to a planet near Sirius B.  He looks back and sees an eight star constellation including our sun which resembles a new pattern of two whales. 

The painting of the event extends and expands the poetic experience.  DCR commissioned a Russian oil painter named Sasha of the Art Department at Linyi University to capture the poetic imagination in a painting to be presented as a gift for Sun Dawu.  One sees scene simultaneously from two different perspectives.  The first perspective is from a water planet around Sirius B.  The whales are visible in an eight star constellation along with the dolphin.



A picnic near a Daoist temple which is located a few hours away from Linyi. The time is about 2006. The group is composed of Russian artists among who is Sasha in the top right hand corner. DCR is looking back.




                                    Right Whale

The three cetaceans (whales and dolphins) are prominent in the picture.  The first is a Right Whale which is one of the biggest animals. A typical example is the southern Eubalaena Australis.  Eubalaena is a baleen whale which filters plankton and tiny crustaceans.  It is common for this whale to have white patches on its skin. They are called callosities which appear white due to large colonies of cyamids.  In this case, the callosities correspond to the pattern of the seven stars in the new constellation. 



                                      Orcinus   You Tube


The second whale is Orcinus or a “killer whale”.  It is the largest member of the dolphin family. It has a diverse diet of fish, squid, sharks etc.  On its back is an arch shaped dorsal fin. The Orcinus is undertaking a true breach which means it twists its body upside down and lands on its back. 



                                  Bottlenose Dolphin

The third cetacean is a bottlenose dolphin.  The dolphin is a hunter which eats fish and squid.  Its enemy is the Orca and sharks.  It is small in size and grows to about 3.7 meters.    






Another cetacean that appears in the painting is that of a Narwhal.  This animal is normally found in Canadian Arctic waters, but makes a special appearance here.  It has a long tusk so it is often referred to as the unicorn of the sea.  This particular Narwhale represents the Chinese Qilin    which appeared to the pregnant mother of Confucius. It is said thought though that the first Qilin appeared in the garden of the legendary Huangdi.      




                        ( D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007)

The second perspective takes place at the time of an eclipse. It is from the seas of the planet Earth. It is said, too, that  was born at the time of an eclipse of the sun.   The seas are tumultuous.  The clouds stream in typical Chinese pattern.  Two large whales are together in a dance celebrating the birth of Confucius.  One of them, Orcinus, is breaching upside down. The arc of its dorsal fin represents the arc of the eclipse as the horn of the Qilin represents the arc of light of an eclipsed sun. The Narwhal is the sea equivalent of the Qilin.  It is present here as was the Qilin at the time of Confucius’ birth. It points with its tusk to the point of the arc on the Orca’s dorsal fin. Its fin is below the lighted arc of the eclipse.



                                   What Was Is

Today, the north celestial polestar is known popularly as Polaris.  However, in the past, the polestar was designated as Thuban (11 Draconis).  It was much brighter as a polestar than it is at the present time. It  is classified as a white giant. However, to be more accurate, there were actually two polestars viewable by the naked eye which formed a binary star system.  Its dimmer companion is known as 10 Draconis which is either a red dwarf or low mass white dwarf.  The binary star system can be designated as a Draconis AB. The Chinese knew the pair as Taiyi and Tianyi respectively.

                Thuban and 10 Draconis 

11 Draconis and 10 Draconis reached their closest point to the pole in 2830 B.C.E.  In Egypt, it is about 2580 B.C.E. that The Great Pyramid of Giza was begun.  In China, Huangdi‘s minister Ta Nao prepared  the lunisolar calendar around 2637 B.C.E which had 353-356 days.

Our system of modern time is based in part on the rotation of the earth and the revolution of the moon.  With respect to the rotation of the earth it rotates counter-clockwise as viewed from the polestar. The sidereal day is the time scale for the Earth’s rate of rotation about its polar axis as measured relative to the “fixed stars”.  In contrast, the solar day is measured in relation to the Sun and therefore is longer by about 4 minutes as it involves a 360.9856 degree of rotation of the Earth.

The sidereal month is the time it takes the moon to make one complete orbit around the Earth with respect to the fixed stars or 27.321 days.  The synodic month is 29.530 days with respect to the Moon or the time to reach the same visual phase.  To summarize direction, when viewed from the polestar, the Earth rotates or spins circularly on its axis in a counter-clockwise fashion and the Moon revolves or elliptically orbits the Earth counter-clockwise.

Of course, time is measured, too, by how long it takes the Earth to orbit the Sun. The sidereal year is the time for the Earth to orbit the Sun in relation to the “fixed stars”. The sidereal year differs from the tropical year due to precession of the equinoxes.  The sidereal year is about 20 minutes longer than the tropical year which is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons as viewed from the Earth. To summarize direction of revolution, when viewed from the polestar, the Earth revolves elliptically about the sun; however, the orbit appears almost circular since the eccentricity is only 0.0167.

The earth-moon system may actually be considered as a binary planet.  The center of gravity is within the Earth. The common center of mass or the barycenter lies about 4600 kilometers from the earth’s center.  [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barycenter]

The ancient Egyptian calendar consisted of twelve months of 30 days each based on the rise and fall of the Nile. The lunar year averaged 354 days. (The Egyptian month therefore resembles our modern synodic month of 29.530 days which makes a lunar year of 354.36 days.)  However, in order to develop a more accurate calendar they also noticed that the rising of the Nile coincided with the rising of Sirius which occurred every 365.25 days.  Eventually, this led to the development of the Civic Calendar of 360 days divided into 12 months of 30 days. 

To some extent, the Civic Calendar (of 12 months of 30 days each) resembles the modern 360 day calendar used for financial purposes.  The financial calendar averages the lunar and solar year [(354.3829 (lunar) + 365.2425 (solar) = 719.61 divided by 2 = 359.8 days which is rounded and simplified to 360 days (source Wikipedia).              

Today’s polestar is Polaris. It is accepted that there is only one polestar. However, Polaris is actually part of a multi-star system of which Polaris B has been shifted to the visual class with improvements in telescopes since 2006.  [Double star, Wikipedia]  One might technically argue that there is a pair of polestars. In the past, the star 11 Draconis (Thuban) was a polestar. It was considerably brighter in the past than in the presaent.  This phenomenon has not been as yet fully explained. However, it was part of a binary system. Its companion was 10 Draconis. The open question though seems to be whether or not 11 Draconis was solely viewed as the polestar or were 11 Draconis and 10 Draconis viewed as a pair of polestars. The viewpoint may have changed over time, place, circumstances and civilizations, too.  

In the first case, the star that acted as a guide to the north was the polestar Thuban. The other stars appeared to go around it once a day as if on a celestial wheel.  Professor Spence believes that a plumb line method could have been used for Egypt’s pyramid builders to determine true north when the stars Kochab and Mizar were seen on the same vertical. [Astronomical Orientation of the Pyramids, Nature, Vol 412, August 16, 2001, p. 700].   It may be noted though that Mizar has a faint companion visible to the naked eye with a magnitude of 3.99 which is a spectroscopic binary, but it is uncertain if it is gravitationally bound to it. [Mizar and Alcor, Wikipedia].

In the second case, it may be that since there was such a slow motion of both 11 and 10 Draconis that they were both considered polestars. This meant that there was a pair of polestars. The second polestar or 10 Draconis is located only 1.4 arc degrees west of Thuban. The stars then would appear to pivot daily about them. Professors Rawlins and Pickering propose that when both 11 and 10 Draconis were at the same altitude that true north was the line bisecting them.  [Astronomical Orientation of the Pyramids, Nature, Vol 412, August 16, 2001, p. 699].

However, a problem arises in the second scenario.  What is the center? It appears to be nothing.  In other words, there is a pair of two somethings (polestars) on either side of nothing. The polestars appear to remain fixed on a daily basis while the other stars appear to pivot around nothing.

It may be that both the invention of the wheel and the discovery of nothing were of Sumerian origin. These concepts may have been transfered to the Egyptians. It is suggested that the concept of the wheel originated as a mechanical device called a potter’s wheel which was invented around 3500 B.C.E. as expressed on ancient clay tablets found at Ur in Mesopotamia. The wheel was a flat horizontal disk made of hardened clay which spun horizontally on an axis.  Nothing may have been the real or imaginary point at the center of the wheel as it spun.  [The Invention of the Wheel, Antiquity Now.org, 8/20/2013]   An open jar or bowl of wet clay which contained nothing, too, was formed on top of the wheel at its center point.

The issue of inequality arises where there is one polestar. If there is only one polestar then it is most important. The nearest star or 10 Draconis might be regarded as a non-polestar and of less importance. This relationship might also be perceived in the apparent brightness of the two wherein 11 Draconis has more importance because its apparent magnitude is 3.65 according to modern standards while its companion has a dimmer magnitude of about 4.64; although, it is today classified as a variable star with a magnitude between 4.51 and 4.67. 

On the other hand, if there is a pair of polestars then it seems that equality is perceived. All circumpolar stars appear to revolve around a pair of polestars. One polestar may be bright and the other dim, but they are equalized because they may be visualized as a pair of stars unified by nothing at due north. 

The myth of Osiris which offered the prospect of rebirth was central to the religion of the ancient Egyptians. The concept of rebirth was of primary concern to the Pharaoh whose soul was believed to be transported at his death from the pyramid to true north. The word pyramid can be interpreted to mean ‘place of ascension’. Historians have suggested that the air shaft from the King’s chamber of the Great Pyramid of Giza targeted Alpha Draconis. [Badawy and Trimble]  An ancient text is translated as follows:  “The Mooring Post [mnit] cries to you, the sun-folk call to you, the Imperishable Stars wait on you. (PT 463,876) 

However, the view that the Pharaoh’s soul was initially directed to Thuban only may not fully take into account the concept of rebirth through assemblage of parts of the body of Osiris and also possibly the soul. The Egyptians believed that the soul consisted of five parts; namely, ba (personality), ka (life force), sheut (shadow), Ib (heart) and Ren (name). Therefore, is it not outside the realm of possibility that initially the Sheut might be directed to nothing between the polestars and that ba and ka (for example) were directed to Thuban and that Ib and Ren were directed to 10 Draconis?  The complete soul then might be reunified on Thuban. 

It is helpful to consider the modern scientific classification of the a Draconis AB binary system. It is classified as a one line spectroscopic binary. This means that the spectrum of only one of the stars is seen and the lines in the spectrum shift periodically towards the blue, then towards red and back again. Such stars are also known as single-lined spectroscopic binaries ("SB1").  A spectroscopic binary system is not so uncommon, but it is rare that such a system can be visually sighted with the naked eye or telescope.  

The orbit of the star system is slighly elliptical. This depends on both how the major axis is oriented relative to the line of sight and the eccentricity in terms of the ellipse. In terms of eccentricity, the components move in an orbit with an eccentricity of .38 where zero represents a circle and 1 represents a parabola.Therefore, the orbit is moderately elliptical. The stars are gravitationally locked together.

It is well known that the sides of the pyramid are oriented to the cardinal directions. The orientation of the Great Pyramid is relationship to true north is such as to cause it to be declared the "most accurately oriented edifice on earth"  That is to say, its four sides are directed to the four cardinal points of the compass with less than 3 minutes of one degree off true north". One may wish to refer to the four Sphinx I'mages drawn by Rossi in The Elegant Celestial Giza Series which may be interpreted to represent the four directions. It is believed that the orientation of true north was to Thuban;  however, it would change matters profoundly if 10 Draconis had also been recognized as a polestar--particularly in terms of society, mythology, ruling structure, philosophy and religion.

The archeologist Petrie measured -- measusred on a block-by-block basis-- the layers or courses of the stripped core blocks. The North side by itself was 51 50 40 . This is read as  51 degrees, fifty minutes and forty seconds. It is based on division of the circle into 360 parts or angle degrees, and each degree divided into 60 part (minutes) and each minute furthermore divided into sixty parts (seconds). The slope angle of the Great Pyramid of Giza is close to one seven of a circle or 51.4.

It is a fact that 10 Draconis is dimmer than Thuban. However, it is the nearest bright star to its companion. Furthermore, great attention would have been paid to both stars when they appeared at true north for the first time in recorded history.

It was no doubt, too, that true north was now equidistant from Ursae Majoris and Minoris. While these asterisms differed in size; nevertheless, they were similar in shape with an equal number of seven stars.  One might consider the larger Ursae Majoris more important like a single polestar Thuban or, on the other hand, of equal importance with Ursae Minoris like the pair of polestars 11 Draconis (HD123299) and 10 Draconis (HD121130). 

According to the 2002 UXL Encylopedia of Science, a binary star is a system in which two stars revolve around each other. More specifically, they have a mutual gravitational orbit around a central point of mass. If it is a visual binary system it can be seen with either the naked eye or a telescope.  In the case of the a Draconis AB system it can be seen with the naked eye.

The orbit of 11 Draconis has been well studied and refined. In 1956, J.A. Pierce estimated it to be 51.420 days. This was re-determined in 1983 by Elst and Nelles to be 51.4167 days.  Finally, Kallinger, Iliev, Lehmann and Weiss used a calculation of 51.439 (±14).  The last calculation means that it completed a full orbit in 51.439 days or seven revolutions every year or 360.073 days (rounded to 360 days).  [See also Publications of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, The Spectrographic Orbit of HD123299, Alpha Draconis, Joseph A. Pearce, Volume 10, 331, 1957]  The observations of the period of 11 Draconis are relatively modern ones.  However, is it possible that the orbit of 11 Draconis was observed by the ancient Egyptians some 5000 years ago?


The slope angles of the Great Pyramid approximate 51.4°. The slope angle of the north side itself was estimated by Petrie to be 51° 50' 40. This is close to one-seventh of a circle or 51.4 X 7 = 359.8 degrees and rounded to 360 degrees. In other words, it represents one seventhth of a 360 day year. On the other hand, the orbit of 11 Draconis is currently estimated to be 51.4167 days or one-seventh of a 360 day year. In one year, therefore, 11 Draconis orbits seven times around a central point of mass.  If understood another way it means that 11 Draconis orbits seven times around a central point of mass in the same time that the Earth orbits the barycenter (viewed as a point-mass) which is about 30,000 kilometers from the center of the Sun. An inverse relationship exists between one-seventh and seven times.  

                                                 Ta Tsun


Egyptian Meditation Music of Ancient Egypt


Jay Markoe