D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

Speeches of Sun



D. Carlton Rossi  copyright 2016-2019


                   The Second Annual Sun Conference
                                   (October 14, 2016)

The Importance of Sun Dawu

Represents moral integrity based on Confucian values

Expresses views on entrepreneurship to international audience

Characterizes rise and emergence of entrepreneurial class

Founds schools which advance education in the countryside

Influences evolution of property and private financing law

Establishes successful model of ethical based capitalism

Promotes business model of constitutional entrepreneurship

Favours Republican style of governance in local matters

Holds democratic elections at the village level on regular basis

Supports freedom of religion by welcoming Buddhist monastery

Builds massive hospital to meet health needs of region

Advances archaeological studies where Huangdi unified totem 


D. Carlton Rossi



Sun Dawu's Speeches

      孙大午:公司管理权是公权力还是私权力?     2017-03-04

    农民卖地,谁错了?     2017-02-11

    大午集团监事长孙大午在子公司年终表彰大会上的发言     2017-02-11


    今天我们不聊信任 只谈职责     2016-11-23

    社会是不死的企业,我要把企业变成不死的社会     2016-09-30

    队伍建设、组织建设和制度建设     2016-09-14

    制度的产生就是博弈的过程     2016-09-02

    五粮液凭什么欺负大午粮液?     2016-08-10

    “人心”就是企业文化     2016-07-28

    企业“搭班子”就是建“议会”     2016-07-28

    管理的更高境界是释放     2016-07-28

    情义管理与基业长青     2016-06-23

    职责所在,与信任无关     2016-05-11

    劳动创造财富?中美生猪价格为何相差悬殊?     2016-05-11


    领导的基本功——在大午集团新春培训会上的讲话(上)     2016-05-11

    谁是最幸福的人——在温泉表彰大会上的发言     2016-05-11

    监事长孙大午在元旦运动会上的讲话     2016-01-09

    劳动力成本很高吗?     2015-12-1


Sun Dawu: the company is the power of public power or private power? 2017-03-04

Farmers sell land, who is wrong? 2017-02-11

Speech by Sun Dayu, Director of the Board of Directors of the Board of Directors, at the end of the year

Speech by Sun Dawyu, Director of the Board of Directors of the Board of Directors, at the Second World Sun Clan Friendship Conference 2016-11-23

Today we do not talk about trust 2016-11-23

Society is an immortal business, I want to turn the enterprise into an undead society 2016-09-30

Team building, organization construction and system construction

The system is the process of the game 2016-09-02

Wuliangye what bullying lunch liquid? 2016-08-10

"People" is the corporate culture 2016-07-28

Enterprise "take the team" is to build "Parliament" 2016-07-28

The higher level of management is released 2016-07-28

Friendship Management and Foundation Evergreen 2016-06-23

Responsibility has nothing to do with trust 2016-05-11

Labor to create wealth. Why is there a price difference between China and the United States?            2016-05-11

Management to re-research and development, quality is life - in the afternoon session of the Spring Festival training session 2016-05-11

The Basic Skills of Leadership - Speech at the New Year 's Training Session in the New Year Group (Part.) 2016-05-11

Who is the happiest person - Speech at the Spa Awards Conference 2016-05-11

Speech by Sun Tianwu, Director of the Board, at the New Year 's Day Games

Is the labor cost high? 2015-12-1

google translate



                           Private democratic voting at the Dawu Group

                    There have been six democratic elections

                                        from 2004 to 2016


Sun Dawu's Speeches

    孙大午:希望撞开美国面签制度的“柏林墙”     2015-02-07

    监事长孙大午在元旦运动会上的致词     2015-01-16

    农村问题就是土地问题     2015-01-16

    企业治理贵在确权     2015-01-16

    不能以商业的心态办实业     2015-01-16

    希望撞开美国面签制度的“柏林墙”     2015-01-16

    监事长在人民大学讲课答问     2014-12-13

    不干净的钱是催命小鬼     2014-10-08

    悼念老爸爸     2014-10-08

    老爸爸答记者问     2014-10-08

    孙家过年     2014-10-08

    以诚信凝聚人心 以善举回报社会     2014-10-08

    工作中的沟通技巧     2014-10-08

    土地非法,我们无路可走     2014-10-08

    共有制是社会常态     2014-10-08

    民营企业家生存启示录——孙大午、乔木谈民企求发展之道     2014-10-08

    “用心”与“用脑”哪个境界高?     2014-10-08

    走得快与走得远     2014-10-08

    合众人之私,以成一人之公     2014-10-08

    建立宗祠,续接家族文化     2014-10-08


Sun Dawu: hope to break the US face sign system "Berlin Wall" 2015-02-07

Supervisor of the Board of Directors Sun Dazhu at the New Year 's Day Games 2015-01-16

Rural problem is land problem 2015-01-16

Corporate governance is in your right

Can not do business in the mindset 2015-01-16

Hope to break the US face sign system "Berlin Wall" 2015-01-16

Supervisor lectures at Renmin University of China

Unclean money is a reminder of the devil 2014-10-08

Mourn the old father 2014-10-08

Old father of a reporter asked 2014-10-08
Sun New Year 2014-10-08

Honesty and Concentration to Promote the Society with Good Faith

Communication skills at work 2014-10-08

Land is illegal, we have no way to go 2014-10-08

Common system is social normal 2014-10-08

The Enlightenment of Private Entrepreneurs - Sun Da - wu, Arsenal Talking about the Development of Private Enterprises 2014-10-08

"Intentions" or "with the brain" which state is higher? 2014-10-08

Go fast and go far 2014-10-08

All the people of private, to become one of the people 2014-10-08

The establishment of the ancestral hall, continued to join the family culture

     为什么说“洪洞县里无好人”     2014-10-08

Why do you say "Hongdong County has no good people" 2014-10-08



                                                          Dajue Temple

                 Sun Dawu:  I believe in Heaven



April 5, 2011, Tuesday, the Tomb Sweeping Festival


On this special day, after making sacrifice to our ancestors, my two brothers and I are charged with emotions and memories that come flooding back. The greatest consolation, if any, for me in over 20 years of managing business is that my parents are still healthy and that we brothers are still on good terms. My mother is 93 years old and my father 91. We three brothers unite together to fight for the prosperity of the Dawu Group.

On the third day of the Spring Festival, we three brothers made an appointment to make sacrifice to our ancestors. When seeing some families with no harmonious relationship between family members around us who were burning paper money (paper made to resemble money and burned as an offering to the dead) to make sacrifice to their ancestors at the different places of the tomb, I was seized with the sensation of being so lucky. I feel no sorrow for my parents and all my ancestors. So I dig out an essay written at that time.

On the third day of the Spring Festival, it is a custom for the three brothers to visit tombs and make sacrifice to our ancestors.We fire firecrackers and burn paper so that our grandparents no longer feel loneliness, hoping they can bless their sons with longevity, and their grandsons with robust business. My parents who are than more than ninety years old are still explaining to us what do in life, work and marriage.

I am getting older. I am fifty-seven years old. I look back in a hurry, finding that my life is mainly made of three parts: schooling, army service and creating a private enterprise. Hurry or not hurry? With the change of the seasons, we lament the fleeting time. Heaven has its own course, and it is no use rushing.

There are some people who are responsible for running a country for its peace and stability, and there is no need to ask of them too much. My obligation is to self-regulate the family. I hope my ancestors can realize this.



I Believe in Heaven

Many people think of themselves as entrepreneurs, but, in fact, it is not a true story. What we can learn from ’Built to Last’ is that the life span of an enterprise should be very long, even longer than the life of a person. If an enterprise lasts only for two or three years or maybe longer, five or seven years, and then passes away peacefully, it cannot be an everlasting enterprise, let alone a real enterprise. The leaders of enterprises usually retire in a decade, two decades or several decades.  They may retire in even a shorter time of several years. If when the leaders are in their positions and the enterprises are in prosperous and sustainable states with qualified successors then we can say they share a resemblance to entrepreneurs. We can consider them to be entrepreneurs.

The entrepreneurs in western countries are on a steadfast track by going forward step-by-step with great persistence. Several generations continue to run the same brand. In western countries, the entrepreneurs are even above the politicians for they are not only the creators of material wealth, researchers of new science and technology, but also the makers of spiritual wealth and the guide of values. Only such entrepreneurs can live up to the name of entrepreneurs.

On the contrary, some Chinese enterprises, when they are in their prime are full of vigour; but in declining periods they collapse and they collapse in a minute. For example, Mengniu, a dairy enterprise in China, is developing as fast as a rocket. We should twice think about this system of development. I am fond of the sustainable enterprises which can develop steadfastly step-by- step instead of achieving all in an action.  They should continue with the past and open up the future.  In my opinion, their leaders are real entrepreneurs and their businesses are real enterprises.


Talking about the entrepreneurs’ belief, we do have to discuss their values

It is a common value held by the people that the faster you make money, the more money you can make and the better it will be. In fact, we should possess deep values with more profound cultural foundation, such as the values which are popular in history or “complying with morals instead of the emperor”. “A man with noble characteristics who loves money should make it in an honorable way” This means we dare not make or gain whatever money there is. A society with morality, but in straightened and humble circumstances is distained and rejected; a society with no morality, but riches and honor is also spurned.  My heart is filled with these ideas.

There is a typical example in history. Wuzixu was a famous person in the Spring and Autumn Periods whose father and elder were killed by the king. So he made great effort to avenge his family by helping another state. He holds the idea of taking revenge his whole life. He is a typical example of those who have values, but no world outlook, possesses foresight but lacks superior judgment. If you are conscientious enough you can turn to some history books to get a better understanding of his life and ways of dealing with people and matters.

The so-called state of having foresight but no superior judgment means that you have caught sight of the future, but can take no implicit or definite actions to move towards it. Sometimes, it is the same case with me. As for me, I know the trend of the future, but have no idea about what I should do at present.

So the proverb, living in the present is easier said but more difficult to put it into practice. If one has no foresight he definitely possesses no superior judgment to speak of.  No foresight, no world outlook. So the rich spend lavishly on grand banquets or other luxurious things. It is a confusion of values if you think that you can do whatever you like if you are rich enough.

I believe in the principle that a man with noble traits who loves money should make it by honorable means and have a small amount with a stable income and be in no hurry to make more money. The value of one’s life cannot fully be represented by success at a certain time or in one certain aspect. I am pursuing the ideal that the enterprise can be prolonged to be much longer and developed in such a sustainable way, or it can be filled with qualified successors and continue with the past and open up the future.

In fact, I am also not clear what my belief is. If any, that is the belief in Heaven. But I cannot determine its nature; neither can I depict it in a vivid way. Heaven is the sky. I believe in Heaven and the earth. As for other idols, they have never existed in my heart. I believe in the laws of the earth, Heaven and humans. Subconsciously, I can feel that Heaven has the special favor and arrangement for the universe and the human beings who are living under it.

We should take it as it comes by making our actions comply with the law of the Heaven. It is said in the Tao Te Ching, “Man follows the earth, the earth follows Heaven, Heaven follows natural laws, and natural laws follow the nature”. If we believe in the principle that the natural laws follow the nature, we had better not show too much aggressiveness.

A typical example is where winners become royal members but losers bandits. Because of the conversion of the strong and the weak, we can’t help asking whether the royal members, military and political leaders are born to be. Who can pass the possessions and riches and honor down to the next generation? “The good influence of men of virtue will not last more than five generations”.

We cannot keep the riches and honor forever. Only something refined, that is to say, something we believe in can be inherited. The morals can be handed down for more than ten generations in a family.



The Skills of Farming and Reading are Secondary


If people uphold the laws and follow the nature then life will slow down. Western countries have experienced the phase of working for only five or eight hours a day, and they continue to move forwards. For example, the workers can have a paid month in a year to refresh themselves so that the leaders of the enterprises can also relax themselves. How great it would be!

It has been 28 eight years since the Dawu Group was founded in 1985. Outsiders may think our development is too slow. But for me, I am always thinking whether it is too fast. Seventy percent of talent should run the enterprise so that my offspring still have thirty percent of the whole space to show their own excellence.

In fact, when I was 49 years old, or after some misfortunes happened to me in 2003, I retired. I have been doing some studies in archaeology, playing with my grandson, and enjoying my remaining years and the pleasure of the family life. Although I am willing to retire, it is not the same case with my heart.

My attention focuses on whether my children can grow up (to be excellent). It also focuses on whether the young leaders can be mature enough instead of worrying about the specific management and development of the enterprise. These are my priorities.

On every Sunday evening we hold a two-hour meeting of “the Group of Chinese Traditional Learning for the Youth”. We read the Analects of Confucius, Tao Te Ching, and Disciplines of the Children.  In this way we combine Chinese traditional learning with current affairs and cases of enterprises to inspire the young people to have a deep thought instead of a cramming method of learning. Only in this way can they think a lot, seeking the current values and world outlook. We have kept on with the activity for around two years.

Sometimes I also talk with some other entrepreneurs, my friends, about whether we are on the track or the road. “Track” and “Road” are quite different. Track moves in a circle, but the road goes straight forward. Usually heroes fall down on the road. A track includes a starting point and a point to return to as the end. Yet it is not as if I feel downcast or envy those heroes or successful figures so as to consider their actions as sour grapes.

Also, I am not disappointed the Dawu Group can not develop much bigger. In fact, sometimes I do worry about them for taking such risks. I know many entrepreneurs who make their enterprises much bigger by investing a lot, sometimes more than 10 billion or even 100 billion yuan. I really want to know from where their motives come. Now I still can go roller-skating, take care of my grandson, go swimming and learn English thus fully enjoying inner freedom and peace.

Confucianism and Taoism really have a deep influence on me. Personally speaking, Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism should be connected with each other. The reason why Taoism is not as popular as Buddhism is that Buddhist thoughts are closely related to the ordinary people’s belief, advocating retribution for sin and rewards for good deeds. All common people believe this doctrine, “Virtue is its own reward; evil will lead to evil; when the time is due, evil is rewarded with evil; and good with good”.  These doctrines lead people to treat others kindly. There are tens of thousands of volumes of Buddhist scriptures, but few people read and understand them completely.

Confucianism is characterized by an invisible teaching which contains a certain sense of farming and reading intended for passing down from generation to generation within a family. The morality can be inherited by more than ten generations, farming and reading maybe fewer generations, poems and calligraphy may be even fewer and the riches and honor can only be handed down for no more than three generations.

Christianity offers people the chances to make confession, relieving pressure from the heart and morality. Islam allows people to call each other brothers who possess the sense of helping each other. But, as for Taoism, we have no Tao Jiao Ching, but Tao Te Ching.

There are more contents about the Tao, but less about ethics. So Tao Te Ching belongs to Heaven, full of mysteries. Where are virtues from? They are just the thought of participating in the society of Confucianism and the management thought of running enterprises.

In my opinion, as a result of fear, people are often prone to turn to their beliefs when they are in great trouble. In fact, in order to banish the fear from them, they pray to Buddha for help, burn paper money to make sacrifice to gods and donate money.

Of course, the best way to be free from fear is to be a good man and make confession when you do something wrong. Although I do not believe in Christianity, I still think the disciples making confession in front of God or a priest is a good way to exempt them from fear so that they won’t be afraid of death. At least, they are able to seek spiritual relief. I have experienced many nameless fears before, but I still refuse to pray to Buddha for help.

I still believe in Heaven and my own heart. Believing in Heaven is a home to which I can return. Believing in my heart will warn me not to turn against my conscience when doing something, but to have a clear conscience. Only in this way can I have a good appetite and a sound sleep.

A man should be in awe of something. We are always perplexed by something such as fate, so we have to believe in Heaven. If we only believe in ourselves, don’t we become Cao Cao (a character in Romance of Three Kingdoms) who would like to do something bad to others in case they may betray him later? There is a popular proverb in western society, ‘I have an old house, and both the wind and rain can go into it, but not the king’. Only in this kind of society can people have no fear.  However, our Confucianism stresses the sense of order and is not capable of exempting people from fear.


My Beauty and Sadness


As for me, the confusion, if any, is that although I have made the development guideline, “Development prioritized, not the profits; Common property ultimately sought”, my subordinate staff think themselves clear, and often play tricks. They do not understand me, considering me somewhat stereotyped, silly and stubborn. I have caught them twice tampering with products.

There is a food factory specializing in corn products within the Dawu Group, making the corn into ‘pearl rice’ (corn grits), and then selling them in Beijing. One bag of’ pearl rice’ weighs 25 kilograms which is written on the outside packaging bag.  In fact, only 24.75 kilograms’ pearl rice’ were included. So I asked the factory manager why one quarter kilogram” pearl rice” is missing. “Can’t we make more profits if we do it like this?  The whole market is the same. Taking loss into consideration, we cannot make the weight full”, the manager said.  I asked him to fill every bag with 25 kilograms rice including another 0.1 kilograms for possible loss of packaging. He promised he would do so.

A few days later, I went to the factory again, only to find that only 24.25 kilograms’ pearl rice’ was put into a bag instead of 24.75 kilograms without the brand of Dawu Group Farming and Husbandry Co. Ltd printed on the packaging bags. I was infuriatedAt that time, I, as the President of Dawu Group, dismissed him immediately.

Once, a manager of fertilizer company, who often went out with me to give a speech, solemnly swore,” I am a son of a farmer. If I adulterate fertilizer with some fake elements I will harm my father”. The irony was that it turned out he really did something bad to his father. The society is absurd. The implementation does not live up to the beautiful words. They are far from the same.


孙大午:我信仰上天      I Believe in Heaven

2011-06-09 11:56 作者:高菁阳来源:《管理学家》杂志 评论


孙大午 整理 《管理学家》记者 高菁阳






































们应该顺其自然,顺应天道而为。《道德经》说,人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然。如果我们信仰道法自然,我们就不要过多地表现我们的强势—“胜者王侯败者贼。就是一种势。因为强弱在转化,王侯将相宁有种乎?谁的钱财能够传世,谁的富贵能够传世?君子之泽,五世而斩。富贵的东西不能留下,只有雅的东西能够传承,这个雅,恐怕就是信仰的东西。 道德传家,十代以上。






大午集团从1985年至今,已有28个年头。外面可能认为我们的发展速度很慢,可是我老觉得是不是发展的快了。十分才能使七分,留下三分给子孙。 实我在49岁,2003年出事以后,就退下来了。我在考古,含饴弄孙,享受家庭生活的愉悦。尽管我想退下来,但是心不能真正地退下来。我的关注点主要在我的孩子能否成长起来,这些年轻干部能否成熟起来,而不是纠结在具体的企业经营与发展。这是我的着力点。每个周日晚上,我们有两小时的青年国学小组学习会这项活动我们已经坚持了两年,我们读《论语》,读《道德经》,读《弟子规》,我们将传统的国学结合时政、结合企业案例来讨论,启迪发年轻人去思考,而不是填鸭式的说教。这样好让他们去思考,去寻求到正确的价值观和世界观。








们往往在最困难的时候容易去寻找自己的信仰,我想这是因为源于恐惧。求神拜佛、烧纸、捐献,其实都是为了免除恐惧。当然免除恐惧的最好办法就是要做好人,做错事要忏悔。尽管我不信基督教,但我依然觉得基督徒能够面对上帝忏悔,或者找神父忏悔,是一种缓解恐惧的方法,他们不会畏惧死亡,起码能够寻求精神上的解脱。 虽然经历过很多莫名其妙的恐惧,但我依然排斥求神拜佛。我还是信仰上天,信仰自己的内心。信仰上天,就有自己的归宿,信仰自己的内心,就是要不违背良心去做事情,问心无愧。这样才能吃得饱睡得着。












                                                     Feed Office Building

                      We Must Clarify our Own World



Sun Dawu is now living a leisurely life, as free as the clouds and wild cranes, but he still retains insightful views on current society. About six years ago, according to a special issue of Business Weekly  called The One Hundred Chinese Dreams, he had two wishes. He wished we could walk on the road ahead more steadfastly and that people were able to live together peacefully and harmoniously. At that time, he still held two positions as president of Hebei Dawu Group of Agri-Husbandry Co. Ltd and headmaster of Dawu Middle School. Now, as the supervisor of Dawu Group, he has been devoting most of his energy to archaeology in which he shows great interest. He chooses archaeology to clarify many unclear concepts. His purpose of getting to the root is to help us live in a society with a clear definition.


I was born in a village named Langwu at the east foot of Taihang Mountain. I founded the Dawu Group covering more than two million square meters. It lies to the west of the village, about 0.6 miles. It is almost an isolated community, in the charge of Xushui County Baoding City, so recently it has been given another name, ’Dawu City’ by the media. There lies the Fu mountain in the northwest of our county, and it is just like a reversed steel pot, so the local people call it Guoding Mountain (Guoding means reversed bottom of a pot). The legends about Fu Mountain had become one part of my life when I was a child. But not until 2004 did Fu Mountain arouse intense interest in me by accident. 

On November 8, 2004, I was invited to give a speech in Nankai University and visit its museum. I was so lucky that I was able to see the most valuable treasure, a piece of pottery dating back to the Yangshao Culture Pottery Period (characterized by painted pottery) about five or six thousand years ago. I was baffled why it was so precious. As far as I knew, there was a historical site of the Nanzhuantou tribe, about 10,000 years old in Xushui County which is famous for archaeology. There must be lots of historical relics with a longer history scattered among the people or buried deeply under the earth.

Later, I went to the Bureau for the Protection of the Historical Relics in Xushui County. Those pottery cauldrons with trestles and earthen bowls with red tops are the typical wares from Yanyshao Culture period to the Longshan Culture period, together with other remains of historical relics of various periods which consist of a series of evolving prehistorical culture. Much to my surprise, the Recordings of historical relics in Xushui County show that the Xuanyuan Yellow Emperor unified the totem with other tribes on Fu Mountain. Then I collected more materials to make it clearer. Similar records are also available. For example, the Chronicles of Five Emperors in Historical Records reads ‘Once, the Yellow Emperor chased Xunyu (an ancient northern nationality in China) in the north of China. After unifying the separated totems, the Yellow Emperor set up settlements around Zhuolu.  

Totems are usually made of pieces of bamboo, bones, or metal, divided into two parts and held by different people so as to be identified. The system of unifying totems which came into being before the invention of writing was used in some important events such as military, political activities as well as making sacrifices to ancestors etc.

In pre-historical times the Yellow Emperor annexed the regions under the control of the Yan Emperor, defeated Chiyou in Zhuolu, and then summoned other tribes to hold the conference of great fusion and unity on the Fu Mountain. The Yellow Emperor drew the shape of a dragon on a platform in the middle of the mountain in advance, and asked the other tribes to show the parts of the totems they had in order to collect all of them. After that the animals shown in various totems of different tribes and capable of flying in the sky, running on the ground, or swimming in the water become part of the shape of the dragon. Such is the story of drawing the dragon and unifying the totems. From then on the event paved the way for the fusion and unification of the Chinese nation and the commencement of the Chinese people’s worshipping of the dragon totem.

Of course, it is hard to draw a definite conclusion since this kind of way and form of unifying the totems is too old to confirm. However, is the Fu Mountain mentioned in historical record the same as the 260 meters high mountain located in Xushui County? We are living at a much later time so are unable to have a clear understanding of it.

In recent few years, I have been travelling among various provinces; such as Hebei, Henan, Shanxi and Shaanxi. I have spared no effort to examine ancient books and materials. Maybe it is difficult for outsiders to understand how excited I was when I found a broken stele with some words missing about the Yellow Emperor in a low hill named Cangu (a girl who raises silkworms) in Yi County, Hebei province. I am looking for the root! Will you have the courage to make friends with a person you know nothing about?  A country or a people should also be clear about its history. 

Results are attained after careful investigation.  They show that the five so-called Fu Mountains recorded in historical recordings  possess a name but no reality.  Since they have no name or reality they are unworthy of the title. However, the Fu mountain in Xushui county was named as Fu Mountain (the shape of a pot) by ancestors.  This is recorded by the ancient books which possess some stories about the Yellow Emperor and it spreads among local folk. So we know undoubtedly it is the only sacred land where the totem was unified.

The victorious Yellow Emperor did not make his totem as the only token, but drew a totem of the dragon to unify all the totems used by other tribes.  This gave the tribes enough political dignity and put an end to wars. To my mind, these kinds of of political wisdom and cultural spirits, the prototype of harmonious thought in ancient society, are the greatest contribution made by the Chinese nation to world civilization.



Is peaceful the pure morals 淋雨,

Spreads 沐 the world republican year!

by Sun Dawu 孙大午 孙大午:企业可走中庸之道
January 17, 2005

Enterprise Aims at the Mean

经历了2003年的事后,我觉得一个企业应该做慢一点,做稳一点。搞企业不要被撑死,也不要被饿死。我想把我的企业做稳,做成百年老店。 我看到现在成功的两个例子:一个是企业把钱放在一个口袋里,不搞股份制;另一个是把企业股份稀释,越稀释越大。这两条路我都探索过,但都觉得不适合。 那么,我能不能走一条把所有权与决策权分开,决策权与经营权分开的路呢?我觉得可以探索。我正在探索一个私营企业“君宪制”。 我想应该先把决策权与所有权分开,决策权应该由具有丰富经验的经理人来行使。因为在我这一代,有能力决策,但是到我儿孙那代可能就没有那么大的决策能 力了,如果他们将来参与决策,今天这儿盖个大楼,明天那儿投一笔资,那将非常可怕。然后是决策权与经营权分开,决策权不能干涉经营权。董事会就应该是独立 法人的联合体,独立法人自负盈亏,独立运作。“立宪”立在什么地方?我要求董事会的最大权限就是,当年的投资不能超过全集团的盈利总额加折旧。有人说你的 这个规定是不是太死,我认为不是,因为我要考虑固定资产投资:全集团赚了多少钱,当年可以投多少,最多可以把折旧加进去,绝对不可以借钱搞固定资产,我要 把它作为一个制度确定下来,或者是将来把它作为一个遗嘱定下来。这样我就能保证企业平稳地发展下去。   企业不妨“中庸”

谁都想把企业做得很大,可能我有些保守。我觉得人们有浮躁或者急速冒进的心理很不好。我的下属们报明年任务的时候,一个说200万,一个说 500万、700万,报上来我就拦腰砍一刀,不让你挣这么多。市场就是银行,咱们往里头存,少挣,怎么不可以呢?先稳定住客户才是最重要的。为什么这么着 急挣钱?我不是不想挣钱,我是考虑企业能够稳定发展,就是提倡利润的最佳化。我们企业的指导思想是不以盈利为目的,而是以发展为目标,以共同富裕为归宿。 企业经营19年了,除了2003年有亏损以外,大午集团这么多年没有亏损过,而且产品没有愁过销路,这是为什么呢?我曾处分过一个厂长,50斤的布袋装 49.5斤,他说不标大午集团。我说不标也不行,这样我就把厂长撤了,虽然现在他又回来了,但不再当厂长了。我说做买卖就要实实在在,我们的饲料,100 斤袋子,就得装100斤零半斤,最低也要多二两,我们企业就是这么做过来的。所以在2003年出那么大的事,老百姓没有来哄抢,也是跟一步一步扎实地走过 来有很大的关系。我们的集团是好人相聚,也是庸人相聚。“中庸”之道这个“庸”就是庸人,就是平常人干平常事,这就是人间正道,也是人间伟业。 私企不姓私 现在我越来越觉得私营企业不姓私,私营企业是一种生产经营形式。我的妻子在1986年时赚到1万元,那时候万元户很少,到第二年赚了10万元时买个保 险柜存起来,第三年上百万元时,就再也没有挣1万元时那么兴奋了,就考虑干点什么事。当时探讨过开养老院孤儿院什么的。钱多起来了之后,我就想私营企业就 不姓私了,它创造的是社会财富。因为有这个观念,所以我在打官司时心里也很坦荡,想反正是社会的资产,现在几千人在这,我就不考虑是自己的,所以心里也特 别正。我原来以为只有像资金、矿山资源这样实实在在的东西才是资本,现在才发现信息技术也可以是资本,但我觉得最主要的核心资本还是企业家本人。因为有资 金能发财,有信息能发财,但要缺了企业家把这些要素组合起来,你发什么财?企业家才是真正真实的资本,企业家就应该受到社会的尊重,受到法律的保护。 总裁名片 孙大午,河北大午农牧集团有限公司总裁。农民出身、当过军人、干过银行办事员。从1985年创立大午集团,在1995年入选国家工商总局评选的全国 500家最大私营企业。2004年入选全国工商联评选的“最具生命力企业100强”。


English translation

After I experienced the trouble in 2003, I thought that one enterprise should develop a little slower, but steadier. When operating his business, the manager should avoid the unhealthy condition brought about not only by overeating but also by starving. I want to develop my enterprise steadily, and make it a hundred-year-old corporation.

I have studied two kinds of successful management. One is to put all money in one's pocket and not to implement a stock system. Another is to dilute the enterprise stock, and make the stock smaller and smaller. I do not think these two ways are feasible after my investigation. Then, can I try the third way that separates the rights of property from the rights of execution, and the rights of execution from the rights of management? I think it worthy of consideration. Now I am exploring the constitutional monarchy of a private enterprise.

I think, the rights of property should be separated from the rights of execution. The latter should be carried out by an experienced manager. My brothers and I have the power or capacity to make decisions, but it is possible that my sons or grandsons will not have such power or capacity. If they participated in the process of decision in the future, they would sporadically build a building here and invest a sum there. That will be dangerous to our corporation.

Next is the separation of the power of execution from the power of management. The former should not interfere with the latter. The board of directors should be an independent corporate body, which bears its surplus and loss and operates on its own way. What is the place for "constitutionalism ?" The maximum power of the board of directors, I propose, should not exceed the annual investment of the total profit of the corporation plus the depreciation cost of equipment.

Some people might say, "Do not you think this stipulation is too strict?" I do not think so, for I have to consider the investment on fixed assets. The annual investment should not surpass the annual profit of the groups, to the maximum, plus the depreciation. It is strictly forbidden to work on fixed assets by loan. I will set it down as a rule or in will for the future. By this, I will guarantee the steady development of our corporation.

The doctrine of the mean could be applied to management
Everybody wants to develop his enterprise into a large scale, but I might be a little conservative. I think fickleness or restlessness is not good to a businessman. When my employees plan their tasks for next year, one plans 2 million, one 5 million, and the other 7 million. I just cut their plans into halves, and do not let them obtain so much.

The market is a bank. Why could not we deposit into and withdraw a little from it? The most important matter is to keep a steady population of customers. Why do we hurry up to earn money? I do not mean that I have no desire to earn money, what my concern is to keep my enterprise developing steadily, which will promote the profit optimization. The direction of my groups is to take development as its objective, affluence together with common people as its resort,and not to aim singly at interests. For the past 19 years of my enterprise, except for a loss in 2003, we have not experienced a loss or lack of customers for our products. What is the the secret? That is because of our credit.

One time, I punished a manager of my factory. He filled in only 49.5 jin of the brand of my enterprise. I refused and discharged him. Although he is still now working in my corporation, he is not the manager any more. I tell my employees that we should be honest in business. With regard to our fodder, we generally fill in more than the claimed capacity. A 100 jin sack generally is filled in 100.2 or 100.5 jin. This is our way to do business. Therefore, during the 2003 trouble, nobody comes to plunder my corporation. In my corporation, it is the place where good people come together, it is also where common people come together. The word yong in zhongyong zhi dao means common people. It is that common people do common things. This is the right way in the human world as well as the great feat in the world.


  The Focus of State Economy should be Shifted 

                                   towards Townships

                     (By Sun Dawu: Chief Supervisor of Dawu Group)

The central government attaches great importance to rural issues and launches eight consecutive first-grade documents. But from the practical effect, little change has taken place in rural areas, nor has the economy witnessed any significant improvement. I think the first-grade documents, to some extent, signify the attitude of the country, but provide no concrete development ideas and significant breakthroughs in operational aspect. How to solve the three rural issues concerning agriculture or 1) countryside and peasants 2) promote rural industrialization and 3) speed up the urbanization in rural areas? In my opinion, the focus of our national economy should be transferred to the townships.


Firstly, Reasons for the Shift towards Townships

Nowadays, the cities above the county level have experienced expansive development, but the townships in rural areas have lagged behind. They are developing rather slowly. Although China’s reform and opening up policy starts in rural areas, in reality, it brings more benefits towards counties or the cities above the county-level. Our country centers on economic construction, but, in fact, it is city building-oriented. The focus of the national economy is always on the counties and cities above county-level which makes talent, capital and lands for construction in rural areas flow continuously to cities.  This stimulates the vitality of the cities and raises the cities to a prosperous state. The prosperity built on the huge output and sacrifice of the rural areas can not be sustained.


Today, the shortcomings have become increasingly prominent. On one hand, the scale of cities (including some county towns) is becoming increasingly larger causing traffic congestion, artificially high housing prices, shortage of energy supply, huge population and employment pressure etc. The so-called “urban diseases” emerge and become increasingly obvious.


On the other hand, talent and capital in rural areas continue to flow to cities, leading to the recession of rural areas, the growing differences between urban and rural areas, and the worst situation of the disparity between rich and poor. We can say that our cities have been galloping on the road of industrialization and "information". On the contrary, the economy in rural areas is still staggering in the mud of a small-scale peasant economy.  In this situation it is very difficult to fundamentally solve the problems simply in the way of compensating rural areas or supporting agriculture.


If we say that the reform in the countryside starts with a system of contracted household responsibility related to output then the development zone is the outset of the development in cities. Shenzhen was originally just a small fishing village. It rose abruptly because of the establishment of development zones. The whole country begins to learn some experience from it. As a result, development zones in the counties are set up. The conclusion can be drawn that the development and construction of our cities rely on the establishment of industrial development zones.


It is a good trend where the Central government has put forward the scientific outlook of development to coordinate urban and rural areas, stimulate domestic demand and pay more attention to the private economy.  We must understand that while the gap between urban and rural areas can be a problem, it can also be an opportunity. The more backward the area is, the vaster room there will be for improvement. If we shift the focus of the economy to the townships to make up for the huge gap between urban and rural areas and develop the remote areas and backward counties then we will be able to continue the rapid development of our national economy. Of course, we can easily solve many social problems; such as, migrant workers, left-behind children and empty villages.


Successful stories abound in shifting focus of the economy to townships and by promoting the township economy. There is small or no difference between rural and urban areas in other developed countries and regions. The economically developed townships of social peace in some European countries are more livable than big cities. Associates of our Group who have travelled to South Korea have found everywhere factories located in rural areas and villages. Basically, it is impossible for them to tell the clear boundary between the cities and the rural areas. We also have made an on-the-spot investigation in Taiwan province. We are astonished by the fact that two industrial development zones—including the famous National Chung Cheng University—are located in MinXiong Township.


It is not the “patent” of developed countries to take townships as the economic center. As early as 1985 Shanghai had raised the development model of “three concentration”; that is to say, the people are encouraged to go to the townships, enterprises to township industrial parks and farmlands to large farms. But this mode has not been implemented thoroughly to the end.


Now I also find Shandong Province—a fast growing province—has set up industrial parks in many townships.  The development of township enterprises is taken as the strategic focus of the revitalization of the economy. Now the economy of townships is in full swing there. Farmers are clearly aware of the reality that they will remain poor if they just cultivate crops in the fields, but become rich if they develop the enterprises on the land. And there is no way out for them to simply rely on the development of agriculture in rural areas.


Personally speaking, our country’s economic center should be transferred to the townships if we want to narrow the gaps between urban and rural areas, alleviate urban pressure, and solve the so-called city diseases in huge cities. The industries should spring up in the vast townships. They should change the farmers’ way of life through changing the mode of production. In this case, the villages will be turned into small towns and people there can live and work in peace and contentment.


Secondly, Industrialization is the Inevitable Way towards Urbanization


Since 1995, our country has vigorously begun the construction of small towns and new socialist country sides, but so far little has been achieved. The key reason is that we are only concerned about changing the lifestyle of rural areas but we ignore changing the way of production.


In this regard, we have taken a lot of detours. Although the development of specialized agriculture and agricultural industrialization and modernization, to a certain extent, promotes rural development, the effect still is small. The essence of specialized agriculture and agricultural modernization is to fix the farmers on the land. They use spare labour to work outside the home and support urban construction. Agricultural industrialization offers jobs for some of the labour force, but it is impossible to promote it in a large scale way because of the limited production conditions.


Development of the township economy is the inevitable way to industrialization. During the decade from 1978 to 1988, the township enterprises spread all over the townships and villages in a star-studded way and the national economy developed rapidly. So a large number of people started their own businesses or selected their own jobs. The incomes of farmers increased rapidly.  But, then, we introduced a new Land Management Law which prohibited enterprises to be built in the rural areas. As a result, all the enterprises were all relocated to the development zones in county towns or the cities above the county-level, plunging the township businesses into recession up to today.


On the development of urbanization, there are many good cases; such as, Beigou Township and Shengfang Township, in Gaobeidian City and Bazhou City respectively of Hebei Province. In history, both Baigou and Shengfang were famous piers with a long history of industrial and commercial development.

After the reforms and opening up, Baigou Town started with bag production, and then a large number of family-style professional workshops began to emerge. In the mid-1990’s, the production of bags in Baigou Township came into the refined phase with division of labour, including printing, tailoring and design etc. The number of specialized households grew. The industry of bag production was scattered throughout more than 500 villages and almost 70,000 people were engaged in bag businesses. By 2009, the town’s total output value had reached 13 billion yuan.

Shengfang Township specialized in furniture industries. This drove the development of various industries; such as, metal sheet material and glass. There are more than 1,300 furniture manufacturers and more than 7,000 businesses in the whole township which employ 70,000 people. In 2009, the total output value of the town reached 20.8 billion yuan.


The towns started from industry or even the handicraft industry to drive economic development, thus promoting urbanization.There is nearly a 1,648 acre industrial park in Baigou Town and the whole Shengfang Township has become the industrial area of Bazhou City. 


The mode of production should be changed first and then the lifestyle. It complies with social development practice of the principle “economic base determines the superstructure”. In other words, only by first achieving the industrialization of the rural economy can we realize the urbanization of the peasants’ lifestyle. This order cannot be reversed.


Thirdly, to Develop Rural Economy we should transform the Functions of Township Government


The executive functions of township government determine its key roles in developing the rural economy.  The township government is still an agency of county government rather than a class-A government that can develop independently. So it will not stimulate the development of towns and villages. The township government must act as a class-A government or a legal entity entitled with the rights of corporate property and independent capacity for civil rights. Only under this condition will it have the ability for self-development and become the core of development in villages and towns.


The rural financial system in many townships is still following the system of unified collection and relocation of funds by the upper government. In other words, the total revenue of the township government should be handed over to the county government. And any expenditure of a township government should get the approval of the county government. The township government has no freedom. It is incapable of making decisions independently in economic development plans, planning, revenue and expenditure, budget and final accounts concerning its enterprises. In this system, the township government neither assumes any responsibility for the development of the rural economy nor enjoys the fruits of economic development of the township. How can it play the role as the core of development of township economies?


If we want to invigorate rural areas, the township government should be given the priority. We should convert the township government into a class-A government with practical meanings and powers. The township government should take responsibilities and enjoy the fruits. Its core role should be the development of the rural economy.


If the township government works as a class-A government enjoying the present development policies of county governments then industrial development zones can be set up there. At this point the township government can attract investments to realize industrialization.


If further steps can be taken concerning government institutions then I think some fast-growing regions can learn from the system of “cities and counties running parallel” practiced in Taiwan Province. From the practical effect, the city plays very little role in promoting the development of the rural economy, but the Siphon Effect is extraordinary. To some extent the development of the city has become an obstacle for rural development. The so-called system of “city and county running parallel” means that the city governments are only responsible for managing the construction of urban cities, and the county governments are in charge of managing the construction of townships.  We can have two leading groups with two administrative divisions so that funds for supporting agriculture are in charge of the county (township), not the City (City).  It can help avoid the situation where the county government is in charge of managing the economic development in the county town, towns and villages. It can also prevent the economic development in county towns from flourishing too fast and the township economy lagging behind.


Fourthly, the Development of Real Estate is an Important Pillar for the Development of the Township


It is the trend of future development in rural areas that the small natural village should be merged to be part of key villages, and the small town part of key towns. The key towns will be the centers which can appeal to the villagers in surrounding villages. And they will live and work there in peace and contentment. In this case, a lot of lands will be available to set up factories, buildings, and small towns. At any rate, the future trend will involve the deregulation of rural land.


In my opinion, appropriate deregulation of lands in rural areas is quite essential so as to invigorate the rural economy. The lands which include homesteads and the house properties can circulate. Generally speaking, there are three fundamental elements of social and economic development: land, finance and labour. But labour and finance go along with the land because the land is the most basic factor of production and a peasant’s greatest asset in rural areas. If we artificially ban the necessary transaction, the farmers’ houses, homesteads and lands can not circulate. There is no value of these resources to mention, or we can say their values can not be reflected. Industrialization of the rural economy calls for deregulation of rural land resources. The rural lands, homesteads and house estates should flow smoothly to achieve their proper values in circulation. On some occasions, I call on no more amendments for the “Land Management Law”; instead, we should re-enact the “Land Law”.  The law will confirm the farmers’ right of circulating their lands. Naturally, the lands, the homesteads of the farmers, and the house estates can be traded freely.


If we do not deregulate rural lands then it is difficult to achieve urbanization of the township. It is also not necessary to mention the possibilities of the farmers going into the townships with funds and the capital in cities going to the townships. Here, “the farmers going into the city with funds” refers to the farmers with funds settling in the township”: “capital to the countryside” means the capital in cities flowing to towns for their development.


Some towns with their own businesses in our hometown are relatively developed; such as, Yangfang Town in Qugou County. A lot of farmers there are engaged in stone carving and earn a good deal of money. But that township does not develop quite well because the county government takes away the tax. For another reason, after making money the farmers choose to buy a house in the county town even if their factories or workshops are still located at home. So the money still returns back to the city again. Even the money earned by farmers themselves can not be reserved in the countryside or towns not to mention the investment from other places.  How can villages and towns be well developed? Why do farmers have to buy a house in the county town? The reason is that in the rural areas or towns, their dreams of living and working in peace and contentment can not be realized. So if we do not put the capital into the development of the townships then money still belongs to the city, not to rural areas and not to farmers. Only by putting the capital into the development of the townships can the farmers settle down and take root while they are selecting professions according to their wills. And they will consume wealth while they are creating it, converting the countryside into a prosperous place.


Appropriate release of the control of the lands for construction in rural areas will offer the township government lands for real estate development. There will be possibilities to build small towns and to change the lifestyle of farmers. Farmers no longer need the approvals for their homesteads. And they can change homesteads for commodity houses, invigorating their best asset to become townspeople, then residents of a city. At last, they can realize their dreams of living and working in peace and contentment.



                    The Focus of the Economy


 河北大午农牧集团有限责任公司 孙大午





























                  On Interpreting the Three Agricultures

On Interpreting the "Three Agricultures"

Selected Parts of the Speeches in Peking University and the Chinese

Agriculture University (2003.3.13-14)

Sun Dawu


Ladies and Gentlemen, good evening. I feel honored to speak in this hallowed place, especially as a farmer. For me, a farmer and private entrepreneur, to speak at Peking University, a haven for free speech and thinking, is a special sign of things and holds special meaning, no matter how well I speak. I hope you do not hold too many expectations of me, since I am, after all, a farmer.

Part One: On Interpreting the "Three Agricultures"

First, I would like to comment on some contemporary mainstream opinions. Let us begin by reviewing the attempts at restructuring Chinese agriculture. The restructuring project has been in place for many years now. Initially, they promoted the "three highs policy": high quantity, high efficiency, and high quality. What was the result of this? We attained high quantity but not high efficiency, high quality but not corresponding high prices. Take, for an example, vegetable and fruit production: here, supply far exceeds demand. According to some sources, our vegetable production has grown to 250 million mu; that is, two fen for everyone in the country. This year, we produced 440 million tons,approximately 76% of the world's vegetable production. As for fruit, everyone knows that many fruit trees are no longer picked. Speaking from personal experience, I own 1500 mu of American grapes, which can still find some demand. My neighbor, however, no longer harvests his grapes. The price for his fruit, 20 to 30 cents per jin, cannot even cover the cost. In ancient times, when the Concubine Yang wanted leechees, they had to transport it from Ling Nan by relay horses. Nowadays, however, leechees barely sell at 90 cents (per jin) when demand is low.

If this trend continues, how far can the restructuring project go? What darkened its prospects? When discussing these problems with a student here, I came to the following conclusion: all our problems happened because a hundred chefs are serving one customer. I once traveled to the Shaan Xi and Shan Xi. The rural officials there still encourage farmers with the "three highs" slogan, telling them to aim at the big markets in Beijing and Shanghai. This kind of thing is absolutely ridiculous: when one billion farmers all aim at urban markets, there will be no supply/demand equilibrium to speak of.

Another official policy is "building small towns and cities". We have been building for at least ten years, yet successful examples, although not altogether nonexistent, are still extremely rare. There might be some along the eastern shoreline, yet further west, even when a small town or city is established, it has no practical function other than a few parks, roads, and apartments, built by government money and labor. If farmers themselves do not voluntarily build these towns and cities, after the construction has finished, the officials immediately begin taxing and feeing them to refund official finances. Even if this does not happen, and you allow farmers to live in these towns for free, will they actually move there? I don't think so. What will they do there? Enjoy life? That's impossible, since farmers don't have the money to enjoy anything! We really should not promote "construction of small towns and cities" anymore. In 1998, I attended a discussion in Zhong Nan Hai about rural policy. Representatives from Mian Yang, in Si Chuan Province, were sharing their "successful experiences" in the meeting. What experience did they share? They sold urban residencies to farmers. A wave of dread washed over me upon hearing that.

Now we want to "move farmers into cities" and say that "the hope for farmers lays in urbanization." Again, I don't believe in this. Take, for example, Beijing. It's a political center, cultural center and also commercial center. Our country wants to place economic development at the center of things, yet our cities are constructed around politics. What, then, can farmers do in cities? Only a few can enter into some small business, while even fewer can really excel. But, on the whole, most end up as cheap labor. This is a great potential danger. Farmers won't rebel in rural areas; but when rural problems become urban problems, then the country is going to fall into chaos. On the other hand, in 20 years, our population will be 2 billion. How much of that can the cities accommodate? I read online yesterday that we have 1.4 billion now, with 0.93 billion in rural areas, another 0.15 to 0.18 in small towns and counties, but only 0.2 in cities. How much capacity do the cities have? Moreover, what can farmers do in cities? Can we encourage farmers to urbanized rural areas? Who is going to provide the money? The government doesn't have the resources. Even if it did, it wouldn't throw those resources into building cities for farmers. Urbanizing farmers is a distant and unrealistic dream.

If, however, you want to treat farmers like urban residents, you have to give them basic social welfare. Does the government have enough money to do this? These suggestions are fine, but very unrealistic. "Public education" has been in effect for ten years, but how much of it has reached rural areas? If we add on the cost of public education in all rural areas, how much money will the government have left to pay the teachers? If even education is a problem, then the rest is even more unrealistic. They might be pleasant dreams, but they don't match China's current economic situation, regardless of who runs the government.

Finally, let us discuss the "formalization of fees into taxes" and the reduction of financial burdens in rural areas. This policy has actually had some effect, reducing about 40% of nationally regulated fees. I once did some research of my own on three villages, and found this number accurate. On average, a farmer with 1.5 mu of land pays 70 to 80 yuan per year in these nationwide taxes. The problem is that the reduced taxes and fees, the agriculture tax, and eight official fees (the public welfare fee, the public investment fee, the official organization fee, the education fee, the local military fee, the transportation fee, the public health and vaccination fee, and the public safety fee) don'ft constitute very much of the actual financial burden of farmers. Apart from the national taxes, all the local bureaus collect their own fees, which are not reduced at all. We have pork fees, grain fees, waterway fees, and even water fees. Can these also be reduced? The local bureaus collect a lot of money through these fees, especially from mid-seized and small companies. I certainly don't mind saving 40 yuan of national taxation, but can that really help farmers become wealthy? Zhu Rongji says that national taxes and fees sum up to about 120 billion a year. The real sum farmers have to pay, according to Li Changping, is more like 300 billion. I actually consider this too conservative, the actual sum being some 600 billion. People see things in different ways. Zhu Rongji sees things from the central government, and therefore thinks that, for example, our county waterway bureau has about 30 people. Their expenses, however, are enough for 330 people, which is what Li Changping sees. I, who have to bear with them directly, feel the number is more like 660 people, considering all the bribes they collect without any official documentation. If you donft believe this, consider how rural savings have grown so much these years. Go see the extravagant houses and mansions built in the counties, and you'll wonder where the money all came from.

I seriously doubt one of our official statistics: our GDP has grown by 10000 billion over the past year. I do believe, however, two other official stats: our national taxation increased by 1600 billion (20%) last year, while national savings increased by 1500 billion. Why do I doubt the GDP stat? Let us begin with farmers. The average farmer earned 2400 yuan in pure profit last year. One farmer told me that his cost of production amounted to about 500 yuan per mu, while each mu produced about 400 kilos of wheat and 400 kilos more of corn, 800 kilos in total. The official price was 1 yuan a kilo, which gave him 800 yuan in earnings. Upon reducing the 500 yuan in production costs, his profit was 300 yuan. Supposing that the average farmer fared similarly, I don't really understand how the 2400 yuan of "pure profit" was calculated.

I do believe taxes increased by 1600 billion, and it actually felt more like 2600 billion to me. My oil-station, from its establishment in January 21, 1997, up to August 22, 2001, cost me 298200 (in taxes and various other expenditures, such as treating officials to lunch and dinner). Of that sum, 138800 came in the form of national taxation, while a "land tax" cost me 39000. Of that 39000, 31000 was collected without official documentation, which meant that only 7000 actually entered the official treasury. Therefore only 145000 worth of taxation entered the treasury. That's only half of my total cost, while the other half was all spent in "appeasing" local officials with meals and gifts. Some might say that I did this willingly. That's nonsense, who would spend money like that willingly? Others might say I did all that to pay less tax, which is even more absurd. All my tax documents are clear and complete, and they show no such thing at all.

National savings has increased by so much, but companies are falling apart one by one. Corruption is no longer even secretive, but is publicly displayed in all those expensive mansions. Let me make a bold estimate: of the 9000 billion national savings, 80% is owned by less than 5% of the population, not 20%, as the official stats say. 5% is about 65 million people, if each one of those 65 million saved 100 thousand, they would have 6500 billion in total savings. If our country really had 20% of the population own 80% of all savings, then we would actually be in very good shape, and have a lot of money for economic development. This is certainly not the actual case.

Someone told me this afternoon that many Peking University students are very practical and materialistic people, and that they don't care about the country and its policies. I told him not to think that way. Most Peking University students are from ordinary families, or even very poor ones. People need to be fed and clothed properly before they can think about others and the country at large. Given our current economic situation, we can't realistically demand that students still think like they did during the May Fourth Movement. At that time, most students were from wealthy families. Even Mao Zedong, who came from a wealthy farmer family (possibly even a landlord family), was looked down upon when he worked in the Peking University library.

Returning to our discussion on "formalizing of fees into taxes," I don't believe that policy is really practical. Reduction will have its long-term consequences: how will we pay government employees? While the central government always fears that farmers will cause social trouble, I think they fear even more that officials will cause trouble, since the government still relies on their work. The taxes paid by farmers might still be too heavy for their puny earnings, but they actually constitute only 15% of total GDP. That means that 1 billion people are producing only 15% of our GDP! Farmers want to produce more for the country, and they also have the ability to do that. Farmers really want to work hard, but they still are too poor to serve the country well. If they could really make a decent living, do you think there would still be protests over a puny 70 yuan worth of taxation? Without bad officials, how can there be bad citizens? Without official oppression, why would farmers rebel? We all think farmers fare badly today; in the War of Liberation, however, farmers won the final victory simply by pushing carts and doing manual labor! As long as you give farmers hope, they will support you. What is the situation today? Farmers see no hope at all. Therefore I believe farmers need another revolution.

Part Two: Why farmers are so poor


Farmers are poor because, while they can feed themselves, they have no money to spend. They have no money because they have no work. They have no work because, while there is plenty of work to be done in rural areas, no one is doing it. That, on the other hand, is because no one dares to do the work. The few that dared to do work, say, for example, a few managers of town and county level companies, all suffered horrible endings. The bureaucratic system is sapping the strength out of our rural economy.

Everyone knows that finding a job is difficult these days. The cause of this, however, is that creating a company is even harder. Let us again work with an example. Suppose that you boil good eggs, and wish to market them. See how many officials you will have to "manage". I once had my people make up a list of all the official requirements you had to meet en route to legally selling your boiled eggs. First, the public health department has two sets of requirements: your appearance, including clothing, health, equipment, etc; and also the chemical and biological sanitation of your products. After these, the department of industry and commerce, which needs you to have three licenses: a license to manufacture, another to sell, and a third for taxation purposes. Each license, furthermore, has numerous mini-requirements of its own: personal identification, proof of employment, a list of equipment, to list a few. There is also an inspection team that checks the quality of your products, your identifications, and your certificates from time to time. Occasionally, even if you meet all requirements, they still manage to find fault: when my company was selling massage machines in Shi Jia Zhuang, the department of industry and commerce ruled that the Da Wu company was forging the Da Wu product name in illegally selling Da Wu products. They fined us fifty thousand.

The department of technological supervision is even more powerful. They demand that you have a tag, a factory name, a factory address, a production date, and a weight on every product. Moreover, they don't even allow "famous Hebei products" to be labeled "high quality". My company's fodder, which is a "famous Hebei product" was fined because we labeled it "high quality". When we print the "famous product label", we have to go to a designated factory to print them. It only costs us one cent to print a label, but we have to spend five cents in that factory, else the label is illegal. Moreover, they come down to check our products whenever they feel like it, often six times a year. Many might consider this reasonable, but when consumers are perfectly able to check the qualities for themselves every time they buy our products, who needs all this inspection? The customer is the best moderator and supervisor of markets. If I had to speak the truth, these ministries are the real culprits behind all the low-quality markets on the market. Every company that sends them gifts and bribes enjoys their protection. They inform their "protected" beforehand whenever there is an official inspection, even if those companies produce low-quality stuff. The good companies, however, don't need to send bribes. My own company, which has been running for 18 years, has not sold a single bad product, simply because I fire the factory head whenever a customer comes to complain of quality. Do the ministries really do much in preventing quality problems? I don't think so.

Everyone knows that the hope for farmers lies in non-agricultural production. Still, it is extremely difficult to develop manufacturing and industry in rural areas. I always say that there are eight mountains on the farmer's back, and that the government needs to remove these burdens. To be more specific, what are rural banks and trusts doing with their money? My company has about 100 million in capital, but I've rarely gotten an official loan. At the beginning, I borrowed about 50 thousand from the government. Last year, when I wanted to borrow 500 thousand from a bank, they had to have the signatures of every member of the board of directors, and so the plan was scrapped. I want to make this situation clear now: good companies can't get loans from the government. How do the banks lend money? They have an interest rate of between 10% and 15%. When I wanted to start a grape plantation three years ago. The Bao Ding city government had already agreed to lend 6 million to me, but I haven't seen a single yuan yet. I think banks and trust funds, at the rural level, are financially oppressing the rural population.

What does the department of industry and commerce do? I began my company in 1985. Since then, the department has tried to limit my pork sales, my fodder sales, and even my grain sales. My pigs have died of heat in their stalls; my grain has been wasted in piles, unable to be sold. How can you prevent this from happening? You have to pay the corresponding bureau a fee, which has reached 600 thousand per year at its highest. This is what they mean by reform on the grain market. I really don't understand why they would prefer to have my grain and fodder rot at home rather than enter the market. What is the department of taxation doing? What do our tax laws mean? A tax law is a law to support government spending, which forces you to give them money. In broader terms, what are all the bureaus and local governments doing? Much of the time, they are hindering rural development and preventing farmers from working.

Our rural areas have a flush labor supply, but do not produce enough jobs for all the manpower. The essence of this problem is that official power and capital limit and exploit the farmer's right to work. Consequently, the most difficult problem of clearing the way for rural development is to prevent national interest from dissolving into the interest of lower units (bureaus), and to avoid legalizing the interest of these units (bureaus) by law. Currently, bureau officials use the laws for our local bureaus to severely limit rural development, and to tie the hands and feet of farmers. Take, for example, the Rural Land Management Laws put into effect on March 1 of this year. The seventeenth law rules that land must be used only for agricultural purposes. The thirty-third states that, however rural land is purchased and exchanged, the nature of its ownership and its agricultural purpose must not change. Obviously, when farmers take management responsibilities for a piece of land, they are obliged by these laws to devote it to "farming". My company occupies about 100 mu of houses and production plants, and has therefore been breaking the law for some time. I obtained the usage rights to these lands in 1985 and used them to raise pigs and poultry. Yet local officials demanded extra money from me time and time over, until finally the county chief came down to "inspect it" with some 30 cars carrying his accompanying personnel. He told me I was breaking the law. I answered: the Land Law was passed in 1987, and therefore has no power over my land. Moreover, it stated clearly that land could be used to raise pigs, chickens, to grow timber, and to breed fish. He then said that if he thought it was illegal, it was. I threw him out. Later on, a legal official from the Hebei Land bureau came down and brought up the same topic, only this time he brought a horde of reporters and cameramen with him. Of course, they tried to desecrate my image as much as possible. I asked him for legal documents and regulations. He replied: "fine, I'll write one up for you when I go back". Those were his exact words. Of course, none of this appeared on local television. By now, I don't even care if they blow my land up with dynamite. I simply refuse to budge under such pressure. After so many years, the officials don't harass me over this issue any more, so I suppose my land usage has become legal after all.

What does legal really mean in China? I know a chairman from one of our local companies and asked how he managed to make his land "legal". It turned out that, after negotiating with the farmers to use their land and promising them repayments, he had to compromise with village officials and promise them a share of the profits. Finally, he had to talk with Land Bureau officials and ask them to "confiscate the land as official property". This made sure that he would have to pay them each year too. Basically, after you pay off all parties involved, then your land becomes legal. I asked him who the land finally belonged to after all these negotiations. He replied: legally it belongs to the country; actually it belongs to the farmers, who demand annual payments from him. They say that they still "own" the land, and never agreed to give it to the country. This is what "legal" means in China. But to whom does the land belong? The question remains largely unanswered.

I still believe the original intent of the Land Law was to protect land. Everyone asks just how much land does China actually have. No one knows for sure. A few years ago the official statistic was 1.49 billion mu, now it's 2 billion mu, and 2 billion mu more of non-cultivated land. The officials keep stressing how land is in short supply. Yet, in Zhe Jiang, one of our wealthiest provinces, each person only has 0.4 mu on average. How can Japan be so rich and modern with so little land? Hong Kong, with its puny size, feeds and clothes some 6 million people. Do China's problems really originate from a lack of land? I don't think so.

Right now, in rural China, there are about eight "wide-brimmed hats" overseeing each "old straw-hat". If there were, on the reverse, eight "straw-hats" under each "wide-brimmed hat", the situation would be very different. Simply put, the problem lays within the making of law, not the enforcement of law. Almost each bureau has a set of laws regulating it, yet only farmers have no precise set of laws. Who protects farmers? Where are the law-enforcers for farmers? Our country's main problem is not the corruption of officials, but the corruption of the law system. Laws are made by the bureaus, which don't care whether their laws fit into our fundamental constitution, or whether their laws agree with the basic interests of our country. Therefore I say that national interest has dissolved into the interest of bureaus, while the interest of bureaus are actually protected by law! This is a remnant of the planned-economy days. The bureaucrats who make the laws are smart people, and make their laws quite waterproof logically. I have to admire their intelligence, but they don't see things the way common people see them. They protect the interest of their bureau and of the bureaucratic system only.

Part Three:   What rural areas really need

Rural areas don't lack money, human resources, or markets. Many people probably don't accept these opinions.

Let us first tackle the money problem. First, in only Hebei Province, rural savings reached some 200 billion (yuan) last year. The province has about 50 thousand villages, which makes it roughly 4 million per village. If these 4 million yuan return to the villages, each village can build some companies. It's a pity that the money doesn't actually return. It's thrown into constructing those "window" cities that provide our country with "face". Second, what is money? Money is a marker of labor. Labor should convert into money. If we utilize all the labor in rural areas and give everyone a fitting job, be it farming, steaming buns, raising livestock, or weaving clothes, then everyone will be happy. Unfortunately, our current situation is: one person works while eight people lay around in the sun, something like what North Korea has right now. Of course, some people migrate to cities and find some work there, but a great deal of labor is lying around idle. This is why I say rural China doesn't lack money.

Nor does rural China lack human resources, or even skilled labor. On the contrary, our rural areas actually overflow with skilled labor. Take, for example, our middle school graduates who have completed nine years of public education. Their ability to imitate and copy is very strong. In my plants and factories, the majority of workers have graduated from middle school, and they are faring quite well. Even the supply of college graduates has increased. I once tried to draft 30 teachers from the Shi Jia Zhuang human resource market, and received some 600 applications. Therefore, I don't think rural areas lack human resource.

We don't even lack market. What is market? Demand is market! Farmers want to live in expensive hotels too, but they need money, and only market can provide them with that. Yet they are restricted from working. A large surplus of production is the common problem of all societies nowadays. Production is easy while consumption is hard. We should free rural labor and provide them with a market. If everyone has a job in the rural areas, we can maintain a 15% GDP increase every year for 10 years.

Part Four:   I suggest that our country passes a "Temporary Rural Law"

This article of mine was published, with modifications, on the Inner Digest of Reform. My intent was to give farmers a protective law. Now that all the bureaus have laws, can we at least provide farmers with a law to fend away all these various bureau laws and allow them farmers) some space to work? We all have witnessed the success of our official "development areas", yet that success is precisely because the areas are protected by law. Bureau laws have no effect in those areas. Why not do the same for our one billion farmers? If all attempts to resist this temporary law are thwarted, if we scrap all the "organized purchase and selling of grain", the "licenses to engage in industrial and commercial activities", and the "land regulations", then our one billion farmers will be one billion basic legal units. We should allow them to take responsibility for their own actions, and we should trust them. If they cause problems, there is a law above. This way, farmers can choose their professions and work freely. Rural China will become full of hope.

Sun Dawu 孙大午


2011-05-25 11:59

作者:高菁阳来源:金融界网站 评论













西方的企业做得很扎实、且循序渐进、持之以恒,几代人围绕一个品牌一直做下去。西方的企业家甚至高于政治家。因为他不仅是物质财富的创造者、科学技 术的研制者,还是精神财富的创造者、价值观念的引导者,这样的企业家才是真正的企业家。反观中国有些企业,兴也勃焉,其亡也忽焉,蒙牛跑出了火箭的 速度,这样的发展模式值得我们三思。我认可的是那种扎扎实实、非一蹴而就、可持续、能够继往开来的企业,这样的企业领导人才是我心目中的企业家

历史上有一个典型人物伍子胥。伍子胥一生为了报仇,是典型的有价值观无世界观、有远见没有卓识,有心人可以去翻看历史书籍,熟悉了解他的生平和为 处事。所谓有远见无卓识,就是已经看到未来,但是当下具体怎么做,不清楚,很糊涂。有时候,我也是如此,对于未来,我知道大势,可是当下应该怎么做? 却不知道,所活在当下说起来轻巧,做起来难



实我也不清楚我的信仰是什么。如果有的话,那就是信仰上天。上天这个东西无法去定性,也没有一个形象化的描绘。上天就是一个天。我信仰天、信 仰地,至于其他的偶像,在我心里面没有。我的脑子里没有偶像,没有基督、没有上帝。我不信仰它们。我信仰地道、天道、人道。冥冥之中,我觉得上天对宇宙、 对生活在其中的人类有所眷顾和安排

们应该顺其自然,顺应天道而为。《道德经》说,人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然。如果我们信仰道法自然,我们就不要过多地表现我们的强势— “胜者王侯败者贼。就是一种势。因为强弱在转化,王侯将相宁有种乎?谁的钱财能够传世,谁的富贵能够传世?“君子之泽,五世而斩。富贵的东西不能留 下,只有雅的东西能够传承,这个雅,恐怕就是信仰的东西




实我在49岁,2003年出事以后,就退下来了。我在考古,含饴弄孙,享受家庭生活的愉悦。尽管我想退下来,但是心不能真正地退下来。我的关注点 主要在我的孩子能否成长起来,这些年轻干部能否成熟起来,而不是纠结在具体的企业经营与发展。这是我的着力点。每个周日晚上,我们有两小时的青年国学小 组学习会这项活动我们已经坚持了两年,我们读《论语》,读《道德经》,读《弟子规》,我们将传统的国学结合时政、结合企业案例来讨论,启迪发年轻人去 思考,而不是填鸭式的说教。这样好让他们去思考,去寻求到正确的价值观和世界观

时我也跟企业家朋友交谈,讨论我们这些企业家在道上还是在路上?“”“本不同。道是循环往复,路是一往无前,英雄都倒毙在路上。有出发点、 归宿,这才是道。也不是说我意志消沉或者嫉妒那些英雄以及成功人物,也不是大午集团搞不大,吃不着葡萄说葡萄酸,有时候我也确实为他们捏把汗。我认识的 很多大企业家,他们的企业搞得非常大,动则几百亿、上千亿,我就想知道他们的动力何在。我现在还可以滑旱冰、带孙子、游泳、学英语,觉得内心很自在,很安

儒家、道家的思想,对我影响确实比较深。我觉得儒释道应该结合起来看。道教为什么不如佛教兴盛?是因为佛家的思想比较接地气,讲究因果轮回,老百姓 就信这个。善有善报,恶有恶报,不是不报,时候未到,时候一到,一切全报这就是在教人们与人为善。至于佛经有上万卷,我想应该没有多少人去阅读,又 真正能够领悟。儒教是不教亦教,有耕读传家的意味在。道德传家,十代以上。耕读传家次之,诗书传家又次之,富贵传家,不过三代

基督教可以让人忏悔,释放心灵和道德的压力。伊斯兰教以兄弟相称,有互相救济的意味在。可是道教,我们没有《道教经》,只有《道德经》,《道德经》 中,的成分多,的成分少。所以《道德经》都是天上的东西,玄之又玄。那么从何而来?就是我们所说的儒家的入世思想和企业经营管理思想

们往往在最困难的时候容易去寻找自己的信仰,我想这是因为源于恐惧。求神拜佛、烧纸、捐献,其实都是为了免除恐惧。当然免除恐惧的最好办法就是要 做好人,做错事要忏悔。尽管我不信基督教,但我依然觉得基督徒能够面对上帝忏悔,或者找神父忏悔,是一种缓解恐惧的方法,他们不会畏惧死亡,起码能够寻求 精神上的解脱。





2011-05-25 11:59 作者:高菁阳来源:金融界网站 评论



们这里有个玉米食品厂,将玉米加工成珍珠米(玉米),弄到北京市场去卖。珍珠米的外包装标注25公斤,实际只装49.5斤。我就问,为什么少装 半斤?糁厂的厂长回复道:这不是多卖钱吗?整个市场都这样,留出损耗,不可能足斤足两。我吩咐,不仅要装满25公斤,连包装袋可能损耗的2两也要装 去。他满口答应。过了几天,我再去看,这次装的不是49.5斤,而是48.5斤了。只是外包装袋上不再大午农牧集团生产样,把我气得够呛。那时我 还是董事长,二话没说,将厂长撤了


我不可能挨个去查漏补缺,而是要言传身教,而且身教重于言传。人是不是真正有信仰,言行举止会有所体现。现在看来,我的两个儿子,两个弟弟以及一些 轻干部们理解了我的主张。我没有刻意教育他们应该怎么做。他们也日渐懂得:一分利,撑死人;十分利,饿死人。要挣稳小钱,小钱是大钱的祖宗;不要小看小 钱、也不要嫉妒别人挣大钱。市场是大午人的银行等

2003风波之后,我退出了大午集团的日常经营管理,卸任了董事长,只担任了监事长一职,属于自己的时间也多起来。有一次去南开讲学,其博物馆镇 馆之宝是6000年前的陶器,而我的家乡徐水有上万年的南庄头人文化遗址。回来之后我就开始较真,开始研究县志中早有记载的釜山合符。据《史 ·五帝本纪》,黄帝曾北逐荤粥,合符釜山合符釜山的确切位置尚无定论,网上有河南灵宝釜山、山西高平釜山、河北涿鹿釜山涞水 和徐水釜山说法。2006年起,我们自费组织考察团,跑遍全国,最终确认只有距大午城22.5公里处的徐水釜山才是经得住推敲和验证的上古 釜山,可山有其形、地有其名、史有所载、物有所证(河北省文物局考古队在山顶古庙挖掘出载有黄帝合符即此样的残碑),其他地方或者有名无实, 或者名实不符,或者名实皆无。200810月我成立了河北徐水釜山文化研究会,自任会长。故纸堆里抠字、荒山野岭考古成了我的精神归隐。这种求真、求 知、求实,带给我非同一般的享受。釜山考古也许跟我的企业并无关联,可是我就是想活的明白一点:龙从哪里来?最早的母亲河(黄河古道)都流经哪些地方? 华民族是个怎样的民族?为什么炎黄之始是五千年?家庭起源于哪里?姓氏又起源于哪里?爹和爸的区……这些在考古研究中均有涉及

吃喝随心所欲、爱恨顺其自然或可描述我目前的状态。我就是个一无所有的亿万富翁。我不像清教徒那样拼命赚钱、拼命省钱,拼命捐钱。我不以盈 为目的,最后都盈利了。我一年到头也花不了几个钱,家人身体健康就相当于省钱、企业没有内耗就更是省钱。我可以很大方地在家乡做些善事,很豪气地宴请朋 友,却不愿意追风施舍一分钱。凡事我愿从身边做起,由近及远,一切随心、随性。(《管理学家》