D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

Mao Yushi


                              
                       

                                         Mao Yushi 茅于轼轼                    


比较社会主义核心价值观和普世价值,一个主要的区别是前者有爱国,后者没有。爱国可能引起国与国之间的冲突。爱民则不会。所以孙中山提倡博爱。中国是大国,更应该把爱民或博爱放在首位,否则别的国家不放心。


Mao Yushi compares the Socialist core values and universal values. One main difference is that the former are patriotic, the latter are not. Patriotism may cause conflict between countries. Love does not. Sun Yatsen advocated universal fraternity. China is a big country, and should be more caring or loving in the first place, or any other country is not assured.

September 19, 2016

 
                        

茅于轼

如果实践是检验真理的标准,几何学就没有用了。证明两个三角形相等,实践一下,把两个三角形重合一下,如果三个顶点都重合,肯定是相等的。当时这句话的确 对解放思想起了很大的作用。人是生活在现实中不是在文件中。但是以后对我国科学的发展起了阻碍作用。实践非常重要,真理是从实践中被发现的。




If practice is the standard for testing truth then geometry is useless.To prove through practice that two triangles are equal then overlap them. If the three vertices are coincident then the triangles are certainly the same. These statements do play a great role in emancipating the mind. Man lives in reality and not in a file.

However, with the development of China's science this circumstance was hindered. Practice is very important. The truth is found through practice. 
            

September 19, 2016










                        
                    


                                   Economist Mao Yushi   茅于轼    




MAO Yushi: The Logic of China’s Economy


Author: Unirule 

2018-11-25 23:16:38

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If the logic does not stand then the hypothesis can’t possibly be right. Therefore, the only test stone for truth is logic, instead of practice. If truth can be verified by practice then even Newton's First Law, or Law of Inertia, would not have been discovered. We cannot find any object on planet earth that is not acted upon by an external force, where Newton’s First Law states that an object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force. It has hindered China’s scientific development to a large extent when the importance of practice is exaggerated and overestimated to even test the truth. Chinese scientists are good at analyzing by resorting to practice instead of logic. I am not denying that practice is important. It is right that truth is uncovered by practice. However, whether this truth is in line with the nature of truth should be tested and verified by logic, instead of practice.







The following essay appeared roughly two years ago in response to what the author regarded as Professor Mao's assertion that truth can be arrived at through logic. It seems that practice may only confirm conclusions reached by logic regarding the truth.

 

                        


Keep in mind though that the purpose of this short analysis is not to contest another person's opinion regarding how to test the truth, but rather to clarify my own point of view. The relationship of a whole to its constituent parts has been of long term interest to the poet.
By definition, a whole must consist of at least two proper parts. Achille Varzi, in his outline of Mereology, concedes that it is possible to construct a model in which a whole can be broken down into several proper parts all of which overlap one another. However, the full meaning of 'proper part" is not met. The reason is that if a proper part is removed then it is unclear what would be left. However, a proper part should be left. According to Varzi a full formulation of the idea that a whole cannot be decomposed into a single part holds that every "proper part must be 'supplemented' by another, disjoint part, and it is this last qualification that captures the notion of a remainder". 


 
                                                               
 
                                       Far side of the moon



                                                                  
                                         Near side of the moon


It seems that a test of truth through practice may be rather complicated. It should be expected that a test of beauty through practice would be equally so. However, it may be that there are rare individuals for whom a test of beauty can be solved instantly and intuitively. The poet once asked Sun Dawu "Why does the moon always show the same face?" He had expected a long answer regarding Tidal Locking or scientific observations deduced from the Russian probe Lunar 3 on October 7, 1959 which showed the far side has a battered, densely cratered appearance with few maria. Instead, he answered in the following way. "It's more beautiful." Oh Ohm

The question for me though is how does one arrive at the ideal of truth or for that matter the highest truth? The poet requires more than three words. The test for truth is based on both material ideas of reality and virtual ideas of reality which can be arrived at through practice. Can a convention center exist with materials alone or does it equally depend on the practical geometry of square, triangle and ellipse? Can a Confucian temple exist without the practical application of geometrical form such as the rectangle? Blueprints expressing geometric forms must be consulted to build these structures whether the usage is secular or sacred. 


                              
                    
 
Police officers take away a supporter of rights lawyer Pu Zhiqiang
near the Beijing Second Intermediate

China rights lawyer Pu Zhiqiang's trial ends amid scuffles
14 December 2015

A large group of aggressive plain clothes policemen - many of them wearing yellow smiley-face badges - pushed, punched and harassed reporters, camera crews and diplomats away from the front of the court.



If one bases the test of truth solely on practice then one may err, for example, if the practice is heuristic. Trial by error may describe the proceedings in a civil rights case in China based on the arguments of the prosecution and the final judgement. However, practice does not make perfect a legal process conducted through right by law rather than Right of Law. In other words, if one refers to Confucius' Analects through Rule by Law then the Way of Heaven is lost.                               
 
In another example, a less than ideal doctor in the moral sense of the Dao still practices at his practice. He learns from his mistakes. However, it is not recommended that a doctor treat himself, but rather that another doctor practices on him. Keep in mind though that every doctor should hold to the Hippocratic Oath. This ideal states "Do no harm".



                                                               

                           Sun Simiao, King of Medicinals 藥王

                               (courtesy of Paul U. Unschuld)


A doctor that gets closer to the ideal such as Sun Simiao helps to define through the Dao the moral responsibilty of medical professionalism. “凡大醫治病,必當安神定志,無欲無求,先發大慈惻隱之心。誓願普救含靈之苦。
Whenever eminent physicians treat an illness, they must quiet the spirit and settle the will, they must be free of wants and desires, and they must first develop a heart full of great compassion and empathy. They must pledge to devote themselves completely to relieving the suffering of all sentient beings. ”

— Sun Simiao, Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang I.2

What is a material idea? It is based on the practice of material reality. For example, a material idea allows one to reduce complex things or ideas into simple things or ideas. In other words, it is a system that can be understood with respect to its isolated parts--even down to the atomic level. The material idea is quantitative.

The virtual idea serves practical purposes of practicality, pragmatism and utilitarianism, though, neither in name or strict definition. It allows one to construct more complex things or ideas. This idea consists of the attributes or characteristics of the material idea. The virtual idea is qualitative.

 

                                          

                       CAE 7000 Series Full-Flight Simulator


In the distant past, pilots learned through practice. They either flew or they crashed. In the present age, pilots learn on a flight simulator through virtual reality. If they virtually crash they neither hurt themselves nor others. If they fly without crashing then they may learn through practice on a real plane. Experienced pilots with thousands of hours of flying time can also renew or upgrade  their licenses through a flight simulator.

The ideal of truth is created from two ideas. One idea is material reality while the other idea is virtual reality. In order to achieve sameness or congruence they unite.


                             
                     
                                              The Sun 
 

Our Sun was undoubtedly the most important archetype of ancient peoples. In terms of material reality, it was composed of one of the basic elements or fire. It warmed the Earth and allowed for seeds to sprout and crops to grow. With respect to virtual reality the Sun as a circle contained the other shapes. When these two realities or parts were fused then the archetype (whole sameness) or wholesomeness in the moral sense was composed. It may be that the archetype fused the material reign and the virtual realm. 

"The Sun is the most perfectly round natural object known in the universe, say scientists who have conducted precise measurements of its dimensions. Now a team led by the University of Hawaii's Dr Jeffrey Kuhn have made the first precise measurement of the sun's equatorial bulge, or its "oblateness". The results were a big surprise. "We were shocked," says Kuhn. The sun doesn't bulge much at all. It is 1.4m kilometres across, but the difference between its diameter at the equator and between the poles is only 10 kilometres."


                                               
 
                      Thuban (11 Draconis) and 10 Draconis
                   were the polestars five thousand years ago.



The highest material reality of natural order and virtual reality of geometric form are the ancient polestars. In the past, at around the time of Huangdi, the polestars were a binary system which were composed of the stars 11 Draconis and 10 Draconis. They served a practical purpose of natural order since they showed due North for those who were lost or wanted to confirm their position.

Yet, the old polestars also represented a virtual reality with respect to geometric form. John C. Didier observed that the rectangle is not a geometric form found on Earth. It was seen by various civilizations to represent the sacred. As such, the virtual rectangle was  reflected in the shape of altars and temples constructed on Earth.

Professor Didier comments  that the polestars (representing Tàiyī 太一 ("Great Oneness" and Tianyi 天一) were at the top and middle of the North Circumpolar Rectangle. On the left were two stars of the Big Dipper while on the  right were two stars of the Little Dipper. The binary Dipper asterisms revolved around this binary star system.

In actuality, they are a binary system of polestars that revolve around each other in about 51.4 days. It may have appeared to ancients though that the larger polestar revolved around the smaller one as the Sun was believed to have revolved around the Earth in 360 days. Coincidentally, it may have been observed that there would be 7 revolutions of the polestar per Earth year or 51.4 (weeks) X 7 (days) = approximately 360 days. The number of 360 as it pertains to days in a year also corresponded with the number of degrees in a circle.



                                                    
 
El Enclavamiento Pirámides Celestes

D. Carlton Rossi  copyright  2014

Spanish

The Interlocking Celestial Pyramids



                            
                              

Die Himmlischen Fundamente der Pyramiden

D. Carlton Rossi  copyright  2014

German

The Celestial Foundations of the Pyramids




                                                            
 
                                        The Cosmic Egg


 "In the myth of Pangu (Pángǔ  盘古), developed by Taoist monks hundreds of years after Lao Zi, the universe began as an egg. A god named Pangu, born inside the egg, broke it into two halves: the upper half became the sky, while the lower half became the earth. As the god grew taller, the sky and the earth grew thicker and were separated further. Finally, Pangu died and his body parts became different parts of the earth." Wikipedia 
                             
 
                              
                                 
                                     Rooster (Gallus gallus)


                                 

                                        Hen (Gallus gallus)


In a sense, this story corresponds to the practice of the material reality of the natural order of a thing. There is a decomposition of the whole into two parts. This is followed by more differentiation. The earliest chicken was Gallus gallus which was feral. However, 10,000 years ago, in Xushui County, Gallus domesticus emerged. DNA results show that animals found buried beneath a peat bog in China's Xushui County, Hebei (near Kenneth City of Dawu Group and Fushan) are the oldest examples of domesticated chicken by several thousand years according to Professor Michi Hofreiter, a palaeogeneticist at the University of York and the University of Postdam in Germany.

                                                        

                                                        
                          Sun Dawu and Prof. Jiang Ping discuss
                  which came first--the chicken or the egg (yoke)
                          

The virtual reality aspect of geometrical form concerns the egg or ellipse. An ellipse is traced by point moving in plane so that the sum of its distances (from two other points) is constant. The domestic chicken of today in Xushui County is Gallus domesticus. The author recalls a promotional program of the poultry and egg subsidiary of Dawu Group.  It was in front of the Sports Complex (convention center). The center itself has an elliptical frontage. Countless generations of the Sun Family have eaten countless generations of Gallus domesticus and their eggs. It seems that the natural order and geometric form correspond to the will of Pangu.

                    


D. Carlton Rossi

D.卡尔顿 罗西      D. Kǎ'ěrdùn Luōxī

October 15, 2016




References



John C. Didier, Victor Mair , "In and Outside the Square: The Sky and the Power of 
Belief in Ancient China and the World, c. 4500 B.C.—A.D. 200." Sino-Platonic Papers 192 (September 2009) China Review International Vol. 16, No. 4 (2009), pp. 491-493 Published by: University of Hawai'i Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23734291 

Geraint Jones, Sun is the most perfect sphere ever observed in nature, The Guardian Thursday 16 August 2012 

Antonio Rosmini Serbati, Psychology Vol. III, London: 1988, Keagan, Paul, Trench and Company 


Achille Varzi 
Achille Varzi, "Mereology", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), 

URL = 
 Congruence (geometry) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congruence_(geometry) Theorems for Congruent Triangles

 http://www.regentsprep.org/regents/math/geometry/GP4/Ltriangles.htm