D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

Indian Democracy




                                      


                                      1/34 Model of Crazy Horse Sculpture



Crazy Horse (Lakota: Tȟašúŋke Witkó in Standard Lakota, literally "His-Horse-Is-Crazy";[3] (c. 1842 – September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. Celebrated for his ferocity in battle, Crazy Horse was recognized among his own people as a visionary leader committed to preserving the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life. Following the Lakota victory at the Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull and Gall retreated to Canada, but Crazy Horse remained to battle General Nelson Miles as he pursued the Lakota and their allies relentlessly throughout the winter of 1876-77. This constant military harassment and the decline of the buffalo population eventually forced Crazy Horse to surrender on May 6, 1877.



Part 1 The Akicita Society


The Sioux had a number of devices to keep any akicita society from becoming dictatorial. First and foremost, they rotated the authority; the Kit Foxes would be the police one month, the Brave Hearts the next, and so on. Second, no man could simultaneously be a head of an akicita society and a tribal chief or member of the governing council. Third, the Sioux did not delegate real power to an individual, be he a head of an akicita society, tribal chief or member of the governing council. As Lowie puts it, "in normal times the chief was not a supreme executive, but a peacemaker and an orator." Chiefs--all chiefs--were titular,"and any power exercised within the tribe ws exercised by the total body of responsible men who had qualified for social eminence by their war record and their generosity."


Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors, Stephen E. Ambrose Anchor Books: New York, 1996, p 48.


In this time of disorder and disorientation the author as a romantic returns to what might be regarded as pure democracy on the Great Plains of the Sioux before the arrival of the saints, sinners, settlers and soldiers. In other words, the Sioux had not yet received the "blessings" of civilization. It reminds him of how far democracy has become distorted today with demagogues and dynasties. The summary is divided into three parts; namely, The Akicita Society [primarily warrior], The Installation ceremony of the shirt-wearers and The Spiritual harmony with all.

However, the author as a realist is also aware of how fragile this pure democracy was of the Sioux tribes. It was based on resources--particularly the buffalo--which numbered in the millions. The army could not catch the Sioux to exterminate them so they decided to eradicate their resource or the buffalo. This would allow them to fence in the Sioux on reservavtions making them dependent on the State. To paraphrase the former Prime Minister Trudeau, in Canada eradication was accomplished through starvation.

Canada's most important resource today is water. If the water is polluted then our democracy, lifestyle and lives are threatened. Our very existence is at stake. Why should Canada endanger this primary resource through free-trade at the insistence of China which has polluted 90% of its water? Why should Canada expand the tar sands and pump out more oil to another country if its own water becomes polluted?

The author taught briefly more than fifteen years ago on a part-time basis at the head office in Beijing of a Chinese oil company. He asked his students whether oil or water was more important? They responded by saying oil was more important. However, the author followed up by asking how long each one of them could live without water? He was told shortly thereafter that his services were no longer needed.


D.卡尔顿 罗西

2017年2月21日






                               
                                                                                         


                                             The Battle of the Rosebud


Crazy Horse (Lakota: Tȟašúŋke Witkó in Standard Lakota, literally "His-Horse-Is-Crazy";[3] (c. 1842 – September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. Celebrated for his ferocity in battle, Crazy Horse was recognized among his own people as a visionary leader committed to preserving the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life. Following the Lakota victory at the Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull and Gall retreated to Canada, but Crazy Horse remained to battle General Nelson Miles as he pursued the Lakota and their allies relentlessly throughout the winter of 1876-77.



                         


B.    The Shirt Wearers

In 1865 the Oglalas decided to revive a governmental system which was learned from the Blackfeet. Seven leaders, men over forty, called the "Big Bellies", formed a chiefs' society. They would advise and govern on various issues. To execute their orders they chose four "Shirt-Wearers". The duties and responsibilities of the "Big Bellies" and "Shirt-Wearers" were carefully circumscribed; although, their powers were not precisely defined. (p. 135)

Crazy Horse was appointed a Shirt-Wearer. He was told that he must consider others rather than himself. It was his responsibility to look after those who could not look after themselves. For example, he would often go out alone to bring back antelope or buffalo for the poor, widows and those with little power.

The Black Hills or Pa Sapa to the Indians were promised to the Sioux forever in the treaty of 1868. However, only four years later, President Grant signed the Mining Act of 1872. It stipulated that any company or prospector "can stake a claim on Federal land and mine metals there virtually free of charge". They can also buy the land outright under patent from the Government for $5 per acre.  

In 1874, Sheridan established a fort in the area of the Black Hills on Sioux land. Furthermore, he sent out an expedition led by Custer to explore for gold. It was found at French Creek. In 1875, the United States Government put pressure on the Sioux to sell the land. Basically, the government wanted to settle the west, end the Great Depression which had begun in 1871, increase the circulation of dollars  and establish an infrastructure project (to use modern terminology).

However, the government did not want to meet the price set by the Sioux. Furthermore, some Sioux such as Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse were unwilling to sell the land at any price. They would forcefully oppose the seizure of Sioux land.

It is said by Ambrose that the United States Government was embarrassed that it could not find a legal reason to take the Hills. Basically, it made a decision to delare war on the Sioux and then looked for a cause. General Crook led a column of 1000 troops to find the Sioux, but the Sioux found Crook. Crazy Horse had left half of his warriors to protect the women and children and the rest were employed at Rosebud to counter Crook's incursion. Crook was forced to retreat. It was known as The Battle of Rosebud Creek. It may be imaginatively speculated by the author that his last word on his death bed was "Rosebud".

Fast forward to the future. During the late 1980s the Bank of Canada began to sell its gold reserves. No satisfactory reason has been provided for this decision. Of course, on every side of a sale there is a purchase, so who exactly purchased the gold or collarterly used it? The reserve had been used to defend the Canadian dollar and to guarantee zero interest loans for infrastructure projects such as the Saint Lawrence Seaway.  

Somewhat earlier, in 1985-86, a Canadian company with an American subsidiary bought the rights to the Goldstrike mine at Elko, Nevada which was located on federal property. It began the process to obtain full legal title to the property by developing the claim. Ultimately, the company was looking to purchase the property for $5 an acre and avoid paying royalties to the US government on 10 billion dollars worth of gold. Of course, gold in the ground is one thing, but full title is another thing and so, too, are the costs to develop the infrastructure of the mine. Mysteriously, miraculously and magically, these problems evaporated.

While the Bank of Canada was established as a public bank to counter effects of the Great Depression and to create jobs for those in dire circumstances, its ability and responsibility to provide zero interest loans for infrastructure projects to benefit the public is in abeyance. This situation is being challenged in the courts. In the meantime, an infrastructure bank has been established outside of the public sector which will fund projects at market rates of interest. There is little that is transparent about this bank.

One is reminded of Orson Welles' movie Citizen Kane. It is loosely based on the life of William Randolf Hearst. "Kane's career in the publishing world is born of idealistic social service, but gradually evolves into a ruthless pursuit of power." (Wikipedia). The young Kane  pushes the sled against his guardian Thatcher when he is about to be taken away. In some respects this act resembles Crook's campaign against the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne at Rosebud in Bighorn County, Montana on June 17, 1876.

As a young boy, Kane is playing with his sled in poverty riddled Colorado of 1871 at the fictional Little Salem while it is revealed that gold has been discovered on his mother's property. The resentful Charles Kane is sent away with Thatcher who acts as his guardian, but after gaining control of the trust at age twenty-five Kane publishes scandalous and salacious attacks against the banker which in a sense imitate Crook's nefarious camapaign against the Sioux. In the film, Kane is given the line "You provide the prose poems; I'll provide the war," undeniably similar to "You furnish the pictures, and I'll furnish the war," a quote widely attributed to Hearst. Ironically, Kane loses control of the New York Inquirer to Thatcher at the beginning of the Great Depression in the 1930's. Charles Foster Kane's last word before he died was "Rosebud".




D.卡尔顿 罗西

2017年2月27日 



Crazy Horse and Custer:
The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors,
Stephen E. Ambrose
Anchor Books: New York, 1996