D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

Fushan 4




The History without a Break


The history of Xushui and its surrounding areas is without break, which confirms that the historical context of unifying totem on Fu Mountain has been continued and inherited.

 Judging from the age of the remnants, Nanzhuangtou archaeological sites date back 10,000 years or so.  Pre-Painted Pottery Culture, Painted Pottery Culture, Black Pottery Culture and Xiajiadian culture sites unearthed around Fu Mountain revealed a developmental process of thousands of years from the Yellow Emperor period to the Xia, Shang, Zhou dynasties, Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period.

Beifudi prehistory cultural relics are located in Shenshi village, Gaochun town, Yi County, on a mesa bordering the middle of the north bank of the Yishui River.  On this site, the cultural remnants of the three phases of Neolith Era were discovered, and these remnants were nearly in the same age as Ci mountain culture and Xinglongwa culture, about 8,000-years ago.

Qilizhuang village which is located 3 kilometers to the northeast of Yi County town belongs to the north bank of the northern Yishui River.  In that village, cultural relics of five periods from the Neolithic Era to the dynasties of the Xia, Shang, Zhou, and the Warring States Periods were found. The significance of the ancient ruins lies in connection of the human activities with a history of 10,000 years in this place. The discovery was rare at home and abroad. As a result, it shocked archaeological circles.

When the archaeological team of Beijing City Research Center of Historical Relics carried out the rescue excavation of tombs in north Fu Mountain (traversed by projects for diverting water from the south to the north) they unearthed some implements buried with the dead. These implements consist of four main periods, namely, the Han, Tang, Song and Liao Dynasties and also the Ming and Qing.  The dynasties span two thousand years. It indicated that this area was the main place of activities of  our ancient ancestors.

On the 16th of July 1987, Zouheng and Liyangsong, famous archaeologists of China and Professors of Peking University, sang highly of historical relics in Xushui after making an on-the-spot investigation.  “The ancient ruins discovered in Xushui County in our national survey of cultural relics are of large quantity and high quality.  Furthermore, there is no break in the history of these ruins. They offered an approach to solve the difficult and perennial questions. Most importantly, some new academic subjects have been put forward”.

Jiajinbiao, a researcher of Hebei Research Institute of Cultural Relics, who graduated in his early years from the Department of Archaeology at Zhongshan University, has participated almost in all archaeological activities in Xushui County and has arrived at the conclusion that Xushui is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization.


East Subordinate Palace


                 




West Subordinate Palace

                  



The Old Course of the Yellow River


At the foot of the Fu Mountain, there could once be found one of the bends of the old course of the Yellow River and also the inferential place where the Yellow Emperor unified totem.

After many year’s spot investigation and textual research conducted by historical geographers and departments of archaeology and cultural relics, the primary conclusion was drawn that “Unifying totem” on Fu Mountain was a kind of cultural phenomenon of the Yellow River and the Yellow Emperor laid the foundation for the reunification of the Chinese nation.

The Yellow River is the mother river of the Chinese nation. Along its river basin the Yellow Emperor led the tribes to the north and settled down where there was water and grass. Any study of the event of unifying totem conducted by the Yellow Emperor on Fu Mountain should be based on the Yellow River. Whoever breaks away from the Yellow River to seek the whereabouts of the Fu Mountain on which totem was unified, he equally vetoes the historical fact that the Yellow Emperor initiated the civilization of Chinese nation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River.  In a word, the Yellow River is a touch-stone, and any study is valueless without the Yellow River as support.

Tanqixiang, a historical geographer, renowned as “WenhuaShenzhou(a poetic name for China)”(means a person who is the leading authority on historical geography) found an old course of the Yellow River called Shanjing River to have undoubtedly existed. The sketch of Shanjing river showed the Yellow River flowed from Xiaolangdi Dam, along the east foot of Taihang mountain, then, it ran northeastwards, running through places today called Anyang, Handan, Shenzhou, Gaoyang and turned sharply at the foot of the Fu Mountain. It flowed eastwards, traversing Anxin, Bazhou and Tianjin and into the Bohai Sea.

In the aspect of some related geological material, it is found that in prehistoric times water of the Yellow River flowed down.  The water carried huge amounts of sediment and formed which formed the Hebei plain.  After that the Yellow River still overflowed unceasingly. There were many gorges in the plain along the east foot of Taihang Mountain. This was the old course of the Yellow River, including parts of the gorges in Xushui County.  Ivory fossils of Palaeoloxodon, about 4 metres long and 200,000 to 300,000 years old, were excavated around Fu Mountain.

It was confirmed by the national survey of cultural relics conducted between 1985 and 1986 that ancient cultural relics of various periods could almost be found everywhere around Fu Mountain; namely, the banks of the old course of the Yellow River. For instance, in the 10,000-year-old ancient ruins in Nanzhuangtou, pieces of pottery, stone implements, building stones, bone objects, and large amounts of animal bones were unearthed; and in the village ruins of prehistoric times of the  8,000 years’ old Beifudi ancient sites, many jade articles, stone implements, potteries and other important remnants were discovered. Numerous ancient ruins and the continuative historical context reflect the ancient civilization of the old course of the Yellow River around Fu Mountain.



The Old Course of The Yellow River


                        




The Ancient Temple of Suffering


More than 3,500 year-old pieces of Jomon pottery, building units of past dynasties, history books, and stone inscriptions have been unearthed at the site of the Yellow Emperor Temple on Fu Mountain.  They furnished strong evidence to prove the fact that the Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain in Xushui County.

The site of the Yellow Emperor Temple is located on the top of  Fu Mountain.  It is said that the temple was built by Emperor Shun in memory of the Yellow Emperor. The Yellow Emperor Temple suffered repeated destruction on more than ten occasions due to act of man, lightning strike, wildfires, and wars etc.

Xushui County annals said, Cuizhidao and others restored the Yellow Emperor Temple on the top of the Fu Mountain in the 25th year (1546 A.D.) of Emperor Jiajing, Ming dynasty.  This was recorded in a tablet’s inscription.

According to the inscriptions on the incomplete tablets in the Ming and Qing dynasties that were found on the top of Fu Mountain, the Yellow Emperor Temple was rebuilt in the 13th year (1622 A.D.) of Emperor Chongzhen, Ming dynasty, destroyed in a wildfire in 12th year (1734 A.D.) of Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing dynasty and burned to pieces in the 10th year (1745 A.D.) of Emperor Qianlong. It was reconstructed in 1748, damaged in the 4th year (1878 A.D.) of Emperor Guangxu, and burned down again in 1900 A.D.  It was told by the local old folks that the stone tablet on the top of the Fu Mountain was bombarded into pieces by Japanese invaders in the war of Japanese Resistance.

The archaeological team of Hebei Research Center of Cultural Relics excavated ancient ruins of the old temple and two upper sections of tablets were found.  They referred to the “Rebuilding of the Temporary Palace in Tai mountain” and “the Tablet Inscription of Reconstructing the Temple of Goddess”. The work statement on the excavation of old temples says that the ancient ruins exhumed at this time were in the Ming and Qing dynasties. We not only unearthed the pieces of yellow glaze porcelain pot of the Tang dynasty and White porcelain of black flower in the period of Jin and Yuan in the courtyard filling in the top, but also pieces of Jomon potteries in the early Shang dynasty about 3500 years ago.”

The building units unearthed ranging from the Han, Tang, Song and Liao dynasties to the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, provide physical evidence for the fact that the Yellow Emperor Temple on the Fu Mountain experienced repeated destruction and sufferings.




Fushan Cultural Circle


More than 3,500 year-old pieces of Jomon potteries, building units of past dynasties, history books, and stone inscriptions have been unearthed at the site of the Yellow Emperor Temple on Fu Mountain.  They furnished strong evidence to prove the fact that the Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain in Xushui County.

The site of the Yellow Emperor Temple is located on the top of  Fu Mountain.  It is said that the temple was built by Emperor Shun in memory of the Yellow Emperor. The Yellow Emperor Temple suffered repeated destruction on more than ten occasions due to act of man, lightning strike, wildfires, and wars etc.

Xushui County annals said, Cuizhidao and others restored the Yellow Emperor Temple on the top of the Fu Mountain in the 25th year (1546 A.D.) of Emperor Jiajing, Ming dynasty.  This was recorded in a tablet’s inscription.

According to the inscriptions on the incomplete tablets in the Ming and Qing dynasties that were found on the top of Fu Mountain, the Yellow Emperor Temple was rebuilt in the 13th year (1622 A.D.) of Emperor Chongzhen, Ming dynasty, destroyed in a wildfire in 12th year (1734 A.D.) of Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing dynasty and burned to pieces in the 10th year (1745 A.D.) of Emperor Qianlong. It was reconstructed in 1748, damaged in the 4th year (1878 A.D.) of Emperor Guangxu, and burned down again in 1900 A.D.  It was told by the local old folks that the stone tablet on the top of the Fu Mountain was bombarded into pieces by Japanese invaders in the war of Japanese Resistance.

The archaeological team of Hebei Research Center of Cultural Relics excavated ancient ruins of the old temple and two upper sections of tablets were found.  They referred to the “Rebuilding of the Temporary Palace in Tai mountain” and “the Tablet Inscription of Reconstructing the Temple of Goddess”. The work statement on the excavation of old temples says that the ancient ruins exhumed at this time were in the Ming and Qing dynasties. We not only unearthed the pieces of yellow glaze porcelain pot of the Tang dynasty and White porcelain of black flower in the period of Jin and Yuan in the courtyard filling in the top, but also pieces of Jomon potteries in the early Shang dynasty about 3500 years ago.”

The building units unearthed ranging from the Han, Tang, Song and Liao dynasties to the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, provide physical evidence for the fact that the Yellow Emperor Temple on the Fu Mountain experienced repeated destruction and sufferings.




The Mystery of Yake

The period of ancient characters (Yake characters engraved on cliff stones) of Fu Mountain was in accordance with the time when the Yellow Emperor unified the totem on Fu Mountain.

In 1978, Jinfengyun found 109 ancient characters in the caves of Fu Mountain. And recently, another 30 have been detected on the animal fossils around Fu Mountain and parts of characters in many other places. After expert speculation, they are considered as symbols left by the ancient ancestors in the times of the Yellow Emperor.  Even now, these characters are indecipherable for anyone. Although difficult to know the purpose and contents of Yake, it is no doubt that characters engraved in stones are a kind of phenomenon prior to the real characters, earlier than hieroglyph and inscription on the oracle bones. Judging from the rich contents of the Yake, it is easy to know that ancient ancestors had powerful abilities of observation and imagination towards the nature.

Through the study, Yake in Fu Mountain share some of the same characteristics with symbols of prehistory unearthed before as well as signs inscribed in the ancient bronzes.  It indicates that the cliff stones engraved with characters on Fu Mountain not only inherited the features of the Neolithic Age in Painted Pottery Period, but also continued to develop to the Bronze Age, and its inheritance is continuative. These engraved symbols date back to 5,000 ago and last until the early years of the Shang dynasty. The age when the ancient characters were carved in Fu Mountain was almost the same as the period of unifying totem done by the Yellow Emperor.

 It is not an accident that the discovery of over 5,000-year-old ancient characters tallies the event of unifying totem performed by the Yellow Emperor on Fu Mountain. If these ancient characters could be deciphered, they might verify the fact that the Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain.



Yake characters engraved in cliff stones on Fu Mountain