D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

Fushan 3


 Ten Achievements



The Special Shape of Fu Mountain

Places Named after Fu Mountain

Historical Records of Fu Mountain

Cultural Relics of Fu Mountain

Folks Legends

The History without a Break


The Old Course of the Yellow River

The Ancient Temple of Suffering

Fushan Cultural Circle

The Mystery of Yake







     
The Special Shape of Fu Mountain


Ancient Ruins of the Temple on top of Fu Mountain






Fu Mountain of Xushui is commonly referred to as “Pot Top Mountain”.  It obtained its name because it resembles a reversed pot.  The mountain is actually an arch. The towering place on the top the mountain is like the trace of the bottom of a pot, left by the folks who cast the big pot. The whole mountain resembles an overturned pot.  From a distance, it looks as if it was created or granted by God.

Located 22.5 kilometers to the northwest of Xushui County town, Fu Mountain is the transition region from Taihang Mountain to Hebei plain. Fu Mountain is actually like a crouched tortoise, with four paws scratching the ground,head, slightly up, facing the south, and with a tiny rump. The mountain is in a northwest-southeast direction and three of its sides are steep while the east mountain slope is not so precipitous. It has an elevation of 290 meters and covers 2 square kilometers.



Places Named After Fu Mountain

Beihezhuang village is 1.5 kilometers the northwest of Fu Mountain. There is a historical site called Beihe Mesa, where the Yellow Emperor reconciled with Yandi (a leader of a tribe). That’s how the village got its name.

Xie village is located about 3 kilometers to the east of the Fu Mountain  and 1.5 kilometers to the southeast of Chiyou’s tomb (a leader of an old tribe).  It was in Jie village that Chiyou was drawn and quartered upon sentence of the Yellow Emperor. So the village is called Jie village.

Fan village is approximately 4 kilometers to the southeast of Fu Mountain.  It was the camp where the Yellow Emperor stationed troops.  At first, the walls were fences, so the village was named Fan village (of tree, grass).  The name was later changed into Fan village.

Big and Small Mou Mountain villages were originally 2.5 kilometers to the east of Fu Mountain. They were scattered about  the two sides of Chiyou’s tomb. Through the textual research conducted by experts on historical relics, Chiyou’s tomb was found on Red Soil Hill which was supposed to be man-made. Chiyou temple was on the top of the hill. Bull was the totem of Chiyou’s tribe and Mou is a mimetic word for bulls. Later, the word developed into “mou”. In 1958, the two villages were moved to other places because of the building of the Pu River reservoir.


Dean Li Boqian's Dedication


                         


The dedication was written for the Xushui Cultural Studies of Fu Mountain.  The author is Li Boqian who is the Dean of the Sinian Period Civilization Research Center at Peking University and also former President of the School of Archeology and Museology.




Historical Records of Fu Mountain


Fu Mountain of the Xushui is the site where the Yellow Emperor unified totem.  This was clearly recorded in many historical documents, stone tablet inscriptions and poems etc. "The Yellow Emperor once chased Xunyu in the north of China and unified totem on Fu Mountain”. This was recorded in the biographies of five emperors according to the Shiji.

Zizhi Tongjian written in the Song dynasty has it that “The Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain which is in Wusui (Suicheng, in Xushui, was once called Wusui). “Fu Mountain is in Ansu County” (Xushui was once called Ansu) according to the Yanhuagnhuidian.  District Records volume, Tongjian Zuanyao (an authoritative history book). Cihai has the record that “The mesa of unifying totem is in the west of Xushui”.

“Fu Mountain is in Ansu County.  It is right here, on Fu Mountain, that the Yellow Emperor and leaders of other tribes unified their totem” as recorded in the 8th volume of the Annals of Baodingfu (written in the 7th year of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing dynasty).  Mingshengzhi has it that “Fu Mountain is to the west of Ansu County town, about 40 li”.

“Fu Mountain, on which the totem was unified, lies like a pot some 45 li to the west of the County seat. The Yellow Emperor and other vassals unified totem on Fu Mountain which became one of the eight scenic spots” as recorded in the 9th volume, County Annuals of Ansu County written in the 13th year of Emperor Jiaqing in the Qing dynasty.

“Xuanyuanshi (the Yellow Emperor) visited places to know the customs and climbed Fu Mountain to assemble vassals to unify totem in the west of Xushui County. There is a Yellow Emperor platform standing on the top of the mountain, and its vestiges still exist”.  This record is from the 10th volume, New County Annuals of Xushui County which was written in the 32nd year of the Republic of China.

In the Yanhuanghuidian (a history book) there is an essay written by Wangyuyou who was a scholar in the Qing dynasty.  He wrote that “Fu Mountain, the place where the Yellow Emperor met other vassals to unify totem, has been a place of interest for a long time and it is a must to climb the mountain and ascend a height and look far into the distance.

A famous poet in the Qing dynasty also wrote a poem for Fu Mountain in Xushui. He wrote that “Unifying totem was an event in the old times. The spring is quite deep of itself. Taste the water and you will still be able to understand the intention of the Yellow Emperor”.

The Yellow Emperor temple was restored in the 13th year of Qianlong (1784 AD), Qing dynasty.  When a stone tablet was installed, there were three poems engraved on it; namely, The Paean to the Yellow Emperor written by Caozhi in Three Kingdoms Period, Xuanyuantai by Chenzhengang in the Tang dynasty, On the Way to Suizhou by Wenqianxiang in the Song dynasty.


The Yellow Emperor


   



Cultural Relics of Fu Shan



There are forty-six cultural remains and unearthed incomplete stone tablets on top of Fu Mountain which are strong evidence to prove that the Yellow Emperor unified the totem in Xushui.

There are many historical remains on the Fu Mountain; such as, the site of the Yellow Emperor temple, the site of enclosing wall, the platform of the Yellow Emperor, the spring of the Yellow Emperor, ancient wells, ubiquitous standing or lying or piled up stone tablets. Professor Liboqian (Peking University Dean of Sinian Period Civilization Research Center, former President of School of Archeology and Museology, who climbed to the top of the Fu Mountain and said with a tinge of emotion “It is rare to discover so many historical and cultural remains in Fu Mountain and they are worthy of protecting.”

Pre-Painted Pottery Culture, Painted Pottery Culture, Black Pottery Culture, and Xiajiadian culture were unearthed not far from Fu Mountain. And Painted Pottery Culture ancient ruins are found at the Wencun site, Jinjiafen site, Fangling site, Beiheshouying site, and late Painted Pottery Culture site (the Xueshan First Stage) in the Puhe area or altogether more than 46 sites. They existed approximately in the same era as the Yellow Emperor’s, with a history of 5,000 years.

 

In Hebei Province, only on Fu Mountain in Xushui, or in the north of Mancheng, did people discover Han dynasty pictures and stone inscription.  These can also be found elsewhere in Henan province, Shandong province, the north of Jiangsu province and the north of Shaanxi province. Han dynasty tombs and burial stones engraved with pictures unearthed in Fu Mountain and areas around it were of large quantity, high quality and rich contents.  So we can see the prosperity of Fu Mountain in the Han Dynasty.  And it is easy for us to arrive at the conclusion that there were many residents who lived around Fu Mountain which was named when Sima Qian wrote the Shiji two thousand years ago.

From September to October in 2008, when the archeological team from Hebei Research Center of Cultural Relics excavated the groundwork of a temple, they found an incomplete stone tablet in riprap, deeper than a meter beneath the ground. The characters on the stele could still be read “The Yellow Emperor Unified totem here … the dragon is prominent…”

According to the textual research, Long, which means dragon, was a big family name in the Fu Mountain area.  During the Qing Dynasty, in the 13th year of Emperor Qianlong, the expenses needed to build the temple were collected from some rich families whose surname was Long. Twenty years ago, a Han dynasty stone door for a tomb engraved with a dragon was unearthed in Wangkan village, near Fu Mountain. The stele and stone door for tombs engraved with the dragon provided the research on dragon culture with text and definite objects.


   


Jomon Pottery



   








Folk Legends



The fairy tales and folklores about the Yellow Emperor in Fu Mountain and the places around the mountain are the rich cultural heritage and essence of Chinese history of 5,000 years ago. Like places named around Fu Mountain mentioned above, these ancient myths, to some extent, reflect the shadow which is cast by history.

Various myths and legends have been a controversial topic in academic research all the time.  As a matter of fact, like other peoples in the world, Chinese civilization has its own fairy tale and legends at the beginning.  Because at that time, there were no characters to record and the best way to hand down civilization from generation to generation was speaking and listening. There are many fairy tales and folklores about the Yellow Emperor that spread among people on Fu Mountain and areas near it.  For instance, the fight between the Yellow Emperor and Yandi at Banquan, the legend of drawing dragon and unifying totem on Fu Mountain, the banquet for vassals at the origin of Fu Mountain, a lady from Xiling who was good at weaving silk, the show of dragon lanterns on the eve of the Spring Festival, and so on. These myths are included in The Spectacular Scenic Spots in Xushui and the Records of Anecdotes about Fu Mountain and its surrounding areas.  These records which were compiled respectively by Jinfengyun  the former Vice-Chairman of the People's Political Consultative Committee of Xushui, and Yangzhonglin, a knowledgeable person, from Dawangdian, Xushui County.

There is much strong, evidence that has been unearthed to verify the legend of drawing dragon and unifying totem. It was said that when ancient ancestors from many tribes gathered to form alliances,they cut one part of their totems with typical characteristic to form a new one as a united totem which marked that there would be no war from then on. So everyone drew a stroke; consequently, a nondescript animal was created. Anyhow, what kind of name should it have?

Production and daily life endowed the ancient ancestors with almost infinite wisdom. All tribes living in the Yellow Emperor era were facing a new turning point from nomadic to an agriculture civilization. At that time, our ancient ancestors made cages with bamboo strips or flexible materials. These cages were used to lock in birds or other prey. Legend has it that after the creation of the nondescript animal, people had a swift imagination that since this special thing could bring all the totems together, let us call it “Longzi”(cage) which developed into “Long”(dragon). In the long period of history, the owner of Fu Mountain was always a family surnamed Long, which was a big family name. Until now, there are many people surnamed ’Long’ in several villages at the foot of the Fu Mountain. In 1978 and 1981, some stone reliefs engraved with the image of a dragon in the Han Dynasty were successively unearthed from tombs in the South Fu Mountain. The dragon had a long mouth and sharp teeth, beard in rhynchodaeum , horns on its head, crooked neck and beast body, an upturned tail and a pair of special wings on its back.

In 2008, an archaeological team dispatched by Hebei Research Center of Cultural Relics found an incomplete stone tablet carved with this statement “The Yellow Emperor unified totem here ….dragon is prominent...”In an historical aspect, it was not until late in the Shang dynasty, about a thousand years after the action of drawing dragon and unifying totem, that eight hundred vassals revolted in Mengjin, Henan Province. There had been no big war before.  Ancient ancestors of all tribes raised the political wisdom to a kind of cultural spirit, and universal value through drawing dragon and unifying totem. From then on, the Chinese nation had a uniform totem of “Long” which started a new journey to civilization. China was called “Dragon of the Orient” and Children of China were called “Descendants of the Yellow” or “the Descendants of the Dragon”.  In addition, there are many folk activities which are preserved in Fu Mountain village of sacrificing the Yellow Emperor on March 1st.  The Yellow Emperor temple fair which is held annually on 1st of March on Fu Mountain is a good example.


Unifying Totem on Fu Mountain


                            


Unifying Totem on Fu Mountain, one of the eight Scenic Spots in Ansu County (the ancient name of Xushui County) recorded in County Annals of Ansu in the Qing Dyansty








 

The four villages of Dongfushan, Beifushan, Nanfushan and Xifushan are located near Fushan.