D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

Fushan 1

                              





      

                                            

                                


                   河北徐水釜山是真正的黄帝合符之所吗?










http://www.panoramio.com/photo/42715160  by botao_vip

39° 6' 55.72" N  115° 25' 28.85" E 

This photo is selected for Google Earth - ID: 42715160

'徐水 釜山 锅顶山)







October 19, 2011

 

 

                                             

                                                      Chinese Alligator by H.E. Rohde

                                                  

                                                        Chinese Alligator


The author has now viewed a full version of photo ID 42715160 selected for Google Earth and taken by bao_tai vip. This is a high quality color version of Fu Shan. In this photo the middle animal is more clearly outlined. It appears more like an alligator. The size seems to be in proportion to the monkey on the left and fish on the right. The eyes of the three animals are in line. The base line of the three animals is roughly horizontal.

It may be that the bulging eyes are those of an alligator rather than a tortoise; although both animals are reptiles. The body would extend from the head with both the left and right side defined. If this animal is an alligator then this is rather surprising since alligators are not seen today in Hebei. However, they were present thousands of years ago in the swamps and near the old course of the river.

Before the East Han Dynasty the Yellow River flowed near  Busan, Xushui, Hebei Province. At this geographically significant location it changed direction 90 degrees from the north to the east. If one poetically imagines that the Yellow River is a dragon then this might mark the beginning of the head of the dragon. It continued its flow to Tianjin and the Bohai Sea. See the map below where an arrow marks the bend in the river.


东汉以前的黄河故道显示,黄河曾在徐水釜山脚下折了个近乎九十度的弯,掉头东去,从天津的北边进入渤海                               

The inclusion of an embedded image of an alligator in the face image may be of importance. The face image would now incorporate entire images of an alligator and fish. It is generally believed that the alligator (crocodile), fish and snake were prototypes of the dragon. 

 

D. Carlton Rossi



                            

Course change of Yellow River from Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) to Eastern Han Dynasty "Dong Han" (25-220 BCE)


The Yellow River flowed through the Hebei Plains and emptied into the Bohai Sea during most of Neolithic history based on studies of pollen, village sites and ancient texts. However, it changed course due to the influence of East Asian monsoons and also sediment build-up in the river because of agriculture. During the period from 3650-3000 B.C. it flowed into the Jiangsu Plains and discharged into the Yellow Sea. Significantly though it changed course again around 2900-2200 B.C. when it reverted back to the Hebei Plain. (Wang Qing 1993a, 1999b)


The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States

Li Liu, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 2004, p.29-30

The Cambridge History of Ancient China

Michael Loewe & Edward L. Shaughnessy, 1999, p. 30-31


Zhang Chi, The Discovery of Early Pottery in China



  


                      


Course changes of the Yellow River from 2278 B.C.E. to 2001 A.D.

http://www.paulnoll.com/China/History/history-Yellow-River.html







October 22, 2011









This picture was modified through Corel Paint Shop Pro X4
The following steps were taken:  Adjust-Sharpness-High Pass Sharpen-Hard Light-Increase Radius 100



 








                                                        


                               International Zhuangzi Conference
                          Tiananmen Square, Beijing



              Poet is located in top row in middle with blue shirt






                                                     October 27, 2011






                                           

                                                      Crocodylus_porosus


                                       The Jiaolong


Edward Schafer describes the Jiaolong as spiritually akin to the crocodile.  It was most often regarded as a dragon, but sometimes it was man-like or like a fish. They were interchangeable.

"The etymology of the word jiao is obscure.  It may have derived from the word kog which has more meanings than any other draconym according to Carr.  The seven meanings are "1. aquatic dragon 2. crocodile; alligator 3 hornless dragon 4. dragoness 5. scaled dragon 6 shark and 7. mermaid."

“The "Dragons and Snakes" section of the (1578 CE) Bencao Gangmu which is a comprehensive Chinese materia medica, differentiates (tr. Read 1934:314-318) between jiaolong 蛟龍 Saltwater Crocodile, "Crocodylus porosus" and tolong 鼉龍 "Chinese alligator "Alligator sinensis".  Most early references describe the jiaolong as living in rivers, which fits not only this freshwater "Chinese alligator" but also the "Saltwater crocodile" that spends the tropical wet season in freshwater rivers and swamps.  Comparing maximum lengths of 6 and 1.5 meters for this crocodile and alligator respectively, "Saltwater crocodile" seems more consistent with descriptions of jiao reaching lengths of several zhang "approximately 3.3 meters".  In the dry season they move downstream with the tide to estuaries.  

Prof. David Chuenyan Lai of the University of Victoria wrote an article called The Dragon in China which relates the dragon and crocodile. He says that in the North of China about 4000 years ago reptiles called Crocodilius Porosus lived in the swamps and river deltas on the eastern coast of China. Later, in the Shang Dynasty, a musical instrument was found with an engraving of a dragon. This image of the dragon led to the belief that the dragon originated from the crocodile. The Chinese crocodile became extinct around the 12th century A.D. with the drainage of swampy coastal plains and deltas.

            

Edward Schafer describes the Jiaolong as spiritually akin to the crocodile.  It was most often regarded as a dragon, but sometimes it was man-like or like a fish.  They were interchangeable.

"The etymology of the word jiao is obscure.  It may have derived from the word kog which has more meanings than any other draconym according to Carr.  The seven meanings are "1. aquatic dragon 2. crocodile; alligator 3 hornless dragon 4. dragoness 5. scaled dragon 6 shark and 7. mermaid."


                              



D. Carlton Rossi

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiaolong

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saltwater_crocodile

http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=187





 

                                          

                                                         

                                                           魚之


                           The fish image sees me as I seize it. 

                       It leaps free to break bonds that hold.

                       A bold bound upward does unfold.

                       Gold drops fall off of scales sunlit.   

 

                           D. Carlton Rossi





                                             
November 9, 2011





      

                                               


                                    
Wild and Common Carp


A fish image appears on the face of the mountain. It may be the image of a common carp. Probably it would be a wild carp as they were domesticated about 200 B.C. It peers through small eye which sees at an angle and upwards. The lower lip protrudes. Its dorsal fin is well defined. A caudal or tail fin may also be faintly perceptible .

While the colour eyesight and visual displays of the common carp is important in clear waters, other senses take over in muddy waters. They have acute senses of hearing, taste and smell.  In terms of hearing they have three different methods. These include inner ear, lateral line sensor and Weberian apparatus.

The gold-olive colour dorsal fin extends well along the back. The dorsal fin has a sharp spine of 17 to 22 branched rays. On the front edge is a hardened tooth ray. The outline of the dorsal fin is concave anteriorly.

Mature female carp are easy to spot because the stomachs are mostly plump.  Ovaries are larger than the testes of males. The male carp tends to be sleek and torpedo shape.

Cyprinidae are actually the largest family of fresh water fish. In China, there are roughly 210 genera that have been reported. There are also 532 living species of cyprinids found throughout China. According to Sifa Li of Shanghai Fisheries University, Cyprinidae compose about 55.6% of the Yellow River fish.  

China was among the first countries to domesticate carp. These carp have a fast growth rate. They are also characterized by a relatively short and deep body. The body has a high back.  Note, unlike the cultivated carp, the wild carp lacks the distinctive hump behind the head.

The wild ancestor of modern carp (Cyprinus carpio) originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages. They then dispersed into Siberia and China.  Finally, they spread over the Asian continent some 20,000 to 9,000 years ago.

Carp fossils were found  in South Western Guangxi Province. They are about 20,000 years old. All told there are 28 genera and 34 species of fossil cyprinids that have been identified from Tertiary sediments in China.

There were two main predators of the wild carp in the Yellow River of ancient times. First, there was the Chinese paddlefish (Polyodon gladius) found in the Yellow River and Yellow Sea. They reached a standard length of 7 meters.  However, they can reach up to 9 meters in length.  It can no longer be found in the Yellow River and it is on the verge of extinction in the Yangstze River. Then there was the Chinese alligator or crocodile. The crocodile has been extinct in China for centuries.



 

http://nsgd.gso.uri.edu/hawau/hawauw93001/hawauw93001chap5.pdf


http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Cyprinus_carpio/en
                                                     




November 10, 2011



                                                         


                                 Common Carp and Salinity

 

The Common Carp can live in heavily silted water or clean streams. When these carp live in rivers they are in the slow flow sections.  For example, the section of river after a bend might be suitable fit.  If rains have swelled the river they may move into flooded fields to deposit eggs on submerged plants.  Cyprinids—including the Common Carp are fresh water fish.

The Common Carp can tolerate salinity up to about 5%.  Common Carp have been reported in brackish marshes with salinities up to 14 ppm in southern France (Crivelli 1981). However, the Common Carp species is rarely found in brackish waters because high salinities cause excretory problems and may interfere with water balance. (Panek 1987).  “Asian strains start to spawn when the ion concentration of the water decreases abruptly at the beginning of the rainy season”. Common carp will move from brackish waters to fresh water when they spawn.

Whiterod and Walker has completed a study on the effect of salinization in the Murry-Darling  Basin of Australia.  It is titled  Will rising salinity in the Murray–Darling Basin affect common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)?  In particular they studied the effects of high salt levels on the alien species of Common Carp which is the most common fish in the river system. 

 Carp are moderately tolerant of salinity (direct transfer LC50: 11 715 mg L–1), particularly after slow acclimation (LC50: 13 070 mg L–1), but sub-lethal effects are evident at lower salinities. These include effects on osmoregulation (>7500 mg L–1), behaviour (7500–12 500 mg L–1) and sperm motility in mature fish (150–300 mm) (8330 mg L–1). Salinities in some Murray–Darling Basin wetlands already approach half seawater (17 500 mg L–1) and carp populations in these important nursery areas could be impacted through sub-lethal effects on adults and lethal effects on juveniles, eggs and sperm.”

Tribolodon is a salt water Cyprinid genus that is found in the Yellow and Bohai Seas. The species T. brandtii is anadromous which means that it is fresh water born, resides in salt water and returns to fresh water to spawn. The species hakonensis is both anadromous and/or river resident.

D. Carlton Rossi

                             

http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Cyprinus_carpio/en


http://www.fish.state.pa.us/pafish/fishhtms/chap12minnows.htm




November 18, 2011


                                       Embedded Images

                                  
                                


   
The scope of this report will deal mainly with embedding of images on Banpo pottery (4800 BCE to 4200 BCE) of the Yangshao culture. An embedded image is a part of an integral whole. The images have a dual character and also a transformational aspect. The topic of embedding seems pertinent to the images that may be perceptible on Fu Shan. In particular, these fish-face images 人面 on the pottery may somewhat relate in a general sense to the image of the fish which overlaps half of the face image on Fu Shan. In other words, they may be prototypes of the images of Fu Shan. Kindly keep in mind that the author is in a different time and place and that he lacks expertise in the area of archeology. The author provides merely guesses and impressions. He is often humbled by his lack of knowledge and awed by the strength of the human spirit when confronted with the fragility and frailty of life.

There can be seen a fish-face or 人面 “renminyu” on the inside of what may be a lid. It may be that this was used to seal a funeral urn of a child’s remains. The inside rim of the lid has arrows and lines that may represent directions. The face of the fish is round. It has slit eyes, small nose and mouth. There appear to be two small fish to left and right of the face. The small fish on the right appears to have a pair of barbels or touch sensors. The face is resting on an oblong shape with ray-like sticks. Each stick is the equivalent of a human hair or a fish scale. The shape may represent the pectoral fin of a fish like a carp. There is a triangular shaped symbol above the face which may represent the dorsal fin of a fish. Underneath this face-fish there are two larger scaled fish to the left and right.

The face-fish image has a dual character. It is both human-like and fish-like. It may be a human face imposed on a fish or fish features connected to a human face.



                                    

 

In the second picture there are two fish and two nets that are prominent. The fish on the left has two bent sticks sticking out of the side of its head. The dorsal fin also appears at the top. However, it may be that this drawing can also be viewed upside down. Upright it appears sad and upside down it appears happy. It may be that it stands for a live and dead fish. A live fish is upright, but a dead fish is upside down.

The two nets indicate that they are used by two fishermen. There are triangular shapes at each corner of the nets which may be stone weights which symbolize the basic shape of fish and/or the upper and lower lip of a face. Note that on the human-fish face these triangular shapes appear together and touch at the apex of the triangles. If these are the lips of the face or perhaps larger fish then they would consume whatever fish were caught in the nets. Two corners of each net is grabbed by each hand to catch the fish. Since the nets are weighted then they would most likely be dropped or thrown.



                                              

 

The third picture of Banpo pottery appears to be an urn--perhaps for the burial of an infant. The mouth of the fish-face is composed of triangle upon triangle which may represent fish on fish. What was described earlier as resembling a pectoral fin also resembles a mouth. So the small mouth is within the big mouth which resembles in shape the mouth of the urn itself.

The two bent sticks coming out of the side of the head have small fish attached. The bent sticks might represent fish lines with hooked fish. Alternatively, they may represent stylized ears. The dark and light patterns on the two fish are also repeated on the face-fish. 

Further signs of embedding may be evident on the face of the urn. The two fish symbols may represent eyes of a large fish-face. Of course, the two fish have eyes themselves. The dark triangular shapes on the forehead of the smaller fish-face might become the nostrils of the large fish-face. The mouth of the large fish-face is the long horizontal oblong shape.

One may hazard a guess as to what the sculptured shapes represent at the top of the forehead. Perhaps they represent the pharyngeal pointed teeth of a grass carp. They may be intended to dispel evil spirits. Functionally they may have been used to secure the lid with rope. Wouldn’t the pattern of the rope then resemble a square or round fish net depending on how it was tied? The wavy lines above the shapes may represent hair of a person or waves of water.


                       


This piece of Banpo pottery is boat shaped to carry water. Perhaps the shape of the boat was inspired by a fish. A rope might be threaded through the eyelets to raise and lower the vessel into the water. These eyelets could be construed to resemble the eyes of a fish. The gaping mouth of the fish is represented by a fish net with sharp teeth at either side. It would be a case of a big fish catching smaller fish or a fisherman catching fish. The black teeth might also resemble smaller fish particularly when combined with the lighter triangles on the net.



D. Carlton Rossi



                         









                                   
          










                                           









                                                         

  
                                                          




   
Fushan 2