D. Carlton Rossi

Poetic Analytic Imagery

 

Poetic Analytic Imagery




                                    







It may be best to begin with a general approach to understanding the poem through the geometry of the rectangle. A basic question needs to be answered.  Where do the rectangles start? It is possible to start the rectangles with either line 1 or 2. If the first rectangle starts at line 1 then the pair of lines within it is line 1 and 2. This possibility though emphasizes a rectangle over an isosceles triangle. The isosceles is preferred because it symbolizes the ideas of beauty and truth to the poet, but also because it is an idea of the ideal. As an isosceles, it is a special case since it is an equilateral triangle. 

The first rectangle might start at line 2. In this case, the first  might be considered within its own smaller isosceles triangle. The poet prefers, however, to perceive a set of three 山 related to each other in a larger three-sided isosceles—particularly because each  character has three pointing lines. These three 山 then foreshadow the sequence of the first three of line 12. Also, if the first rectangle begins at line 2 then it would establish a pattern of pairs of lines with equal number of .



                                 

                           Lines 4 and 5 with same number of
                                               on both lines
.




                                                                     

                         This yin-yang version distorts shapes


The pair of lines would involve the following: lines 2 and 3 of two ; lines 4 and five of three ; lines six and seven of four ; lines eight and nine of five ; and finally lines 10 and 11 of six . The sequence is logical until it reaches the final line of 12 which would not be part of a pair. Therefore, special treatment would have to be given it.

By an heuristic process, it is revealed where the rectangles start. It is at line 3 and 4. This means that there is an unequal number of 山 between the first and second line of every rectangle. The second line always has one more . It is also true that as one reads downword  that each second line is smaller in size than the first line of its rectangle.

As one reads downword, both the yin and yang  are more numerous in number and decrease in size. One reads from the numinous to the numerous. However, the journey to climb the mountain is different.  Basically, one treads upward meeting less numerous which increase in size. The upward journey is from the numerous to the numinous.




               

                                  Classification of Rectangles 


The rectangles are now classified in terms of similar and opposite characteristics. The first rectangle of lines 3 and 4 has vertical pairs of approximate opposites (differ in size).This means two things: 山 point in opposite directions and that line two has an extra  that has characteristics of an approximate opposite. The second rectangle is comprised of lines 5 and 6 which have near similarities (differ in size). This means that the 山 of lines 3 and 4 are similar in direction.



        
               


The third rectangle of lines 7 and 8 has mixed, vertical pairs of approximate opposites and near similarities. It is unquestionably the most difficult to understand. They begin with approximate opposites and then alternate to similar. This pattern continues. The last   in the second line has characteristics of a vertical pair of approximate opposites. It intrinsically links with the third yang character in the first line which links directly with the up ying   below it. This makes the third rectangle in the middle of the poem a transitional one.The fourth rectangle of lines 9 and 10 expresses near similarities. Finally, the fifth rectangle shows approximate opposites. In summary, patterns of similarity and opposition in the rectangles show a logical development.

The main problem that one discovers involves the last character of every second line. It is basically an added character. In almost every case, it involves an up point . In the rectangles, it matches a diagonal counterpart in the yang character which is added to the right (based on the type of rectangle it is). It is also evident that there is a similar match in the isosceles. 

The exception is in the fourth rectangle where a left-point 山 at the end of the second line matches its right-point counterpart. This is despite the fact that the rectangle is characterized by similarity. It seems therefore that the left-point shan and the entire rectangle serve another purpose.

Let's assume that the poet wished to readjust the height of the rectangle to make the whole poem aesthetically and geometrically more precisely beautiful. Let’s begin with the isosceles. Assume that the width at the base is 4 cm. Its height is 3.5 cm. Therefore, a height for the rectangle might be 3.5 cm which matches the height of the isosceles. This may offer more pleasure-measure. 

There is a second way though to readjust the height of the rectangle. Find the mid-point of the height of the isosceles. Use this point to mark a horizontal line. This line becomes the top of a rectangle. This is the preferred method because it implies that the five rectangles are generated from a rectangle within the isosceles. This is a beautifully, balanced and geometric solution.

The numinous though on the poet’s journey does not represent perfection. Perfection is a masculine concept which cannot be achieved in an all too human lifetime. For example, if one calls to mind the bronze statue called the Discobolus of Myron, one sees perfection, but without emotion. At best, the poet might strive for the least imperfections. If the poet reached the mountain tops in his tread upward in poem Poetic Analytic Imagery then would that represent the achievement of perfection? Hardly, he may change his poem later. If he reached the top of the Himalayas then would that represent a perfect accomplishment? Not at all because the Himalayas rise approximately 6.1 cm a year so he would always have to go higher. Rather, the goal is one of completion according to Jung. Completion represents the unity of opposites. 1. 

The poet will describe shortly his tread upward in brief terms. He has provided a map of the journey below to help facilitate the matter. It is a journey from the numerous to the numinous. It is realized that if one were another trekker then one would make different choices. One may define the numerous and numinous differently or not at all. Who can say what route one might take and why one makes choices when one reaches where the road forks?  Who can say now who will be one’s guide at that time? Let one choose the best one for him or her.

The poet does not tread alone. His guide is Carl Gustave Jung who was co-founder of depth psychology and who is a New Age psychologist through The Red Book. Dr. Jung explored multiple areas such as archetype, individuation, collective unconscious, spirituality and synchronicity which have helped bridge East and West. It must be said though that Dr Frye may say here that Jung employs “deterministic fallacy”.



                         

                                           Upward Tread


                       Tread Upward or Upward Tread Journey

The poet begins with the first 山 of line 12 in the last rectangle which is characterized in terms of approximate opposites. At the beginning, he avoids climbing upward to another opposite because that would put him in the realm of the yin triangle which will lead to a fall.  He continues in the right direction to either the sixth or seventh yin . If he chooses to proceed upwards from the sixth  then he will go to the opposite “yin”  above it in line 11 of the yang triangle. From here he may go left or right.

Lines 9 and 10 in the next rectangle are characterized by similar. Therefore, there appear to be four or more ways upward from line 10. The key is that one must trek up from a similar  to a similar .   Of course, the steepness of the climb and length of it varies. Notice though that the last down yin of line 9 is a dead end at least in terms of a perilous steep climb. One might retrace one’s steps or perhaps wander into the yin triangle where one falls. 

The journey upward continues in the middle, transitional rectangle which is a mix of approximate opposites and similarities. It begins with a vertical pair of approximate opposite  . When one arrives at the second symbol of line 8 (the left-point yin ) one cannot  go obliquely upward to the right-point yin  because it is an opposite.  However, one can to the right until one arrives at a right-point yin 山 which can be paired with a similar right-point yin above it. However, if one continues to go on to the last symbol in line 8 (which is an approximate opposite)  then one has to backtrack as there is no opposite above it.

The second rectangle from the top which contains lines 5 and 6 is characterized as similar. One can go up from either the third and fourth yinat the end of line 6. If one chooses the third yin then one can actually zig-zag one’s way to the isosceles. However, if one goes to the up yin 山 at the end of line six then one must climb steeply up to the similar third at the end of line 4 which is another up yin . A steep climb may involve a fall if one is not careful.

The first rectangle is composed of lines 3 and 4. It is characterized as approximate opposite. Examine one symbol at a time in line 4. The first symbol of line 4 is an up yin . One could proceed to the down yang  above it, but this would entail a fall since it is in a yin triangle. What the fall would be is uncertain. It could be a steep fall to a yin triangle below. However, this kind of fall might cascade to the bottom. The last rectangle seems to set the example as it suggests that any fall would be from a yang character to a yin character.

The fall might be either directly downward to its opposite yin counterpart or diagonally to the third character of line 4 which is an up yin . It may depend on the cause of the fall in terms of its severity.

Of course, one can avoid a fall altogether by proceeding upward from the second character on line 4 to the second character on line 3. These characters are yin opposites. The same method is used to go higher       to line 2.

With respect to the third symbol on line 4 there is a problem to continue upward. The reason is that there is no down yin 山 within the isosceles. Therefore, one must backtrack to the second symbol in the line. Of course, there is another kind of possibility that has not yet been discussed. One could try to climb down to an opposite yin  character on line 10, but that is a big reversal.

The end of the journey is at hand from line 3 which has approximate opposites. One proceeds upwards from a right-point yin to its opposite counterpart or right-point yin in line 2. Then one goes right to the          up yin . Finally, one reaches the highest up yin .  

The poet purposely omits a description of a full read downword. He has undertaken it successfully. If a reader wishes to finish his or her own read then it must be discovered by that individual.  

What if the ratio of yin to yang   in line 1 of each rectangle is considered? It begins with a 1:1 ration of same size . The complete set of ratios is 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1. This indicates quantitatively that the yang  山 in this restrictive sense are more numerous that the yin . It must be remembered though that there is always a yin 山 at the end of every first line (which seems to keep the yang in check balance). Also, there is always a second yin line below it which increases, too, and provides a kind of counterbalance. 

Earlier, it was mentioned that a 3:1 pattern was established regarding three characters in the isosceles and one in the yin triangle. It can be said that this pattern is mirrored. Line four consists of smaller but similar three characters which can be related to the same down yang . In other words, three large characters in the isosceles relate in the same order and way to the down yang as do the three smaller characters of line 4. This complementarity is quite exquisite in its beauty and balance. Similar mirroring follows in other rectangles.

In addition, the presence of other reverse patterns is observable through active imagination. For example, it could be as easily construed to be a pattern of one to three or one large false to three smaller true.  Furthermore, one cannot rule out a relationship of one large down yang to two smaller up yin . Both patterns continue throughout the poem. Obviously, these two patterns potentially may imply other meanings and have different implications in terms of both poetry and analysis.

It seems appropriate to touch on the original examination of the wall eye chart. The poet was overseeing an examination of Chinese students at the time. He had found that the eyesight of some Chinese students was particularly acute with respect to the paper of the student next to them at the same desk—especially if they were also roommates. He therefore designed the test so that the questions were all jumbled up. This ensured that there was no unfairness in the exam, all students were treated equally and the exam measured what it was intended to test.

The poet then was free to keep one eye on the students and the other eye on the eye chart. From the one eye, he saw things logically to ensure that his exam was random in terms of the number order of questions. From the other eye, he saw things as if they were in a daydream through creative imagination. Logically speaking, he did not expect to find a pattern in an eye chart. It is practically a definition of an eye chart that the pattern must be random. Therefore, it was illogical for him to seek a pattern in the chart. It is like a teacher giving a multiple choice test of questions from A to D.  It would not be long before students discovered a tendency of the teacher to give preference to the answer C if the test were not random. In the case of an eye test, a non-random pattern would defeat its purpose, be unfair and lead to potentially serious consequences.

In the past, he excelled at digital logic and electronics. Currently, he has little interest in carefully examining the chart with respect to digital logic. The first character would represent the input. He is vaguely aware that the forty-eight characters used in the eye test suggest a 4 bit or 8 bit pattern. The program seems to be intended as an addition generator. In the fourth rectangle there seems to be a “mark” bit which signals that the countdown will soon end. 

It was argued previously that the set of five rectangles began at line 3. Further reasons for this conclusion can be anticipated with the completion of the third poem called Poetic Analytic Imagery. However, the obvious result is that there is an apparent inconsistency with an extra at the end of every second line of each rectangle. For example, in the first rectangle of “approximate opposites” there is an up yin at the end of the second line. It appears to have no opposite counterpart. Logically, it would be desirable to create a down yin above it. This would also create two lines with equal number of . However, this solution is unsatisfactory. 

First, it distorts the triangular relationship that might be imagined of the four yin characters in the yang triangle. Second, it would change the ratio of true to false from 4:2 to 5:2. Third, it is unclear whether the added character would be a down yin or a hybrid like a down yang . In either case, it would counter a string of vertical up yin on the right side which point to the isosceles.

The resolution of these problems does not reside in logic except to exclude. The resolution relies on the creative imagination of the poet which includes. The poet imagines that there is an intrinsic relationship between that last of line 4 and the first of line 3. They are “special” opposites in a rectangle of “approximate opposites”. The last character is an up yin within a yang triangle while the first character is a down yang within a yin triangle. The second reason which seems illogical is that the down yang is already paired with its opposite below it on the left-hand side. This double pairing means that there are two smaller opposing up yin to it. This has potential moral implications in terms of a truth table. 

A careful downword reading of characters and treading upward on mountain tracks over a long period of time should be made. This effort decreases the number of falls and repetitions. It also leads to greater success in reaching one’s objective. Hence, the title 山上山 in Chinese applies to two directions--downword on the fall and upward on the rise.

The title of the poem is pronounced in pinyin as Shānshàngshān.  It is translated as Mountain Over (Up) Mountain. However, the actual title of the poem runs vertically.  It can be “read” downword as one would read ancient Chinese and can be “tread” upward as might be undertaken by a modern poet as he treks up the mountain. The actual title of the poem is as follows.


                                               
                                            过
                                            山


                            


The 2015 poem called 山过山 provides the direction of Read and Tread for the 2016  flowchart poem called Poetic Analytics of Imagery. 




                                   
Read Downword   




















                                        Tread Upward
                           The poet begins at the bottom and goes upwards!


















   








                                                      
 Read Downward









                                                                   




 


 












                                                       Tread Upward

                                The Tread begins at the bottom!






















                                                  


                               A Canadian with American French fries of Chinese characteristics



      Poetic Analytics of Imagery through Streams of 
                    Consciousness and Unconsciousness



The idea for 山上山 (pronounced Shānshàngshān) originated from what appeared to be a typical eye chart. It was displayed on the wall of a university classroom. The poet invigilated an English exam for Chinese students who were studying a foreign language. While they were busy he decided to test himself as if he were a student by looking at the eye chart on the wall. However, he was not testing his English. He was looking for a pattern in the eye chart which seemed to be an improbable probability. It would allow him to know the last line without cheating through memorization. In fifteen minutes, he had passed the first part of the test.

The poet writes this paper for himself. For that reason he chooses not to use a conventional style of writing an English essay which would require a focus statement in the last sentence of the introductory paragraph. His understanding of the English essay was developed in his textbook called Scientific Writing which was used at the Graduate School. On the surface, this essay might resemble a Chinese style essay which concentrates on the final arguments. Overall, however, the essay develops a unique theme of literary criticism which the poet terms “poetic analytics of imagery through streams of consciousness and unconsciousness”.  

The fact that the poet could predict the last line of the eye chart meant that there was a pattern and it was not random. The implication of this observation is that it was scientifically useless as a method to test eyes. Theoretically speaking, one could predict the thirteenth line which isn’t even there. It is not the purpose of this analysis to speculate on the reasons why the original eye chart was created. The wall eye chart is becoming an anachronism. That issue won't be relevant once the wall chart is transformed by the poet.

To begin with, it teaches him that a shortcut is feasible, but shortsighted.  How does it help the individual to be able to cheat on the eye test in a less time consuming and easier way than memorization?  In fact, it may hurt the individual if it were applied in some contexts. 

It will be shown how it is easy to be able to predict the last line. However, it is not desirable. It could be done, but it should not be done. Eyesight may vary from individual to individual. There is no “one size fits all. Everyone cannot or should not pass the eye test or for that matter any other test. The eye test must correctly test eyes and there are eye charts and methods that will serve that purpose. In fact, in recent years science has developed a machine that automatically optically measures eyesight.  

It is clear the “E” eye chart must be transformed. This process begins by changing a uniform symbol which resembles an English letter into a Chinese character (word). These characters may be read down by the eyes. They are tread upward through the body of the climber. The rote pattern, too, must be viewed dynamically so that the poet may choose from a variety of patterns or see them simultaneously.  His creative imagination should allow him to draw from or be receptive to any number of sources for inspiration. He must be attune to the tone of the kung. The poet may seek a guide, but ultimately he journeys alone.  He seeks to complete himself by uniting with the fish-face archetype.

The standard eye chart is filled with many of the same symbols in different sizes which have directional orientations. They are easy to identify and describe. They appear to be versions of the uppercase letter “E” as in English.

However, this is not the case. They are scientifically designed symbols which are computer generated so that they can be readily distinguished at a distance by the eye. These symbols have three equal pointers. They are calibrated such that they may be differentiated from one another regardless of their size. The spacing between symbols is also measured exactly.

The “E” chart is used in China. It is also known as “a tumbling E chart. Rows of "E's" are used in various kinds of rotation. The Chinese have not had an eye chart in their native language. 

The poet was wondering if there was a better method to test his own eyesight while in China than by using an eye chart whose symbol resembled the English uppercase letter “E”. He would want an eye chart which would use a Chinese character. If he were Chinese then it would be more culturally acceptable to him to be tested with a familiar character. He went through a Chinese dictionary and examined all the single characters. He hoped to find one which would point.

The poet settled on the 山 character which differs considerably from an uppercase letter “E”. In a sense, it is the reverse. The middle line of the character points much better because it is longer. It literally points. However, the poet modified the character so that the two outside pointers were longer than those of the traditional character. Furthermore, the base line is more solid looking. It is - like, but not . It is therefore a unique symbol. It is his own.

 

                           


                                                  
                                                    上
                                                    山



The Chinese  (pronounced shan) can be expressed by holding up the three middle fingers of the hand. With respect to time of origin, the real fingers most assuredly came before the abstract characters and the mountain came before the fingers. If one wishes to know what came before the mountain then one will have to ask the mountain. In addition, if the poet were Chinese then he would appreciate that the Chinese symbol can convey the meaning of the whole chart which resembles a mountain or the three fingers of my Chinese hand.  

As a student, I was taught to simplify and go back to the basics. One must begin by reviewing what one knows and then proceed to the unknown. In terms of the eye chart on the wall the poet sees four ways for eyesight to be examined. There is the conventional, unconventional, mechanical and random.

The conventional way is to be asked to read left to right as in English. If one reads an English novel, for example, one begins at the left margin. This method is also employed by the examiner to test our eyes on an eye chart. There must be no predictable pattern.

The unconventional way for an English reader is to read from right to left. This method is employed in Arabic. It is not used in an eye chart anywhere except perhaps by an examiner who wishes in some instances to prevent memorization of the lines by those examined.

The mechanical or rote way of reading is back and forth. It seems to imply an almost continuous reading without pause. It would go from left to right, then drop down and then go from right to left. This method seems more attuned to a mechanical loom or printer which copies patterns. This non-random route is touted as rote-read.

The final method is random. This method is common as it resembles the process of scanning for what is important in speed reading. Single characters are picked out here and there. It curtails memorization. However, it has one weakness. One in four guesses will be correct.

The poet decided to develop his own eye chart. He returned to an early Chinese ideographic image which is still used today. He substituted his own modified symbol of the ideogram. The result was that in 2007, the poet and China had its first Chinese eye chart. It is read in a special way. The modified 山 character points to a greater degree than its scientific counterpart and is interpreted differently. It is imitated by the index finger which represents the longest line of the 山 character. When reading the written eye chart the poet uses his right-hand’s index finger to point up. The nail of the finger faces toward him. It points left by facing away from him (ie. the inside of the finger). In order to point down the left hand is used. It rotates toward him and the nail of the index finger faces towards him. When the left index finger points down then the inside of the finger is toward him. A kind of balance is achieved between hands and index fingers and the . One doesn’t, however, speak directions (except to oneself). Simply point. It should be noted though that in an historical context the mountain ideogram was associated with vocal speech along with the actual set of three mountains.

                          
                       
                      Total Lunar Eclipse.September 27-28 2015

On the eighth and final Total Lunar Eclipse of two sets of Tetrads on September 28, 2015 or the anniversary of Kongzi’s birth, the poet began to view his old poem differently. It seemed to vary before his very eyes. Images of Banpo pottery of Yangshao culture of 5700 to 6300 years ago of the Neolithic era appeared to him. There was that curious circular fish-face (renmianyu). The near circle seemed to be a precursor of the circular yin-yang symbol much later in time. The renmianyu also had horizontal lines for eyes. These were transformed into dots on the yin-yan symbol. In addition, its mouth seemed as a triangle pointing down at the peak of another triangle; or small mountain pointing downward to the peak of another small mountain; or as an “x”. Triangular black and white fins framed the face. On its head was a triangular crown.

It appeared appropriate to the poet in 2015 that the yin-yang symbol was metamorphosing with the help of the renmianyu to form an image composed of lines. Two fin triangles of the renmianyu were modified and changed into the black and white triangles of a rectangle replacing the circular yin-yan. One rectangle became five. The dot eyes of the two fish of the yin-yang were transferred and transformed by the catalytic properties of the renmianyu into characters of line 3 and then increased on a downword read and decreased on an upward tread. The mouth transformed into an imaginary “x” linking line 2 of the isosceles and line 3 and then another “x” below linking line three and line four. The crown triangle of the renmianyu became an isosceles at the top whose first character is a pointing upward. 

The poet hears himself questioning the probability of these changes -- nay, even their possibility. The transformation from fish-face to yin-yang symbol took thousands of years. Furthermore, thousands of years have passed and essentially the yin-yang symbol remains the same. Maybe, it is the right time and circumstances for change which could be sensed by a sensitive poet, artist, photographer or sculptor etc.


                          

                   Original Poem which transformed into Abraxas

The poet has only to look at his own poem informally called Abraxas. It took millions of years of evolution to go from the fish to the amphibian frog. It took millennia of evolution to develop the unpublished poem of the poet which would be the precursor to Abraxas. Notice, how this poem is composed entirely of straight lines while Abraxas has curved lines. Then, it took several months for it to undergo the transformation through a process of deconstruction, modification and reassembly to create the fish-frog, frog-fish image of Abraxas.


                                 


                                       


Abraxas may be the first image poem that has an image title of words as a poem. The poem of “imagined imaged” words in its title comes from the poem without words.


                 


                                               
                                                  过
                                                  山




The new poem of September 2015 was called  山过山. It was to be read and tread very differently and in many ways. It wasn’t one index finger on both hands pointing to the four directions. It was now three fingers on each hand pointing to the four directions. The three fingers represented the three mountains which were read about, written about and vocally spoken of through the .

The process marked the birth of a new poem from an old one eight years ago and the birth of a new Fu Shan from an old one 5000 years ago. It was 5000 years ago that a fish-face image may have been carved on the side of Fu Shan. Erosion though has taken its toll. This was the location where the various tribes had been united by Huangdi. It was natural therefore that a carved image might have united the fish and crocodile into a traditional fish-face. There may have been other images, too, such as the the monkey to the left of the fish-face.

However,Yangshao culture is known primarily around the Xian region. While this is factual; nevertheless, evidence of Yangshao culture has also been found in other regions including Hebei Province. This should not be surprising because the Yellow River has shifted in position over time due to erosion and has been near Fu Shan a number of times. Yangshao pottery was discovered just five kilometers east of Fu Shan at the Gold Jiafen site.  

The fish-face image was almost overlooked by him. He had downloaded many colored, amateur pictures of the mountain. There was one-last photo. It was black-white. He wasn’t looking for an old-fashioned black-white photo of many years ago, but there it was. In that photo, he had caught sight of the elusive fish-face. 

The poet was intrigued by the pattern of the wall chart. He wanted to explore it. His immediate goal was to be able to see with insight the twelfth line at a distance of 20 feet. It was to be done without his glasses which were necessary to compensate for his nearsightedness probably caused by too many books. The awareness of the image may be similar to what a master stone sculptor must experience. He realizes it is already in the stone and his art is to bring it out. The poet had to become aware of the arithmetic, geometric and philosophic pattern throughout “heart and thought chart” to bring them out so that they could be transformed. He uses a literary theme which he terms “poetic analytics of imagery through streams of consciousness and unconsciousness". 









This analysis is done by and for an idealist-realist poet. He needs to know when the poem is complete and the moment when he is complete. He is reminded of the existentialist quest of Captain Ahab in Moby Dick for the great white whale or fish. The whale is apart from him. Lost on his seaward sail or should one say “seeweed sail”, he is only partially complete with stump leg as he is lashed to the white whale. However, he has misread the archetype in the story of Jonah and the whale. He dies. However, Jonah was swallowed whole by the whale. He becomes the whale, undergoes a symbolic death and is spewed out in rebirth.

The poet is swallowed by 山过山 whose first rectangle is a fish-face wearing mountain crown. In the complete poem, two fish with scaled 山 characters face each other vertically to make a single fish. He reads downword and treads upward to undergo rebirth through the “x” symbol whose four triangles represent female fertility. They were also found at the four corners of the fish net painted on bowls of Yangshao culture.   The triangles represented a bountiful catch. He had caught the fish-face, but it had also caught him.


                                            魚之樂

                       The fish image sees me as I seize it.

                       It leaps free to break bonds that hold.

                       A bold bound upward does unfold.

                       Gold drops fall off of scales sunlit.

               
                        D. Carlton Rossi   copyright   2016


Traditional Chinese  魚之樂 = The Fish is Happy





                          


                      Renminyu painting on Banpo pottery bowl

                                     of Yangshao culture

For the poet, the poem is ultimately complete when he cyclically rejoins the renmianyu or fish-face. It is the archetype. The renmianyu is painted on the bowl of Banpo pottery fired in furnace. He becomes a potter and artist. The renmianyu is transformed into the yin-yang symbol which contains two fish resembling an Ouroboros. The symbol metamorphoses into various image poems of the Banpo poetry series. He becomes a Daoist. Then, the symbol is transformed into a stone carving of a fish-face on Fu Shan. He becomes a stone mason. The carving is transformed into a photograph of the mountain. It is revealed through an epiphany. He becomes a graphic designer. The enhanced photograph is analyzed and idealized thus transforming itself into 山过山 or an image poem with Chinese mountain characters. At the top is a fish-face. He becomes an idealistic-realistic poet of free-form through stream of consciousness and unconsciousness. The cycle is complete when his soul returns to the river bank to become broken shards of fired clay from which he came and the faded image of the renmianyu buried in the ground. He awaits the return of the Yellow River for rebirth. 

According to Plato, the Ouroboros has no need to see. The poet though recognized his first Ouroboros in a fourth year class of Northrop Frye at Victoria College of the University of Toronto. As a freshman, he had sneaked or snuck (if one uses the vulgar variant) into the amphitheater where Professor Frye was teaching. The Ouroboros was drawn on the board.

To provide a short background, Dr. Frye had written a landmark book called Fearful Symmetry in 1947 which formed the basis of the new discipline called Literary Criticism. He followed it up with Anatomy of Criticism in 1957. In a sense, he had done for literature what Aristotle had done for Poetics. Dr. Frye received international acclaim. At one point, he was the third most quoted person in the world.

Professor Frye asked the class about the role of the Ouroborus. There was complete silence. Everyone was in awe of him including myself. However, it was almost as if the question were directed to me because of his penetrating stare. He must have known I was a newcomer and shouldn’t have been there, but maybe he saw something else in this student with disruptive behaviour. To me, he was like the Sphinx asking his riddle of life and death.

The basic geometric pattern of the poem is as follows. There is an isosceles triangle of equal sides and angles at the top of the poem.       This imitates perfection. The isosceles triangle rests on a column of five rectangles. Each rectangle is divided diagonally from top-right hand corner to bottom left-hand corner by an imaginary line. Two equal sized triangles are created in each rectangle.There are also found four parallelograms. If the poem were to appear in more concrete form then it would transform into a 30 foot high Chinese obelisk with marble and granite facings displaying Chinese 山 characters carved into them.

The mathematics of the pattern is relatively simple. It begins with three characters in the isosceles. Then, within the first and second rectangles there are five and seven characters respectively. The entire pattern consists of an odd number of characters. They are 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. The total is 48.



                                   down yin triangle



                                 

                                            up yang triangle



                           Direction of the Yin and Yang Triangle

The poem can best be explained through an illustration of its components. It resembles a  eye chart created by the poet in 2007, except for four special features. First, it is divided into triangles which can combine into a rectangle with the exception of the isosceles. Second, yang triangles point upward on the right-hand side and contain yin characters. Yin triangles point downward on the left-hand side and contain yang characters. Third, yang characters are white on a black background and yin characters are black on a white background. Finally, each rectangle is imagined to be divided into two lines which relate to each other in terms of similarity or approximate opposite.




                             

The first three 山 of the poem are found within the isosceles. They convey two messages. If it is read down then one would go from the top 山 to the right-point 山 below on the left and then over to the on the right.     The message may be either “upright up” or perhaps “up right-up”. Either meaning  may help one to formulate line 12. Actually, those particular   appear in that exact order five more times in the poem, but in different ways. 

If understood from the bottom up it might be right-point in a right direction to up-point and then up to up-point. This might be construed as either “right-up up” or perhaps “right up up”. At any rate, it is obvious that whether one goes down the isosceles or up the isosceles that the actual course is not in the reverse direction.


                                            
                                 

  

When one is reading down the poem to discover the last line then one basically goes from left to right.

The three black yin characters are within a white isosceles pointing directly up.

The fourth 山 “below” is a white yang character pointing downward.

It is within a black yin triangle pointing downward on the left-hand side.

Three yin (above) plus one yang (below) gives a ratio of 3:1. 


 

*  is the Chinese character for mountain.  It is pronounced  shan. Of course, it also resembles a mountain. It can be symbolized with the three middle pointing fingers of the right hand on a raised arm.




                                  



The second triangle which points up on the right-hand side contains four yin . It is a yang triangle.

The third triangle is yin. It is located below. It points downward on the left-hand side and contains two yang .

Four yin 山 (above) plus two yang (below) gives ratio of  4:2

It also begins a series of four parallelograms.

 

The fourth triangle which is yang points up on the right-hand side and contains five yin .

A fifth triangle which is below (forming a parallelogram) is comprised of the first three yang of line 7 and it is pointing down on the left-hand side.

Those three of the yin triangle have yang characteristics.

Five yin 山 (above) plus three yang 山 (below) gives ratio of 5:3.

The full progressive list of ratios is as follows: 3:1, 4:2, 5:3, 6:4 and 7:5.



There are at least two interpretations to this progressive list of ratios which are not necessarily exclusive of one another and may be inclusive. First, the list may be viewed in terms of logic. For example, the first ratio could be seen as 1110 or on, on, on and off. Second, the 3: 1 ratio may be considered in terms of truth. For example, retain the true and refrain from the false. 



                                     


A series of four parallelograms has been mentioned. It may also be viewed as a single parallelogram. It is beyond the purview of this analysis to explain their purpose. However, it is rather noticeable what has been excluded from them. It is the first yin triangle and the last yang triangle. The two triangles contrast in another way. The yin triangle has the fewest number of characters; namely, only one. The yang triangle has the most characters at eight. Both triangles are within "approximate opposite rectangles". In the first rectangle, this means the down-point yang 山  is opposite to the up-point yin 山 below it, but not in terms of size. With regard to the last rectangle, the five yang  in the yin triangle are opposite to the yin characters in the yang triangle except in terms of size. They are therefore "approximate opposite". 


It should be noted that there is another discernible, directional pattern that may help identify a black yin triangle pointing downward on the left side and a white yang triangle pointing upward on the right side. The first character (on the left hand side) of the first line of every yin triangle, with the exception of only one, is a downward pointing yang character. There are four yin triangles within rectangles where this yang character points down at the beginning. In terms of the yang triangles, the last character on the right-hand side of every yang triangle (or the last character of the second line of every rectangle with the exception of only one) is an upward pointing yin character. There are four yang triangles where the yin characters point upward at the end of the second line. These down yang and up yin characters are actually at opposite corners of three of the rectangles which have all or partial “approximate opposite” characteristics.

There are a notable number of triangles and 山 in the poem. There are five yin triangles and five yang triangles. Their sides point down and up respectively. The exception is the yang isosceles which points directly up.

In terms of 山 characters, there are thirty-three yin 山 within five yang triangles and one isosceles. There are also fifteen yang 山 within five yin triangles. Numerically speaking, the yin symbols are more plentiful than the yang symbols in the triangles. However, the total number of possibilities up or down or moves for that matter has not been calculated. 

It is interpreted though that these characters are initially in equilibrium.  Later, they appear to attempt to re-establish this equilibrium on the downword read through the rectangles since the yang characters gain in number by one on the first line of every rectangle while the yin character remains at one. In the second line of the rectangles, the yin characters increase by one. In addition, both the first and second lines of each rectangle increase by one whereby the second line always has one more character than the first line. On one’s tread upwards, the  seem to try to return to equilibrium at the top.



                               
                                              

It should be said that the first line of the first rectangle contains both one yang and one yin character in balance. It may be that they are in balance because they are so close to the isosceles. Secondly, imagine that there is an “x” linkage between the two of line 2 in the isosceles and the two of line 3. You will notice that the lines of the “x” point to pairs of opposite.  Might the “x” symbol represent the balance at the center of the peaks of four abstract, simplified mountains whose bases are open from the cardinal directions?

The two of line 3 may correspond to the dots of a traditional yin-yang symbol. The characters contrast fully in terms of white and black and the white and black of the triangles they are within. However, they do not point in opposite directions. There seem to be at least two possible explanations of this phenomenon. There is a moral explanation where the yin character on the right might be interpreted to point to the yang character on the left. Indeed, it may be pointing out the wrong way to avoid. Left is wrong and right is right. The reverse might be found in the second line of the isosceles where a right-point yin points correctly to an up-point .

Second, there is the relationship issue of opposites in terms of direction. In the third line, the down-point yang is diagonally oriented to the smaller, opposite up-point yin which is third character in the fourth line. It is also diagonal to the larger, opposite up-point yin in the isosceles. In the same way, the left-point yin in the third line is diagonally oriented to the smaller, opposite right-point yin below it and also diagonal to the larger, opposite right-point yin above it.

Ultimately, zig-zag patterns result in these relationships. They are zig-zags that cross-over each other. Maybe, though, it is also one “x” above another “x”.

Furthermore, a connecting line might be drawn between the down yang of line 3 and the up yin  of line 4. This might mean there is a balance between the three smaller yang characters on line 4 and the three larger yang characters within the isosceles.

To avoid confusion and emphasize their importance, yin 山 pointing directly upward within yang triangles (or the isosceles) are termed        up yin 山 and underlined. They number thirteen in total. Yang 山 which point directly downward within a yin triangle are termed  down yang . It also is underlined. 


                            

One needs now to skip to the 12th or last line of the image poem where the 山 are quite small. It is depicted above. In order to construct the last line one must begin by utilizing only the three yin symbols from the yang isosceles. Ignore a down yang from below. Remember the 3:1 ratio.

Overall, the implication is that one doesn't necessarily have to see particularly well in order to know the start of the final line of this "eye chart". One does though need to see the characters of line 1 and 2. These are then applied to the first three characters of line 12.

Line 12 is completed by applying the four yin 山 from the yang triangle within the first rectangle. The next, two yang 山 are ignored if one applies the 4:2 ratio. The entire 12th line is unique in that it contains four up yin 山 which outnumber the three down yang in line 11.

Of course, it would have been much easier for the poet if he had been told to use the first eight characters and skip the fourth one which is associated in Chinese with death and also points down to the underworld so that he would know the last line. It sounds to the poet it must be me an open secret.







The poet now introduces two new terms to define how one goes down and up the poem. One reads downword. Generally, one reads downword in a zig-zag way. One then treads upward as if one were cautiously climbing a precipitous mountain.


                          

            2015 Poem called 山过山 in terms of Read Downword
                                      and Tread Upward 






                       
               
                 Read  Downword                           Tread Upward


                Illustrations for 2015 poem called 山过山 in terms of                                            Read Downword  and Tread Upward 

It may be appropriate here to discuss briefly whether or not a downword read and a tread upward are always the same.They may not be. For example, in a read downword from line 4 which is characterized as being in a rectangle of “approximate opposites” one may go from the right-point to the first character of line 6 which is a left-point  山 or its opposite. However, in reverse, on a tread upward, one goes right-point 山 on line 5 within a rectangle of similarities to another similar right-point 山 on line 4. (Similar and “approximate opposite” lines of rectangles will be defined shortly).  

While the first three 山 can be used to know the beginning of the last line; nevertheless, they can deceive one in terms of the downword read of the final poem. One reads downword  from the up yin on line 1 to the      up yin 山 on line 2. Then, one proceeds left to the first character on the second line which is a right-point yin . One then zig-zags downwords to a left-point yin  on the third line. 

The poem called 山过山 is polysemous in that it has many meanings. The poet primarily understands the poem in terms of archetype.The fish-face archetype transforms itself into a yin-yang symbol through its circular face, its fish properties and its opposites of black and white. Some psychic energy is transferred to the yin-yang symbol. This satisfies the conservation of energy law. The yin-yang symbol has itself become an archetype since it has psychic significance and universality to many individuals and particularly to the poet. In turn, the yin-yang symbol transforms its fish properties and its opposites of black and white to the   山过山 poem through transference of psychic energy. However, the lines and triangles of the original archetype are used to form lines, an isosceles, triangles, rectangles and parallelograms.

It seems that horizontal lines of the eyes of the renmianyu transform themselves into two characters. It might be construed that each “horizontal line eye” adds three lines to it so it can become a four line 山 eye ie. each 山 character has four lines or strokes. Some psychic energy of the archetype is involved in the transfer.

It seems that the psychic energy is sensed and transferred to a sensitive receptor. That may be any person who is sensitive enough to receive it and then to act upon it so the archetype is expressed in a creative way as a newer archetype. The psychic energy is finally channeled to the renewed archetype where it is stored.

What does the transference of psychic energy mean in the long term?  It would seem that eventually the psychic energy of the original archetype might be depleted or exhausted.  It may be that the archetype might disappear altogether. To the poet’s mind it might become like a sun that becomes a ghost-like, white dwarf spent of fuel. 

The archetype though is not just transforming or undergoing rebirth to another symbol or poem. It is transforming into symbols or poems that are archetypes so that it can remain relevant to the poet. Each archetype has the potential to become one or more archetypes. They may continue the cycle or, if they are irrelevant, they may either fade away or disappear. 

Jung regards archetypes as fixed and unchangeable. It appears though to the poet that Jung’s definition of archetypes has continually changed throughout his life from its first usage in 1919 to ten days before his death. If the definition has changed hasn’t the archetype changed? 

The poet prefers to view an archetype as changeable based on one' own subjective perspective at the time. For example, the poet viewed the fish-face image of the renmianyu which was painted on a clay bowl displayed on a museum shelf in Hong Kong. The poet regards the image as an archetype. It is appreciated by the poet for its anthropromorphic, geometric and zoomorphic properties. The poet can subjectively understand and relate to the simile of creation where one is formed from clay. 

However, something puzzles the poet. The archetype appeals to him in a unique, particular way. Yet, here it is in a Hong Kong museum far away in time and place from where it was found at Banpo village on tributaries of the Huánghé. It is understood by each visitor in a similar, but not in the same way. It is as if each head had a different idea of the ideal.

In regard to the poet, he sees it as a part of the whole. He may be fortunate enough though through transformation if he were to see another part at another time and place. Yet, however many parts he sees or experiences in his metamorphosis, there are potentially an infinite number in the whole. Therefore, his understanding of the ideal is incomplete.

He and  are similar, but not the same. He may identify with the
but they are not identical. The Hé is also known as the Huang Ho, Hwang Hao and Yellow River etc. 



                                           He and 

                        He and 河 were more similar
                       or less unlike in comparison.    

                       He identifies with 河 in part
                       but on whole they're not identical.

                       He here and 河 there will signify
                       he'll never ever be same with 河.

                       If single part cannot make whole  
                       then part and whole are part apart. 


D. Carlton Rossi  copyright  2016
 


If the poet is in a less serious mood than doom then the  version of the poem is more humorous in the Year of the Monkey.


At the end of his poem called Poetic Analytic Imagery, the archetype has changed. It becomes a whole set of three mountains and the open mouth of the renmianyu with a set of three teeth. The archetypes of the fish-face and mountains are within the poets' streams of consciousness and unconsciousness. 

The poet’s first tread upward of Fu Shan was done in 2003. Sun Dawu was my guide. He wore a peasant farmer’s straw hat. At the top,             the poet marveled how the Yellow Emperor Huangdi who invented agriculture, designed the lunar-solar calendar and founded the Chinese nation had stood here. It wasn’t until years later that the poet saw the image of the archetypal fish-face carved in the mountain as shown in the black-white photograph. Whose face is the fish-face? The poet considers it as a representation of the face of Huangdi or the first emperor of China about five millenia ago who united the tribes on Fu Shan. 

That fish-face is more than a stone carving. It is an archetype. It is confirmed by the black-white image taken by an amateur photographer.  It is also substantiated by other pictures taken and enhanced by the poet. This means that the poem called  山过山 may become in the future an archetype derived in part from the renmianyu, the yin-yang symbol and   Fu Shan’s stone carving.  



                            
                          
              Original Photo taken by Amateur Chinese Photographer


An amateur Chinese photographer thought that the black-white picture was of interest to him. However, it appears that he did not see any particular significance to it which set it apart from other photographs.   No one else either seemed to notice anything special about it.  

A similar thing can be said about Fu Shan. Thousands of Chinese villagers have seen the mountain for thousands of years. Most have climbed it. However, they did not see its full significance in terms of a stone carving on its face. In fact, in recent times, the mountain was being systematically destroyed as part of a mining operation for its slate. until Sun Dawu was appointed as its protector. 

The poet though was fishing, so to speak, for pictures of the mountain that he could download. He was on the verge of closing the program when he chanced upon the black-white photo. His initial assessment was that it held little interest to him. However, the foreign poet then saw something that piqued his curiosity. He recognized a pattern embedded in the image. This was probably because its black-white nature brought out contrast. Shortly, thereafter, he recognized the fish-face as a result of his interest in geometric and zoomorphic patterns of Banpo pottery. How many peasant villagers at Fu Shan had had any interest in Banpo pottery of the Xian region?

The poet tried to find the exact place from which the photo was taken. He wished to take photos from that location. If the photographer is too close to the mountain then the images do not become evident. He took several photographs in colour. They were digitally altered with a variety of techniques to bring out the images that were seen in the black and white photo. At least one monkey also appears on the far left-hand side.



                          

                                 Screen Shot from A Fistful of Dollars


The poet will briefly describe a scene in “A Fistful of Dollars” directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood as it pertains to archetypes.     It begins with the silhouette of a rider and horse which descend the mountain. They seem lost in the vastness of the landscape which is operatic in scope. Darkness buries detail. The viewer strains his eyes to see the image of death as it approaches. He is vaguely aware of a sense of impending doom. Death is the archetype symbolized by the rider with no name.

The symbol of death is reinforced by that which is barely visible and generally unnoticed by most viewers. In psychological terms it might be called a subliminal image. To the viewer’s right is a stone carving on the archetypal mountain. The carving dwarfs the subject. It is that of a tortured face leaning on a broncing, saddled horse with rider. There are two additional images in the scene; namely, a small horse and rider in the foreground and a large face on the left side. These connected symbols foreshadow dire, forthcoming events.

Is it surprising, therefore, that carved images on the face of Fu Shan may have gone unnoticed due to thousands of years of erosion? They also cannot be seen under most circumstances because they remain deeply buried within the unconscious. They might be perceived and verified, however, from a perspective of poetic analytics imagery. For more detailed analysis of the images on Fu Shan refer to articles written by the poet about seven years ago on his website.


                                                
 
This photo was taken by the poet and digitally enhanced in 3D 

The mask carving of Fu Shan which is proposed by the poet may be divided into two parts. On the poet’s right appears a fish that has carp features—with one important exception—the fish has visible teeth. On the left is a reptile that has crocodilian features known as the Jiaolong.

Edward Schafer describes the Jiaolong as spiritually akin to the crocodile.  It was most often regarded as a dragon, but sometimes it was man-like or like a fish. They were interchangeable. 


                            


Saltwater crocodiles can live in both fresh and salt water. They spend the tropical wet season in freshwater swamps and rivers. In the dry season they move downstream with the tide to estuaries.

Prof. David Chuenyan Lai of the University of Victoria wrote an article called The Dragon in China which relates the dragon and crocodile. He says that in the North of China about 4000 years ago reptiles called Wan E (Crocodilius Porosus) lived in the swamps and river deltas on the eastern coast of China.


                             

                                     High Pass Resolution

The depiction of a mask may be an important aspect of early Neolithic art as found on Seaman pottery. It is not uncommon to find a fish-face portrayed. This type of painting has both fish and human-like characteristics.

There is a fish-face (among other images) perceived to be embedded on Fu Shan. On the poet’s right, there might be a carving of a common carp with teeth. It may be either a real or an imaginary representation. It is assumed to be imaginary because fossil evidence is lacking. On the left, completing the fish-face is a crocodile which may have been the precursor to the dragon as an imaginary creature. 

The dragon symbol which snaked like the Yellow River nearby to Fu Shan was adopted by the Yellow Emperor Huangdi. He united the tribes as symbolized by the face of fish-crocodile which brought together two imaginary animals. It is derived from the archetype of the fish-face on Banpo pottery.

Remarkably, the fish-crocodile image is embedded within a three-quarter image of a human face. It must be the face of an extraordinary individual. It is a personification of the united tribes. It ushers in an age of peace and prosperity. 

It may be best to begin with a general approach to understanding the poem through the geometry of the rectangle. A basic question needs to be answered.  Where do the rectangles start? It is possible to start the rectangles with either line 1 or 2. If the first rectangle starts at line 1 then the pair of lines within it is line 1 and 2. This possibility though emphasizes a rectangle over an isosceles triangle. The isosceles is preferred because it symbolizes the ideas of beauty and truth to the poet, but also because it is an idea of the ideal. As an isosceles, it is a special case since it is an equilateral triangle. 

The first rectangle might start at line 2. In this case, the first  might be considered within its own smaller isosceles triangle. The poet prefers, however, to perceive a set of three 山 related to each other in a larger three-sided isosceles—particularly because each  character has three pointing lines. These three 山 then foreshadow the sequence of the first three of line 12. Also, if the first rectangle begins at line 2 then it would establish a pattern of pairs of lines with equal number of .



                                 

                           Lines 4 and 5 with same number of
                                               on both lines
.




                                                                     

                         This yin-yang version distorts shapes


The pair of lines would involve the following: lines 2 and 3 of two ; lines 4 and five of three ; lines six and seven of four ; lines eight and nine of five ; and finally lines 10 and 11 of six . The sequence is logical until it reaches the final line of 12 which would not be part of a pair. Therefore, special treatment would have to be given it.

By an heuristic process, it is revealed where the rectangles start. It is at line 3 and 4. This means that there is an unequal number of 山 between the first and second line of every rectangle. The second line always has one more . It is also true that as one reads downword  that each second line is smaller in size than the first line of its rectangle.

As one reads downword, both the yin and yang  are more numerous in number and decrease in size. One reads from the numinous to the numerous. However, the journey to climb the mountain is different.  Basically, one treads upward meeting less numerous which increase in size. The upward journey is from the numerous to the numinous.




               

                                  Classification of Rectangles 


The rectangles are now classified in terms of similar and opposite characteristics. The first rectangle of lines 3 and 4 has vertical pairs of approximate opposites (differ in size).This means two things: 山 point in opposite directions and that line two has an extra  that has characteristics of an approximate opposite. The second rectangle is comprised of lines 5 and 6 which have near similarities (differ in size). This means that the 山 of lines 3 and 4 are similar in direction.



        
               


The third rectangle of lines 7 and 8 has mixed, vertical pairs of approximate opposites and near similarities. It is unquestionably the most difficult to understand. They begin with approximate opposites and then alternate to similar. This pattern continues. The last   in the second line has characteristics of a vertical pair of approximate opposites. It intrinsically links with the third yang character in the first line which links directly with the up ying   below it. This makes the third rectangle in the middle of the poem a transitional one.The fourth rectangle of lines 9 and 10 expresses near similarities. Finally, the fifth rectangle shows approximate opposites. In summary, patterns of similarity and opposition in the rectangles show a logical development.

The main problem that one discovers involves the last character of every second line. It is basically an added character. In almost every case, it involves an up point . In the rectangles, it matches a diagonal counterpart in the yang character which is added to the right (based on the type of rectangle it is). It is also evident that there is a similar match in the isosceles. 

The exception is in the fourth rectangle where a left-point 山 at the end of the second line matches its right-point counterpart. This is despite the fact that the rectangle is characterized by similarity. It seems therefore that the left-point shan and the entire rectangle serve another purpose.

Let's assume that the poet wished to readjust the height of the rectangle to make the whole poem aesthetically and geometrically more precisely beautiful. Let’s begin with the isosceles. Assume that the width at the base is 4 cm. Its height is 3.5 cm. Therefore, a height for the rectangle might be 3.5 cm which matches the height of the isosceles. This may offer more pleasure-measure. 

There is a second way though to readjust the height of the rectangle. Find the mid-point of the height of the isosceles. Use this point to mark a horizontal line. This line becomes the top of a rectangle. This is the preferred method because it implies that the five rectangles are generated from a rectangle within the isosceles. This is a beautifully, balanced and geometric solution.

The numinous though on the poet’s journey does not represent perfection. Perfection is a masculine concept which cannot be achieved in an all too human lifetime. For example, if one calls to mind the bronze statue called the Discobolus of Myron, one sees perfection, but without emotion. At best, the poet might strive for the least imperfections. If the poet reached the mountain tops in his tread upward in poem Poetic Analytic Imagery then would that represent the achievement of perfection? Hardly, he may change his poem later. If he reached the top of the Himalayas then would that represent a perfect accomplishment? Not at all because the Himalayas rise approximately 6.1 cm a year so he would always have to go higher. Rather, the goal is one of completion according to Jung. Completion represents the unity of opposites. 1. 

The poet will describe shortly his tread upward in brief terms. He has provided a map of the journey below to help facilitate the matter. It is a journey from the numerous to the numinous. It is realized that if one were another trekker then one would make different choices. One may define the numerous and numinous differently or not at all. Who can say what route one might take and why one makes choices when one reaches where the road forks?  Who can say now who will be one’s guide at that time? Let one choose the best one for him or her.

The poet does not tread alone. His guide is Carl Gustave Jung who was co-founder of depth psychology and who is a New Age psychologist through The Red Book. Dr. Jung explored multiple areas such as archetype, individuation, collective unconscious, spirituality and synchronicity which have helped bridge East and West. It must be said though that Dr Frye may say here that Jung employs “deterministic fallacy”.



                         

                                           Upward Tread


                       Tread Upward or Upward Tread Journey

The poet begins with the first 山 of line 12 in the last rectangle which is characterized in terms of approximate opposites. At the beginning, he avoids climbing upward to another opposite because that would put him in the realm of the yin triangle which will lead to a fall.  He continues in the right direction to either the sixth or seventh yin . If he chooses to proceed upwards from the sixth  then he will go to the opposite “yin”  above it in line 11 of the yang triangle. From here he may go left or right.

Lines 9 and 10 in the next rectangle are characterized by similar. Therefore, there appear to be four or more ways upward from line 10. The key is that one must trek up from a similar  to a similar .   Of course, the steepness of the climb and length of it varies. Notice though that the last down yin of line 9 is a dead end at least in terms of a perilous steep climb. One might retrace one’s steps or perhaps wander into the yin triangle where one falls. 

The journey upward continues in the middle, transitional rectangle which is a mix of approximate opposites and similarities. It begins with a vertical pair of approximate opposite  . When one arrives at the second symbol of line 8 (the left-point yin ) one cannot  go obliquely upward to the right-point yin  because it is an opposite.  However, one can to the right until one arrives at a right-point yin 山 which can be paired with a similar right-point yin above it. However, if one continues to go on to the last symbol in line 8 (which is an approximate opposite)  then one has to backtrack as there is no opposite above it.

The second rectangle from the top which contains lines 5 and 6 is characterized as similar. One can go up from either the third and fourth yinat the end of line 6. If one chooses the third yin then one can actually zig-zag one’s way to the isosceles. However, if one goes to the up yin 山 at the end of line six then one must climb steeply up to the similar third at the end of line 4 which is another up yin . A steep climb may involve a fall if one is not careful.

The first rectangle is composed of lines 3 and 4. It is characterized as approximate opposite. Examine one symbol at a time in line 4. The first symbol of line 4 is an up yin . One could proceed to the down yang  above it, but this would entail a fall since it is in a yin triangle. What the fall would be is uncertain. It could be a steep fall to a yin triangle below. However, this kind of fall might cascade to the bottom. The last rectangle seems to set the example as it suggests that any fall would be from a yang character to a yin character.

The fall might be either directly downward to its opposite yin counterpart or diagonally to the third character of line 4 which is an up yin . It may depend on the cause of the fall in terms of its severity.

Of course, one can avoid a fall altogether by proceeding upward from the second character on line 4 to the second character on line 3. These characters are yin opposites. The same method is used to go higher       to line 2.

With respect to the third symbol on line 4 there is a problem to continue upward. The reason is that there is no down yin 山 within the isosceles. Therefore, one must backtrack to the second symbol in the line. Of course, there is another kind of possibility that has not yet been discussed. One could try to climb down to an opposite yin  character on line 10, but that is a big reversal.

The end of the journey is at hand from line 3 which has approximate opposites. One proceeds upwards from a right-point yin to its opposite counterpart or right-point yin in line 2. Then one goes right to the          up yin . Finally, one reaches the highest up yin .  

The poet purposely omits a description of a full read downword. He has undertaken it successfully. If a reader wishes to finish his or her own read then it must be discovered by that individual.  

What if the ratio of yin to yang   in line 1 of each rectangle is considered? It begins with a 1:1 ration of same size . The complete set of ratios is 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1. This indicates quantitatively that the yang  山 in this restrictive sense are more numerous that the yin . It must be remembered though that there is always a yin 山 at the end of every first line (which seems to keep the yang in check balance). Also, there is always a second yin line below it which increases, too, and provides a kind of counterbalance. 

Earlier, it was mentioned that a 3:1 pattern was established regarding three characters in the isosceles and one in the yin triangle. It can be said that this pattern is mirrored. Line four consists of smaller but similar three characters which can be related to the same down yang . In other words, three large characters in the isosceles relate in the same order and way to the down yang as do the three smaller characters of line 4. This complementarity is quite exquisite in its beauty and balance. Similar mirroring follows in other rectangles.

In addition, the presence of other reverse patterns is observable through active imagination. For example, it could be as easily construed to be a pattern of one to three or one large false to three smaller true.  Furthermore, one cannot rule out a relationship of one large down yang to two smaller up yin . Both patterns continue throughout the poem. Obviously, these two patterns potentially may imply other meanings and have different implications in terms of both poetry and analysis.

It seems appropriate to touch on the original examination of the wall eye chart. The poet was overseeing an examination of Chinese students at the time. He had found that the eyesight of some Chinese students was particularly acute with respect to the paper of the student next to them at the same desk—especially if they were also roommates. He therefore designed the test so that the questions were all jumbled up. This ensured that there was no unfairness in the exam, all students were treated equally and the exam measured what it was intended to test.

The poet then was free to keep one eye on the students and the other eye on the eye chart. From the one eye, he saw things logically to ensure that his exam was random in terms of the number order of questions. From the other eye, he saw things as if they were in a daydream through creative imagination. Logically speaking, he did not expect to find a pattern in an eye chart. It is practically a definition of an eye chart that the pattern must be random. Therefore, it was illogical for him to seek a pattern in the chart. It is like a teacher giving a multiple choice test of questions from A to D.  It would not be long before students discovered a tendency of the teacher to give preference to the answer C if the test were not random. In the case of an eye test, a non-random pattern would defeat its purpose, be unfair and lead to potentially serious consequences.

In the past, he excelled at digital logic and electronics. Currently, he has little interest in carefully examining the chart with respect to digital logic. The first character would represent the input. He is vaguely aware that the forty-eight characters used in the eye test suggest a 4 bit or 8 bit pattern. The program seems to be intended as an addition generator. In the fourth rectangle there seems to be a “mark” bit which signals that the countdown will soon end. 

It was argued previously that the set of five rectangles began at line 3. Further reasons for this conclusion can be anticipated with the completion of the third poem called Poetic Analytic Imagery. However, the obvious result is that there is an apparent inconsistency with an extra at the end of every second line of each rectangle. For example, in the first rectangle of “approximate opposites” there is an up yin at the end of the second line. It appears to have no opposite counterpart. Logically, it would be desirable to create a down yin above it. This would also create two lines with equal number of . However, this solution is unsatisfactory. 

First, it distorts the triangular relationship that might be imagined of the four yin characters in the yang triangle. Second, it would change the ratio of true to false from 4:2 to 5:2. Third, it is unclear whether the added character would be a down yin or a hybrid like a down yang . In either case, it would counter a string of vertical up yin on the right side which point to the isosceles.

The resolution of these problems does not reside in logic except to exclude. The resolution relies on the creative imagination of the poet which includes. The poet imagines that there is an intrinsic relationship between that last of line 4 and the first of line 3. They are “special” opposites in a rectangle of “approximate opposites”. The last character is an up yin within a yang triangle while the first character is a down yang within a yin triangle. The second reason which seems illogical is that the down yang is already paired with its opposite below it on the left-hand side. This double pairing means that there are two smaller opposing up yin to it. This has potential moral implications in terms of a truth table. 

A careful downword reading of characters and treading upward on mountain tracks over a long period of time should be made. This effort decreases the number of falls and repetitions. It also leads to greater success in reaching one’s objective. Hence, the title 山上山 in Chinese applies to two directions--downword on the fall and upward on the rise.

The title of the poem is pronounced in pinyin as Shānshàngshān.  It is translated as Mountain Over (Up) Mountain. However, the actual title of the poem runs vertically.  It can be “read” downword as one would read ancient Chinese and can be “tread” upward as might be undertaken by a modern poet as he treks up the mountain. The actual title of the poem is as follows.


                                               
                                            过
                                            山


                            


The 2015 poem called 山过山 provides the direction of Read and Tread for the 2016  flowchart poem called Poetic Analytics of Imagery. 




                                   
Read Downword   




















                                        Tread Upward
                           The poet begins at the bottom and goes upwards!


















   

Poetic Analytic Imagery 6

                                               The Streams


                                                   Tread Upward
 


 
                           

                                        The Bosphorus


Swimming reminds me of my journey from the Bosphorus to the estuary of the Yellow River. The Borphorus separates Europe from Asia or should one say joins them? On the Asian side was the ancient city of Chalcedon founded by the Megareans in 685 B.C.E. On the European side was founded the city of Byzantium in 667 BCE at the location of two fishing villages. It was also founded by the Megareans, but led by Byzas. The two colonies flourished in trade passing through the straits.

As time passed, the advantages of Byzantium became more obvious. Pliny the Elder reported that the colony of Chalcedon was referred to as the “City of the Blind” because Byzantium was better in every respect. (Collected Works, Chap. 43, Bithynia). Eventually, Byzantium conquered Chalcedon. In modern times, they are part of Istanbul which is the fifth largest city proper in the world.

To some extent the history of these two colonies mirrors the dialectical development of the first mini-poem of the “tread upward” in Poetic Analytic Imagery (2016). In the first mini-poem, the black head of the Ouroborus gives birth to what one may say is Chalcedon or the “City of the Blind”. It represents the unconscious. The white tail of the Ouroborus gives birth to Byzantium which was favored by the light of Pythian Apollo. This colony represented consciousness of a better location. Finally, antithesis and thesis are synthesized in a single city.

Pliny the Elder was both naturalist and Commander of the Imperial Fleet in the first century C.E.  He observed the unusual behavior of fishermen’s nets in the Bosphorus Strait near Byzantium. Pliny deduced that the surface and bottom streams were flowing in opposite directions. He was the first to record what is now called “estuarine condition” according to the Wood Hole Oceanographic Institute.

Michael C. Gregg and Emin Ozsoy have published an extensive study called Flow, water mass changes, and hydraulics in the Bosphorus with respect to fluid hydraulics. They say that “both streams may flow smoothly over one another until velocity difference reaches a threshold”. In the smooth flow process, the streams are separated by a no-flow surface which balances the flows along its length. In more accurate detail, they say “When the basin with the lighter fluid is also higher, as in the Bosphorus, the two flows are separated by a no-flow surface along which the oppositely directed barotropic and baroclinic forcings balance each other, assuming that frictional stresses are negligible. The net horizontal pressure gradient which is above and below the “no-flow zone” speeds up flows. 

The poet interprets this process in terms of dialectic in the “tread upward” of Poetic Analytic Imagery. The dense salt water represents the unconscious or antithesis of a dialectical argument. It flows in one direction in the “tread upward”. The light fresh water from the higher basin travels in the opposite direction. It represents the conscious or thesis. The salt water stream travels underneath the fresh water stream in the opposite direction. The synthesis is the “no-flow zone”.

In layman’s terms, with respect to south-north flow, the denser salt water originates in the Mediterranean Sea. Its salt content is actually higher than the Atlantic because of evaporation. This water flows to the Sea of Marmara. Modern day Istanbul is located on the north shore of the Sea of Marmara and the southern end of the Bosphorus.

On the other hand, lighter fresh water flows north-south from the Black Sea. It enters the northern end of the Bosphorus. It is less dense than the salt water coming from the Sea of Marmara. The lighter stream flows over the denser stream. The denser stream flows under the lighter stream in   a balanced system if there is no turbulence and low friction. “A no-flow zone” balances the flows and accelerates them.

The poet begins his tread eastwards from the European side of the Bosphorus. He imagines that he swims it as oxen once did where it is narrow. The entire journey across Asia takes six months to reach the heights of the Himalayas. As he approaches the mountains a minor quake shakes the land.

                                        Read Downword

At the top of the mountain the winds are fierce. Since it is the end of October heavy snowfall is expected. He has difficulty reading his map. The “read downword” is obscured with flying snow. He feels he might fall so he takes the safe, slow path to the left and then to the right which begins his downword zig-zag of the mountain. His journey will take another six months to the sea. 

His immediate goal is to find the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province. This is no easy feat on feet, but he is not defeated. At that location the Yellow River originates and begins its journey to the Bohai Sea. Chinese civilization developed along its banks and plains. The poet sensibly follows the river. Its flood stage from melting snow has subsided. He will have five major stops along the river. They are Banpo village, Yangshao village, Fu Shan, Dawu Village and the estuary of the Yellow River.  

Banpo village was located on alluvial soil of the Huang He at the confluence of two rivers; namely, the Chang He and Ba He. It was dated about 4500 BCE. Further down the Huang He though, through the mist of time, was Yangshao village surrounded by river on three sides and Shaoshan Mountain on the north side. It flourished between 4000 to 3000 BCE. Then, as one courses down the Huang He one goes over to where the river used to bend. Here there is Fu Shan where Huangdi united the tribes sometime between his birth and death or 2697 to2597 BCE. On top of mountain, the Emperor Shun built enclosures sometime in his lifetime between 2294 and 2184 BCE in honour of Emperor Huangdi. A little further on between two streams was born Sun Dawu in the village of Langwushuang. He established an enterprise called Dawu Group and wrote the Family Business Constitution in 2004. Rain fell and the land was fertile. The Kung rung. On to the Lower Yellow River which is choked with damn dams. When was harmony ever imposed by the raucous staccato of starling? It is composed by the lark harking to song of yellow bunting. Hark, hark! the lark at heaven’s gate sings.” (William Shakespeare)                       


                                           Huánghé
 

                           There will be much time to wait

                           for the return of the old Huánghé

                           which flows from the Bayan Har.

 

  



                              

The poet arrives at Xian. It has many marvels from the past. He is captivated though by a single pottery pot from the Banpo site of Yangshao culture. He guesses that it was ceremonial because it is so elaborate, has been preserved in such a pristine state and perhaps because it does not have handles which are more utilitarian. He has seen it before in a picture, but now it is as if he were seeing it for the first time. It would be a pottery pot that sits in an indentation in the ground.

The row of incisor teeth around the neck of the pot is fearsome. They are imaginary representations of carp and human teeth. A fish-face or renmianyu which has prototype yin-yang characteristics is painted on the bowl. It swims in a circular pond and as if it came out of the water filled pot. If the poet were to look inside the water filled pot from above then he would see his own fish-face. The fish-face is a totem and not token.

The jug has many eyes. The eyes of the small fish-face are horizontal slits. There are triangular shaped eyes at the end of the barbels of the whole pot face. There are two incisor eyes with vertical slits above the triangular crown or fin. The creative imagination of the poet suggests all incisor teeth represent eyes which can collectively see 360 degrees.



                                

                               


The poet deduces that the crown is an isosceles of special type called an equilateral. Through a dream another geometric pattern has emerged. The pond represents the base of a cone. Indeed, the base of a cone does not have to be circular; although, the pond seems to be a primitive way in terms of perspective to represent a circle. The cone extends to the isosceles. Of course, when a horizontal line runs through a cone it produces an isosceles. The altitude (height) of a cone is the distance through the inside of the cone from top to the base. The volume of the cone is one-third the product of the area of the base and height. The volume enclosed by a pyramid is one third of the base area times the perpendicular height. “If a cube and a pyramid have equal bases with equal lengths and widths, and have equal heights, then the volume of the pyramid will be (1/3) of the volume of the cube. Conversely, the volume of the cube will be three times the volume of the pyramid”. (Mike Rosenet, University of Georgia, Comparing the Volumes of Two Three-Dimensional Objects). The poet would be most interested in calculating the volume of the pot in terms of water up to the teeth (eyes) or rim.     It is uncertain what person in history was the first to perform an experiment wherein a cone was filled up three times from the water in a cylinder. This may be a map of how to perform that operation. If justified it would be rather easy to use a duplicate jug to examine volume.  

There are two birds that appear in the drawing. One is a Feng
and the other is a Huang . They share in common two of the incisor or eye teeth as eyes. For sake of balance, the poet views the Feng as rising and the Huang as leaping. The Feng symbolizes the whole clay jug that has been fired through heat. It represents immortality through repeated cycle. The Huang leaps through dance with her partner the Feng. She represents creation and birth. The Huang symbolizes the jug, too, that has been molded with wet clay. The clay pot has been transformed from lifeless to life force through the flames and water. There me emerges as the fish-face.  


                                    

                                         Upside Down Jug

The fish-face conveys a sense of repose. It seems at ease and at rest--almost child-like in its innocence. The parallel lines at the top appear as gentle ripples. However, being curious, the poet turned the jug upside-down. The rounded face now appears skull-like. The eyes are malevolently dark holes. The mouth is sardonically laughing. The top of the pot is darker brown having been in the ground which gives the face a sinister, shadowy air. Instead of wearing crown on head, the fish-face wears what appears to be a willowing mat for millet to sort out the number of years or maybe even days or hours for life. The figure is clothed in high neck, bulky cloak with fish epaulettes and appears mountainesque. The poet conjectures that there may have been a lid on the pot at one time. Furthermore, he can imagine hemp string wrapped around the teeth which cross the lid as would a fish net. Possibly, the pot would be suspended by this net. Pottery pots have been known to serve as vessels for the burying of infants.  



                            

                            Nepalese woman winnowing wheat

The poet speculates that Neolithic Yangshao Culture at Banpo village is unique. It may be the first culture where the language of geometry came before or was coterminous with earliest script. Through geometry, drawings, dualism and forms that represent numbers it has created a zeitgeist and weltanschauung.  


                                日月

                      Image of sun and moon reflect on pond.

                      The Fèng resurrects from flames.

                      The Huáng leaps in dance from water.

                          


It’s time to leave the Banpo site to continue the eastward journey. The poet wonders why he doesn’t go by boat. That is, instead of following the river, he should be on the river. He reads a sign which takes him to the dock. There are two boats which he can choose from or should I say which can chose him? The one boat takes Chinese passengers while the other boat takes foreigners. An American is honeymooning with his bride. Officials tell him that he must take the boat for foreigners and his Chinese wife must take the boat for Chinese. This will be some honeymoon. The ticket price for the boat for foreigners is twice that of the other boat. He opts to buy two foreign tickets. The poet makes a different choice. He wanders around and finds a fisherman who will take him down river in a smaller boat at half the ticket price of either of the other boats. We stop off on route at his cousin’s and enjoy a wonderful fish meal.




                                

                                        Yangshao Village

We are headed for the bend of the river which is thousands of miles away in the middle reaches of the Huang Ho. On my journey, I reflect on the original discovery of Yangshao Village, Mianchi County, Henan Province. Everyone knows about the Danish archaeologist named Andersson who excavated the site in 1921. Notwithstanding, few know that the site was discovered by a farmer who ploughed his field in 1920. The farmer’s name has been eclipsed by the name of Andersson. Local farmers though over the decades have played an important role in reporting new finds. They are proud to protect this heritage site. They regard it as their duty to preserve artifacts which link them directly to their ancestors. Today, however, they are entangled in a dispute with commercial interests that wish to establish a theme park. It would mean virtual expropriation of their land thereby forcing them to move away from the right to farm their land, be buried on their land and severe links with their ancestors.

The poet has arrived to find Yangshao Village and to see Yangshao pottery. Andersson’s diffusionist theory in terms of the culture has been accepted by most archaeologists. While the Neolithic Yangshao culture was first discovered here it did not begin here. It began in the western regions and then diffused from there to here.

To the poet, the most remarkable aspect of the site is that the youngest culture and its pottery was similar but different than earlier ones. The Yangshao was the oldest at the bottom. In the middle layer of soil was the Longshan. The top layer signifies the Xiaotun culture (Shang Dynasty). If there were no catastrophic event to totally destroy one culture then it seems to the poet that the Xiaotun represents a synthesis of ancestor cultures. Apparently, on one piece of pottery from the Xiaotun culture, there were three different layers of colored clay discovered on the surface. They were light yellow, white and red. It’s the poet’s opinion that this layering was designed to harmonize cultures and pay homage to ancestors by using clays of all three of them. 


                                         The Battles

                       Banquán and  Zhuolù were won or lost.

                       No one now knows where sought or fought.

                       Only those dead know with certainty.  



                                        



                                          

                         

The poet heads north now to the next bend of the river. Traditionally, this is known as the head of the dragon. However, Fu Shan is not located at the current bend, but rather near the past bend at the time of the Emperor Huangdi who stood as the Dragon. In fact, the old course of the Yellow River called the Shanjing was located at the foot of Fu Shan. It was at Fu Shan, Xushui County where the tribes were united and the Dragon drawn. 

  

                                   

                                             Huangdi

Huangdi fought two major battles: they were Zhoulu and Banquan. Banquan may have consisted of a series of three battles—perhaps at different locations. The last battle to be fought was that of Zhoulu in the 26th century BCE. There is dispute about where these battles may have taken place.



                                   
                                 
                                             Fu Shan book

As far as the poet knows, there are no claims that there was a battle fought at the site where the tribes were unified. The dispute arises as to the location of Fu Shan where the unification took place. It is probable that Fu Shan was a peaceful place where combatants reconciled opposing views. It was probably a holy site. It is known that at some time, in the remote past, enclosures were built at the top of Fu Shan, Xushui County, Baoding City. They suggest it was a religious site of importance. It seems conceivable that Fu Shan might also have been chosen because the mountain resembled a tortoise symbolizing long lived longevity, prosperity and good fortune.



                                                                          
                                        Dusk at Fu Shan

It is generally believed that Huangdi united the tribes whose totems were animals such as bears, wolves, tigers, leopards, snakes, and birds of prey. Basically, he brought these animals together and others of the former enemy into one Dragon. However, the authors John Thorbjarnson and Wang contend that the Dragon is associated with water and these are not water animals.  In early Chinese history, it was believed that Dragons brought rain for the crops. Drums with crocodilian skins would be beat to induce rain in Neolithic China. They also mention that alligators were used as food and were associated with human burials.

The poet would like to add one thing to the above opinion. It seems to the poet that in order to establish harmony among the tribes that Huangdi would have to design a totem that was common for them all, but one which they hadn’t supported in the various battles. He would need to depict the unification of two different animals that normally were not friendly; namely, the alligator and carp that shared the river region of the Yellow. Normally, the crocodile would eat carp. They would both have to be equalized in terms of size, but also with respect to defensive capabilities-- teeth.



                                               
                    
Grass Carp                                   Common Carp  

This might explain why two river animals or fish and reptile were carved on Fu Shan. From the poet’s viewpoint, the carp is on the right and the crocodile is on the left. Both images are rather unusual in that they are not frontal, but rather three-quarter images. Therefore, they might not be so easy to recognize. They contrast to the image of the monkey on the far left which is frontal. This difference of perspective may also contribute to the difficulty of pattern recognition.

The crocodile on the left is realistic and rather serene looking. It is a fresh water reptile and also an amphibian. Its snout is rounded and U shaped. Its mouth is shut. There is no fourth tooth visible that projects from the lower jaw as there would be with a Chinese alligator (although this is a small detail which may not be visible in these pictures or it may be missing. The poet had originally viewed the reptile as a salt water crocodile with a fresh-water carp.



                             
               Grass Carp Pharngyeal Teeth
                  Common Carp Pharngyeal Teeth

The fish on the right at the mountain is imaginary. It is elongated and torpedo shape face resembles a common carp or (Caprinus carpio). Notwithstanding, barbels are not evident in the picture. (It may be that details such as a barbel on the carp and tooth on the alligator are too small to carve) The carving does show large pharyngeal, incisor-like teeth of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) while the common carp’s pharyngeal teeth are flattened crowns. The problem though is that neither the real grass carp’s teeth nor the common carp’s teeth are visible, but at the back of the mouth as pharyngeal. This fact reinforces the view that the carp is imaginary. The carp certainly seems a match in battle or a partner in life for the crocodile. Of course, there is another possibility. The fish may be another kind of giant river fish with large teeth. 



                         

                       Saltwater Crocodile  (Crocodilius porus)

The two faces portrayed of a real crocodile and an imaginary carp are next to each other. They are side by side. They are not  confrontationally face to face. They are equalized in size with defensive capabilities. The common carp can eat an herbivorous diet, but it is an omnivore. The crocodile is an omnivore. In a sense they resemble, the Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena Australis) and the Killer Whale (Orchinus Orca) in a painting called   or Harmony drawn by Sasha Burkha. For a brief moment or eternity they dance in the eight star
 
至聖   “Kong Greatest Sage Constellation.  D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-16.  

These two faces are embedded within a third face. The third face is portrayed three-quarterly, too. It is the face of a man and a god. It is the face of a real person and an imagined god. His given name was Xuanyuan. His ancestral name was Gongsun. These were unified in the name of the Yellow Emperor known as Huangdi. 

Since these images are “read downword” by the poet in his analysis of the poem called Poetic Analytic Imagery they conform to the dialectical method which unites consciousness and unconsciousness. The alligator is very real. It represents the consciousness of an alligator that floats on the stream of the river as it keeps on eye on activities above water. The fish is imaginary. It stands for the unconsciousness which is below the surface of the water in a lower stream. One might almost say they do not see each other either above or below water or for that matter on the side of the mountain. This does not mean though that they don’t sense each other’s existence nor know not that they are part of each other. The synthesis takes place in the embedding of the images in the face of a real man and god. This is the fish-face. This is the precursor of the Water Dragon. 

It is with difficulty for the poet to decide if the reptile carved on Fu Shan is a crocodile or alligator. Normally, the snout of an alligator is full while that of the crocodile is pointed. To the poet, the snout appears full, but so does the snout of Crocodilius porus. Also, a tell-tale give-away for a crocodile is an outside, upturned tooth on either side. The poet cannot see a tooth, but that may be due to the quality of the picture or perhaps it is just missing. At any rate, it is too small a thing upon which to make a definitive judgement. Finally, there is the issue of salt- water versus fresh water. An alligator is a fresh-water reptile. It is clear that the area around Fu Shan, in terms of swamps and river, was fresh water. The crocodile (Crocodilius porus) is a salt-water reptile. This would seems to rule it out in terms of choice.

However, Crocodilius porus is unique in that saltwater crocodiles can live in both fresh and salt water. Generally, location of nest and mating is important. They spend the tropical wet season in freshwater swamps and rivers. In the dry season they move downstream with the tide to estuaries. Of course, today, tidal effects of the Yellow River are less pronounced because of dam construction, but they may have been considerable 5000 years ago. Notwithstanding, it would still have been a journey of hundreds of kilometers to the sea. Certainly, salmon may migrate hundreds or thousands of kilometers to the sea. Would crocodiles have migrated a long distance to the estuary? 

While both crocodile and carp share fresh water near Fu Shan in the past they are generally opposite in terms of characteristics. The crocodile eats carp. For example, the Triassic skeleton of a dinosaurian crocodile in Yunnan showed evidence of fish in its stomach. The crocodile lays its eggs on land while the carp lays its eggs in the water. The crocodile is an amphibian while the carp is a fish. The crocodile is huge at maturity while the carp is small by comparison even if its size increases with longevity. In terms of humans, the crocodile could consume a human while the human would eat both crocodile and carp.

These opposites though are united in three aspects. The crocodile normally hunts by floating on top of the water with its eyes protruding above. In turn, the carp is a bottom dweller. This means that neither the crocodile nor the carp can see each other unless the crocodile dives or the carp surfaces. The result is a kind of balance and harmony. The crocodile leaves the area for a considerable length of time thus giving the carp peace of mind and a chance for the young to mature. Finally, there are the potential viewpoints of the sculptor and his patron.

It may be that they were more familiar with crocodiles which were probably more plentiful further downstream. Indeed, they may have preferred the crocodile to the alligator in terms of size. Generally, alligators can reach 15 feet while saltwater crocodiles can exceed 18 feet and some reach 20 feet. After all, what would an Emperor prefer to be associated with--a large alligator or the largest reptile which is the saltwater crocodile? Therefore, in terms of the size of the saltwater crocodile there is a greater contrast with the size of the carp than with the alligator. However, the size of the heads in the image of the carving are the same thus unifying them. 
  

The poet therefore chooses a crocodile known scientifically as Crocodilius porus which is now extinct in China. This reptile is closely connected with the Jiaolong which may be the precursor to the water Dragon which brings rain and flood. Secondly, if the common carp with frontal teeth is imaginary then it is conceivable that the crocodile is an imaginary Jiaolong. Thirdly, it is unclear if the image has an outside frontal, upward tooth which is characteristic of a crocodile or absent like an alligator.

The poet concludes that the imaginary carp (fish) and Jiaolong (reptile) represents a unity of opposites within a water environment. The head of the carp appears abnormally large and the same size as the Jiaolong’s. From this perspective they are equal. With these teeth and its size the carp appears a match in any contest with the crocodile. If the bend of the Yellow River represents the head of the Dragon it might be associated with the head of the fresh-water carp while the Lower Yellow River and estuary might be more closely associated with the tail of the Dragon or Jiaolong. At any rate, it is ultimately up to scholars and present day Chinese to decide if the image is a crocodile or alligator, carp exceptional or common, imaginary or real and perceptible or imperceptible. Is it possible that bones of a toothed carp and Jiaolong were discovered at the Fu Shan site which inspired the apparent carved images on the mountain?

The relevancy of the topic may be renewed with two archaeological developments. The first was the discovery in 1947 of crocodilian dinosaurian fossils in Gansu Province by Chung-Chien Young. The second discovery was made recently by paleontologist LI Chun (李淳)  in Yunnan Province. The new species is called Diandongosuchus fuyuanensis (富源滇东鳄). The new species lived 235 to 250 million years ago during the middle Triassic Period. It is reported in the September 2012 issue of the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.  

 

 

                                  To the Yán-Huáng zisun   

                 Fèng and huáng meet to become Fènghuáng.

                 Fènghuáng leaps for joy and Dragon lifts with power.

                 Vision of Yán-Huáng zisun is inspirational.




                           

The two of us walked down the road for a while. He pointed out to me that Fu Shan resembles a pot to local villagers. However, in the past, his ancestors saw it as a turtle. A long time ago the Black Turtle represented the north. As we talked and walked on I pointed to another mountain. I said to him that a farmer told me about its name when I asked him. It’s regarded as the White Tiger. The White Tiger was associated with the west. “It is said that the White Tiger of the West would only appear when the emperor ruled with absolute virtue or if there was peace throughout the world”. Wikipedia




                         

                                        Fu Shan Enclosure

There were two enclosures on the top of Fu Shan built by Emperor Shun in honour of Huangdi. They are called the West and East Subordinate Palaces. Traditionally, the West is associated with the Azure Dragon. The East is associated with the White Tiger. The mountain itself was the Black Turtle of the North. Was a south pointing chariot taken to the top of Fu Shan? At Fu Shan, the four directions might have been represented.




                             

                                   
Counting Votes on Election Day

The Dawu Group of companies is both by the people and for the people. Profits come second; nevertheless, profits are substantial. The workers rate and vote for management whose power is limited constitutionally.
In practice, management listens to workers and vice versa. In other words, there is harmony. 

Initially, the Groups concentrated on the animal feed business. In a second stage, they diversified into education, tourism and hospitality. A regional schools was built and along with it a water park and hotel. This was an entirely different area one might call an antithesis to the thesis. Finally, in what might be called the synthesis stage, three regional buildings were constructed. There is a convention center, Buddhist monastery and hospital.

The growth of Sun Dawu himself parallels the growth of Dawu Group.  He began as a local farmer with beliefs inspired by Confucius and earlier by Huangdi. Then, he became a poet who aspired to reach the mountain top of Fu Shan. Finally, he became a national spokesman for ethical entrepreneurship through  the Family Business Constitution.  



                                        The Estuary

                      Yang stream flows above and yin below.

                      The streams flow in opposite directions.

                      No flow zone separates and accelerates flow.

 

                            


                              NASA photo of Yellow Sea Estuary 


The poet will finish the five phase “read downward” at the estuary of the Yellow Sea through a comparison with the beginning of the “tread upward” at the Bosphorus. However, he will spend only a short time on the similarity which was intended to balance the end of “read” and the beginning of “tread”, bridge the gap between west and east and illustrate a parallel dialectic.

It is recalled that the Bosphorus Strait acted like a stream in two directions. The fresh-water stream from the Black Sea ran south to the Bosphorus while the salt-water stream ran north from the Mediterranean. At the Bosphorus, the less dense, fresh water stream ran on top of the dense, salt water stream running in the opposite direction. There is a no-flow zone between them which if not interrupted by too much turbulence will separate and accentuate the flows. In terms of dialectic, the fresh water stream represents consciousness or thesis. The salt-water stream represents unconsciousness or antithesis. 

The Yellow River makes its 5464 kilometer journey from the Tibetan Plateau to the Bohai Sea. During the months of May to October there is a great deal of turbulence in the water due to runoff and sediment.  However, in the November to April period the river is more stable and carries less sediment as a fresh water river. At the estuary, a high tide period of roughly five hours brings more dense salt water into the river. As such, there is a stream of fresh water going out into the Bohai Sea and a stream of salt water flowing underneath in an upstream direction. At low tide of seven hours the reverse takes place. There will be a “no flow zone” between them which acts in a similar way to its Bosphorus Strait counterpart--a strait which many call a river.  

As the sun sets on the Bosphorus the moon rises on the Yellow River Estuary bringing them into harmonious unity. The streams which flow through the Bosphorus increase and decrease as do the streams of the Yellow River Estuary along no flow zones. As the Yang decreases the yin increases along its straight (strait) and curved no flow zone. There is a balance, too, between the four directions of north-south and west-east. 

The traditional yin-yang symbol and the poem of 2015 called 山过山 are both similar and different. They are similar, for example, in that both are in black and white. They are also similar in that they express a process of increase and decrease. This process begins with two dots in the yin-yang symbol and two in the third line of the poem. More specifically, they are similar in that the curve shared by and which separates the streams of the yin-yang symbol and the straight line shared by and which separates the yin-yang triangles and within their respective rectangles are no flow zones.

The traditional yin-yang symbol differs from the poem called 山过山 of 2015 in several respects. The yin-yang symbol has a circle and dots. In contrast, 山过山 has an isosceles triangle which is equilateral and five rectangles divided into triangles below it. The yin-yang symbol shows increase and decrease in terms of the dots and the fish-like tails to fish-like heads of the opposites. The poem shows increase and decrease with respect to the number and size of characters.

It has been said that the poem called Poetic Analytic Imagery of 2016 is the synthesis of the poems called 山上山 of 2007 and 山过山 2015. It completes them. The 2007 poem was read down. The 2015 poem was ”read downword” and “tread upward”. The 2016 poem called Poetic Analytic Imagery is a flowchart within an analytic essay called Poetic Analytics of Imagery through Streams of Consciousness and Unconsciousness.

It is also a flowchart of mini-poems containing micro-poems within five rectangles which went down and up. As the poet reaches the bottom of the “read downword” the micro-poems fold to form a new shape which is a square. Separating and joining the “read downword” and the tread upward is a no-flow zone which accentuates the flow. At the beginning of the “tread upward” there is a rebirth through the Ouroborus which surrounds the square. Micro-poems unfold and the tread upward begins. In both the read and tread process, the character and the fish symbol are developed. The tread is accomplished when an older character manifests itself along with a fish mouth and a three mountain family. The flowchart of drawings also synthesizes circles, curves and dots of the yin-yang symbol, and isosceles, rectangles, triangles and four stroke characters of the poem 山过山 of 2015 within a process that resembles a computer flow chart. 


                                        Huánghé
 

                          There will be much time to wait

                          for the return of the old Huánghé

                          which flows from the Bayan Har.

                          As newborn, I was buried in clay pot

                          molded by umbilical of coiled cord

                          and fired hot by heat of firewood.

             
                          Let my broken bones and clay shards

                          be restored by the silted waters of Hé

                          to vessel from clay painted as rén miàn yú. 


               

 

                                  日月

                       Image of sun and moon reflect on pond.

                       The Fèng resurrects from flames.

                       The Huáng leaps in dance from water.



                                           The Battles

                      Banquán and  Zhuolù were won or lost.

                      No one now knows where sought or fought.

                      Only those dead know with certainty.  


                                   To the Yán-Huáng zisun   

                      Fèng and huáng meet to become Fènghuáng.

                      Fènghuáng leaps for joy and Dragon lifts with power.

                      Vision of Yán-Huáng zisun is inspirational.


                                            The Estuary

                      Yang stream flows above and yin below.

                      The streams flow in opposite directions. 

                      No flow zone separates and accelerates flow.





 
Huanghe   
The Consequences of Overfishing and Dam Construction 




                                            

                                           Dawu Insignia

One may be inclined to see a similarity between the 山 character with that of the insignia of the Dawu Group. The insignia represents the embodiment of the Confucian family and its extended social enterprise. This insignia resembles a mountain. It also looks like three fingers pointing up from the base of a hand. It represents the three brothers who struggle to reach the virtuous objective of social enterprise through a hundred year plan carried on through the generations. The length of this plan far exceeds the short, fiscal quarter plan of the capitalist west and it is significantly longer than the five-year socialist plan of  the east. If only all nations had a collective 100 year plan to address climate change putting all life ahead of profits.




                                 

                                 Sun Dawu  Father  Mother

The poet views the Dawu Insignia from the perspective of poetic analytics of imagery. The insignia stands for the peaks of father and mother who provide the firm foundation for the highest peak or the eldest son. The eldest Sun extends his Confucian philosophy to the family, Dawu Group and beyond. 

The Dawu Group has purchased a lease (probably for 75 years) on several mountains near Fu Shan (Bushan). Many years ago, Sun Dawu was appointed by the local government as protector of this mountain which had been mined for slate. One may wish to refer to Sun’s speech called We Must Clarify”. He has since supported archaeological investigations, meetings of academics and restoration of ancient enclosures.  Fu Shan is not just any mountain.  It may be “THE” mountain where Huangdi united the tribes about five thousand years ago. One can see it from Dawu Village (Kenneth City) on a clear day.

There are many pitfalls and hazards to meet over a long period of time. Some say the enterprise will not survive one hundred years. However, it has already survived the arrest on trumped-up charges of Sun Dawu, his two brothers and the General Manager in 2003. In 2004, Dawu Group established China’s first Family Business Constitution based on western and Chinese models of governance.There have been six democratically run elections up to this point. The enterprise has celebrated its thirtieth anniversary in 2014 by opening three new temples and a conference center. It is in the process of completing a 15 story hospital. If the Dawu Group continues to focus on its core values then there is a high probability it will meet its long term objective of a family business enterprise which puts people ahead of profits and which serves as a model for China. Its growth which involves primary, secondary and tertiary industry has been spectacular. The goal now is self-governance.

A critic though may justifiably point to the recent turmoil with regard to the Malicious Dulu Incident of August 14, 2015 as an indication of disharmonious nous between the earthly and heavenly order. However, the poet has been  informed that an agreement in principle (which is unofficially called a match-making) was reached between the Dawu Group and the Xushui government on November 05, 2015. In other words, a semblance of harmony was achieved. Coincidentally, this was within days of the twelfth anniversary of the release of Sun Dawu and twenty-officials of the Dawu Group. At the meeting, Party Secretary Su Shuji asked leaders and cadres to emancipate the mind and change concepts. He encouraged Dawujituan to seize the opportunity by riding on the momentum and to make full use of the existing strong foundation and rapid development to standardize management under law for the construction of a hundred years.

A careful downword reading of characters and treading upward on mountain tracks over a long period of time should be made. This effort decreases the number of falls and repetitions. It also leads to greater success in reaching one’s objective. Hence, the title 山过山 in Chinese applies to two directions--downword on the fall and upward on the rise.

The title of the poem is pronounced in pinyin as  Shānguòshān.  It is translated as Mountain Over (Up) Mountain. However, the actual title of the poem runs vertically. It can be “read” downword as one would read ancient Chinese and can be “tread” upward as might be undertaken by a modern poet as he treks up the mountain. The actual title of the poem is as follows. 


        山
        过
        山
                                           


D. Carlton Rossi

January 1, 2016


 

1.  Claire Dunne, Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the Soul, Parabola Books, New York: 2000, p. 63.

2. Higgins, S., I. Overeem, A. Tanaka, and J. P. M. Syvitski (2013), Land subsidence at aquaculture facilities in the Yellow River delta, China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 38983902, doi:10.1002/grl.50758.


3.  Jon Mills, The Unconscious Abyss: Hegel's Anticipation of Psychoanalysis, State University of New York Press: Albany, 2002

4. Jon Mills, "Jung's Metaphysics", International Journal of Jungian Studies, volume 00, number 00, month 2012, 1-25.


5. Jon Mills, (2000) Dialectical Psychoanalysis: Toward Process Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Contempory Thought, 23 (3), 2054


6.  Pauly J, Marschall HR, Meyer HP, Chatterjee N, Monteleone BD (2016) Prolonged Ediacaran-Cambrian metamorphic history and ultra-high temperature metamorphism in the H.U. Sverdrupfjella, Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica): evidence for continental collision during Gondwana assembly. Journal of Petrology, (in press)


7.  Frankel, Henry R., The Continental Drift Theory,Cambridge University Press, New York: 2012.


8.  Getting, Ivan, Christie, John, David Tressel Griggs: A Biographical Memoir, National Academy of Sciences, Washington: 1994. 
 

9.  Sanjeeva, P. C., A Textbook of Geology, Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi: 2001, p. 51.


10. Xiujuan Shan, Pengfei Sun, Xianshi Jin, Xiansen Li, and Fanquan Dai, Long-Term Changes in Fish Assemblage Structure in the Yellow River Estuary Ecosystem, China. Source: Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management and Ecosystem Science, 5(): 65-78: Published by : American Fisheries Society.

www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1080/19425120.2013.768571


11. Wenxue LI, Kairong WANG, EVOLUTION OF THE YELLOW RIVER ESTUARY AND ITS SEDIMENTATION PROBLEMS, International Conference on Estuaries and Coasts, November 9-11, 2003, Hanzhou, China.


12.   http://www.cic.sfu.ca/cchf/dragonInChina.html


13.  http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437800172.htm


14.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiaolong


15.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saltwater_crocodile

                                                                        
16.   http://www.whoi.edu/science/GG/people/marschall/Horst_WHOI/Subduction_Zones.html



 











Reference


Flow, water mass changes, and hydraulics in the Bosphorus Michael C. Gregg and Emin  Özsoy
  • First published: 7 March 2002Full publication history
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JC000485View/save citation
    • Provider: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    • Content:text/plain; charset="UTF-8"
    •  
    • TY  - JOUR
    • AU  - Gregg, Michael C.
    • AU  - Özsoy, Emin
    • TI  - Flow, water mass changes, and hydraulics in the Bosphorus
    • JO  - Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
    • JA  - J.-Geophys.-Res.
    • VL  - 107
    • IS  - C3
    • SN  - 2156-2202
    • UR  - http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000JC000485
    • DO  - 10.1029/2000JC000485


















孙大午, Sun Dawu, 刘会茹,Dawu Group, 私营企业主立宪制度, 大午农牧集团有限公司,河北省,徐水县郎,五庄,2020年11月11日,November 11,2020,1911,辛亥革命,孫德明, 三民主义,Unirule,天则经济研究所,茅于轼,土地扣押,农民,农业集体 伦理资,本主义,D.Carlton Rossi,拆迁,寻衅滋事,709案,709大抓捕,警察,保护伞.

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