D. Carlton Rossi




Crossing the river by feeling for the stones.

Deng Xiaoping



Crossing the river by blocking it with stones.

D. Carlton Rossi  (copyright 2019)

The new idiom may express today's China as its rivers are dammed and damned.

The author visited Three Gorges Dam “長江 三峽 大壩” over several years while it was under construction during the 90's. It is said by NASA scientists regarding the rotation of the earth that it increases the duration of the day by 0.06 microseconds.

Wuhan, three provinces declare red alert as flooding in China disrupts supply chains

David Stanway



Published 6 hours ago

The giant Three Gorges reservoir, which has been holding back more water to try to ease downstream flood risks, is more than 10 metres higher than its warning level, with inflows now at more than 50,000 cubic metres a second.

The Poyang lake in Jiangxi province, which is formed from the overspill of the Yangtze, is 2.5 metres higher than its warning level. It has expanded by more than 2,000 square kilometres during thus flood season, and parts of the surrounding town have been inundated.

Further east, the Tai lake near Shanghai has also declared a red alert after its water level rose to nearly a metre higher than its safe level.


Earthquakes. Three Gorges Dam sits on two major fault lines -- Jiuwanxi and Zigui-Badong. Geologists fear that rapid changes in water pressure when the reservoir levels are changed during flood season could activate already shaky ground and trigger an earthquake (a phenomenon known as reservoir-induced seismicity). In the seven months following the 2006 increase in water level, geologists recorded 822 tremors around the reservoir.


Who has faith in Science these days or is that an oxymoron for morons? The Chinese government never really was concerned about two fault zones; otherwise, why would they have built a reservoir and dam at Three Gorges? At the time, they seemed obsessed with building the biggest project. This obsession continues with the building of dams world-wide under One Belt One Road. (一带一路 ) which began in 2013 or just one year after turbines were installed at Three Gorges.

The main purpose of the dam is to produce electricity. A secondary purpose is to reduce floods downstream through a flood space reservoir. Despite the latter purpose there has been severe flooding downstream in the last two months. If the dam were to break due to a series of earthquakes then the Yangtze would flood an area affecting 400 million people who live downstream.

The author is reminded of the movie called A Bridge Too Far. It was based on comments attributed to Lieutenant General Frederick Browning who is reported to have said "I think we may be going a bridge too far". It was with respect to the intention of seizing the Arnhem bridgehead over the Rhine river in 1944. The author says "I think they may be going a dam too far at Three Gorges". Incidentally, the author saw the first construction of the dam which began in 1994 and followed its progress through another two visits.

July 17, 2020

                             The Bird is the Word

For those of you who are not unbridled optimists, take comfort with two thoughts concerning empires and civilization. Empires have risen and fallen. They are rising and falling at a faster pace. It is the time for the American empire (of which Canada is part) to fall.

With respect to China one may say that its dynasties rather than empires have risen and fallen. The latest dynasty is the CPC. It rose almost 100 years ago with the fall of the Qing Dynasty. It will decline though faster than the American empire on which it has become dependent in terms of technology.

One may also say that civilization itself rises and falls. To believe that it is marked by constant progress is an illusion. Civilization began with the emergence of written language which recorded history and progress. On the vast scale of things it wasn't that long ago. Written language could be shared and held in common by people. Later, the Chinese advanced the progress of civilization with the invention of paper. The dissemination of the written word was improved upon in the West with the invention of the printing press.

However, we have reached a point in civilization where the meaning of the written and spoken word is lost. For example, in China, only the words of One Thought are allowed. Divergence of thought is deviance. This phenomenon is a revival of Maoism during the time of the Cultural Revolution. In America, any opposition to Trump's tweets are labelled fake news or considered heretical. Its precedence was the era of McCarthy which was a reflection of the Cold War with Communist Russia and the proxy war with Communist China in Korea and later in Vietnam.

The idea behind deliberate distortion of language is to undermine peoples' beliefs to the point where they are more easily manipulated by an authoritarian regime. One can easily see how the meaning of "cause and effect" have been distorted. With respect to climate it has been the case in America for the government to deny for nearly four decades that man-made activity could cause global warming.

The Chinese government has not taken that approach with its people with regard to global warming. Instead, they have fostered the belief for the last four decades that they are entitled to destroy the environment as the Americans did. Both governments are distorting the meaning of "cause and effect". The Americans deny the cause which the Chinese accept while the Chinese deny the effect which the Americans accept. However, nature cannot be controlled or tamed as easily as the attempt to modify human nature by distortion of thoughts through the inversion and perversion of language.

The climate is obviously getting warmer at an accelerated pace with increased extremes in regard to weather. The Poles are melting which will result in a rise of sea level. Fresh water is becoming more scarce. Mass migrations of people have already begun. Whatever one writes or speaks now cannot reverse the trend in at least the next 100 years. Civilization itself is now in jeopardy as well as the human race. One has to question whether the human race is the fittest to survive if it has changed climate to the extent which brings about its own extinction.

D. Carlton Rossi
D.卡尔顿 罗西



Tensions rising as Chinese no longer willing
to hold their breath on pollution problems




MAR. 19, 2017

People here once farmed rice, peanuts and corn until, in the years before the Beijing Olympics, their fields were transformed into an industrial forest of pipes, stacks and production lines, after iron and steel companies moved away from the capital to leave behind cleaner air for the Games.

Two-hundred kilometres east of Beijing, they erected a metallic forest of emissions towers that belch exhaust and soot. During one severe episode in February, the air grew so thick that residents could no longer see across their narrow streets and workers got lost on the way home.

Air quality worsened in the area around Beijing throughout much of 2016, a trend that has continued this year. Average Beijing air quality in January was among the worst since 2009, the first full year air monitoring statistics are available. The city’s February air, on average, was 35 per cent more polluted this year than last.





                                        Smog blog

There are no sunny days and ways in China. On the shortest day of the year or December 21st more than 400 pupils sat their exams outdoors in a football field despite thick, choking smog in central China.

The 480 eighth-grade pupils from a middle school in Linzhou, Anyang, Henan province, were made to do so on Monday afternoon after the local education authorities ordered all schools to close from Monday because of severe air pollution, Dahe News reported. Air pollution measured over 400 on the particulate index.

However, smog is pervasive. It falls as black soot instead of snow over Canada. From behind the scenes, under its own hidden agenda, with a sunny way's façade, it blankets Canada in corrupted pollution.

The Long Wall

hung low some

exhausted stale air

insidiously winds round

fire breathing dragon

spews smoke forming

impenetrable Chang Cheng

Meng's tears wash

eyes sooted from

sacrificial brick pyre

D.卡尔顿 罗西




When the poet writes elsewhere of density flow and no flow zone then how can he ignore the real cut-off of flow in the Lower Yellow River which extended for significant parts of the year for over a period of twenty-two years? For example, from 1992 to 1998, average zero flow of the river was 121 days. In 1997, the river dried up for a record 226 days over a 700 kilometer length. There is no unity or harmony in this situation. 

The treatment of seawater to scour the channel was proposed in 1997 by an academician named Lin to solve the sedimentation problem. He proposes that at a proper location, downstream of Lijun, that seawater be used to scour the riverbed and to lower flood stage. He calls for an entire cut-off of flow so there is dry land to achieve best results. Furthermore, he believes that salt water mixed with turbid flow may form a “density current” to carry off sediment far off into the sea. This is an experimental proposal because nothing like it has been done before and it is not without potential negative impact. It must be said, though, in fairness, that this was nearly 20 years ago and he may no longer hold these views in light of subsequent developments.  


           The Consequences of Overfishing and Dam Construction   


Fishing Boats at Yellow River Delta

The fish spawning ground of the Yellow River Estuary affects both Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea; as well as, the biological reproduction and fishery resources of the northern China Sea. However, the system has been compromised by overfishing and dam construction. The effect of each will be briefly described.

Overfishing and more recently trawling mean that fish stocks have drastically declined since 1959. Since the 1980’s the dominant, large-size, economic fish such as the Largehead Hairtail has been replaced by short-lived, plankton eating pelagic fish such as the Scaly Hairfin Anchovy. The fish biodiversity has declined markedly. This has led to a series of cascading effects which were generally unplanned, unforeseen and undesirable. 


 Aquaculture industry along Yellow River Delta Coast

As if there were not enough environmental problems on the delta there is a new one emerging. It is subsidence caused by aquaculture. This industry pumps water from compressible sediments underground. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has shown “that subsidence rates are as high as 250 mm/y at aquaculture facilities.” In the above picture taken in 2012, water appears dark blue which demonstrates the great number of aquaculture facilities on the delta coast. (Land subsidence at aquaculture facilities in the Yellow River delta, China)


                                           Xiaolangdi Reservoir on Yellow River
                                                  (courtesy Daily Mail, UK.)

Dam or reservoir construction has been prolific in the Yellow River Basin. Before 2007, a total of 2,752 dams or reservoirs have been built. This includes 22 mid-size and large reservoirs. Four large dams were also constructed between 1960 and 1999. The delta is subsiding because of a decline in sediment flux and runoff. This leads to coastal erosion in the basin and strong storm surges causing flooding and a series of serious cascading effects. 

It has been thought for five thousand years that the Yellow River cannot be tamed. The Yellow River has severely changed its course 26 times prior to 1946. It has flooded 1,593 times in recorded history (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_River).

 Why do some civilized Chinese of a new Motherland think they can harness on a grand scale what was known as The Ungovernable or the Mother of the Cradle of Chinese civilization known as the Huang He?


1.  Higgins, S., I. Overeem, A. Tanaka, and J. P. M. Syvitski (2013), Land subsidence at aquaculture facilities in the Yellow River delta, China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 38983902, doi:10.1002/grl.50758.

2. Xiujuan Shan, Pengfei Sun, Xianshi Jin, Xiansen Li, and Fanquan Dai, Long-Term Changes in Fish Assemblage Structure in the Yellow River Estuary Ecosystem, China. Source: Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management and Ecosystem Science, 5(): 65-78: Published by : American Fisheries Society.


3. Wenxue LI, Kairong WANG, EVOLUTION OF THE YELLOW RIVER ESTUARY AND ITS SEDIMENTATION PROBLEMS, International Conference on Estuaries and Coasts, November 9-11, 2003, Hanzhou, China.

4. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_River)


  • Gerald Butts

    October 22, 2019

    ‏Verified account @gmbutts

    I hope the lesson liberals take from #elxn43 is that you can win with a strong climate change policy.

    I hope the lesson conservatives take is it’s going to be harder and harder to win without one.

    First, climate change policy has NOTHING to do with electability. It has EVERYTHING to do with saving the planet and preventing extinction.

    Second, the climate change policy and strategy of the Trudeau-Butts government is a disaster. Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes succumbed to gale force winds, flooding and downed power lines on Halloween. It was all trick and no treat.


    There is one particular image which illustrates the effects of climate change. The photo was taken on Halloween. The position of the Old Scow above Niagara Falls has remained the same for 101 years. With 94 km/h gusts the scow has now moved closer to the Falls.

    In a sense, the Old Scow is almost like an old fashioned Doomsday Clock. As the Doomsday Clock approaches midnight, so, too does the Old Scow approach the brink of the Horseshoe Falls. According to the Earth Observatory of Nasa "In the past century alone, the temperature has climbed 0.7 degrees Celsius, roughly ten times faster than the average rate of ice-age-recovery warming."

    This summer I took my Chinese guests to Niagara Falls. We went on the Maid of the Mist. However, I wouldn't look forward to having the Old Scow fall down the Falls as we were below it. With about five boats out at any one time at peak season there is always one boat under the Falls.


                         Elena Musikhina and Elizabeth May


    Time is running out for Elena Musikhina
    and all of us to seek asylum

    Time is running out for Elena Musikhina who was a university professor and researcher. She was a professor at Irkutsk Technical University in Siberia who had been studying environmental issues around the Lake Baikal region. She and her husband Mikhail fled Russia for their lives on October 10, 2015. In January 2016, they claimed refugee status in Canada. However, appeals to remain in Canada have failed and their deportation hearing is set for November 6. 

    The author supports their request for refugee status or for permanent residency if that is offered. The main reason is that he believes their story of persecution and how they fear for their lives if they return to Russia or even go elsewhere outside of Canada. Their fear is not imagined and is justified by circumstances around Lake Baikal. 

    Coincidentally, the author has completed a thesis on The Poetic Interpretation of The Selden Map. It deals with a Chinese map drawn during the Ming Dynasty. The author has extensively researched Lake Baikal because it was regarded by the Chinese as the North Sea or the northernmost territory as far back as the Han Dynasty. It was only during the Manchu Dynasty that Lake Baikal was ceded to the Russian Federation. Under the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) Russia secured its claim to Transbaikalia or the area east of Lake Baikal as well as gaining right of passage for its trade caravans to Beijing. Today, China is not issuing Panda Bonds to corporations of a Russian oligarch for purposes of good-will, but perhaps to secure the output of aluminum smelters or the smelters themselves, water and eventually to extend territory.   

    Much of the author's research on Lake Baikal utilized Russian sources. He does not though cite domain addresses in this report because he wishes to protect his readers' safety and security. By that he means that there were repeated attacks on his computer from Russian sources over the last year which sought to implant a Javascript program (ie. the Java computer program was originally developed by the Canadian James Gosling). The purpose of the virus was to transform his computer into a zombie which would mine bitcoin. One of these attacks involved his research on the death of Colin Madsen. Another two attacks came after he researched The Magnistsky Act on Sputnik. The author does not wish to overdramatize matters; but, as he is in the midst of writing this essay an unusual notice has just appeared on his screen threatening a "computer put down in 90 seconds" followed by a black screen for several seconds. The notice does not use the conventional expression "shut down", but rather "put down" as you would an animal.


                      Exchange Student Colin Madsen

    There are many strange things that happen around Lake Baikal. For example, they include otherwordly UFO sightings. However, the strangest occurrence was a real circumstance. It involved the disappearance and murder of Colin Madsen who had been a linguistics student at Moscow Linguistic University, Irkutsk. He spoke fluent Russian. Colin had visited Arshan village in the Tunkinsky District of the Russian Republic of Buryatia in the Russian Federation on four occasions. Arshan is located in a valley at 900 meters. However, on the fifth time he left his Arshan lodge in mysterious circumstances in the middle of a cold night on March 27th, 2016 and was later found dead one and a half kilometers away on April 4th in the Sayan Mountain Range. A British university professor and his wife have accused Russian police of covering up the murder of their son. 

    Generally speaking, the Russian view is that Colin overdosed on drugs, walked into the woods at night, lost his way and died of hypothermia. However, there is forensic evidence that points to a beating before he died. It may be no coincidence that prior to Colin's beating that Oleg Kudinov who was head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs signed departmental order No. 322 in 2014 which allowed police to detain anyone and beat out testimony. The evidence also suggests that someone tied Colin up and delivered a blow to his head. 

    It is believed that he was killed elsewhere and his body dropped on the Eastern Sayan Mountain Range. The fact is that police undertook very little investigation into Colin's disappearance and this along with the forensic evidence suggests a cover-up; although, the specific perpetrators of the crime have not been identified. His step-father and mother had asked President Trump to put pressure on President Putin to investigate the death as a murder. In retrospect, one conjectures that their faith in Trump to influence President Putin may have been misplaced as it is clearly the reverse situation due to Trump's Krompromat.

    One can say without hesitation that Colin Madsen was an environmentalist. His mother recalls how Colin had a love of the outdoors. This led him to volunteer with environmental groups in the Buryatia area. "He helped build hiking trails around Lake Baikal for a Russian nonprofit called The Great Baikal Trail and volunteered with local activists from Greenpeace, participating in several protests". His obituary reads that he supported many environmental causes despite his limited student budget.  

    The young exchange student appears to have been murdered because of his love for the environment and his liking for the environmental cause. He wanted to protect the pristine environment around Lake Baikal. He would have been well aware of how the waters were threatened by raw sewage, algae and industrial pollutants. He knew that 23% of the world's fresh water was at risk along with 3200 plant and animal species. 

    Something of importance should be emphasized. A couple of months prior to his murder, Colin was warned by authorities that his activities were not acceptable nor to be tolerated. Elena Musikhina received a similar warning from her workplace and from authorities. She was brought before the vice-rector of her university in September 2015 and warned that criminal charges would be brought against her because of her political activities.

    The Canadian refugee tribunal has vastly minimized,  misundertood and mischaracterized the situation as work related problems. Perhaps, this is do to the fact that they have so few Russians applying for political asylum. In 2016 there were only 95 refugee claimants. The tribunal simply does not understand political persecution along with legal and human rights violations in Russia as does our Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland who was the prime mover of the Magnitsky Act to Canada; although, implementation of the sanctions in Canada has been slow--especially in the specialized steel sector.

    The tribunal also claims that because the applicants were free to leave that this is evidence that they were not persecuted. Ostensibly, though, husband and wife only left for a visit and not a stay. For all intents and purposes the State believed that they would return. All the author can reply to that criticism is that if they were found "accidentally" dead in Russia then they would not be leaving freely nor would they have any need for political asylum.

    Furthermore, Russian authorities planned to accuse them under Section 282 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Elena and her husband took these threats seriously. They left Russia before these threats were carried out. Russia let them leave to solve the problem one way or the other before a final solution was applied. The threats to prosecute by the authorities and the warnings of prosecution by the vice rector at the university seem to be the very definition of persecution. Credible and verifiable warnings of imminent prosecution for environmental concern is persecution and would continue to be persecution if they were arrested and sentenced.

    One should be clear about what Article 282 entails. Generally, it pertains to actions aimed at the incitement of hatred or enmity. It can involve affiliation to any social group, if these acts have been committed in public or with the use of mass media. This would apply to a social group such as Blue Wave which has also been defined as a "foreign agent" and basically has been put out of existence.

    While fines are applied as punishment there are more onerous provisions which can restrict work and income. For example, a university professor associated with an environmental group (where group is defined vaguely) might find themselves in dire circumstances. A convicted person can be deprived of wage or salary or any other income for up to two years or the right to hold specified offices. Furthermore, they can be deprived of liberty for up to two years.

    For illustration purposes of how Article 282 has been applied in the past one need not look any further than the case of environmental activist Fyodor Maryasov in Zheleznogorsk of the Krasnoyarsk Region. He protested the construction of a nuclear waste repository. As a result, he was prosecuted for incitement of hatred because he belonged to the social group called "nuclear industry employees". It has been argued by the defence that use of anti-extremist legislation to pressure activists is an inappropiate measure and that "the nuclear industry does not constitute a vulnerable social group in need of special protection under Article 282."


                                  Dr. Elena Musikhina

    Elena talks about the mysterious deaths of "people related to specific situations, specific data and specific projects" with regard to sensitive environmental data. It all involved a project which evaluated the possible damage to the Irkutsk region related to natural or industrial causes or in terms of a terrorist attack. She was particularly concerned with a possible cascading effect of disasters--especially because the concentration of factories was in an active seismic zone. In late April 2009, she told Igor Esipovski who was the governor of Irkutsk about the situation. He died "accidentally" in a helicopter crash based on an incredulous story about a bear. His son also died mysteriously, too. 

    Elena remembers other "accidents which she personally experienced in November 2009. "Shots were fired over her head while she was walking near the family’s home in suburban Irkutsk. A week later, the family’s dog was shot dead in the same place. On another occasion, a homeless man pushed her onto the street."

    She also records the death of Evgeni Hamaganov with whom she protested in 2014-2015 to protect Lake Baikal. He was beaten to death. Scores of people have died who have been involved with protection and preservation of the environment around Lake Baikal. It seems that Colin Madsen who was beaten to death should be added to the list. 


                              Lake Baikal Rift Basin

    It was Dr. Elena Musikhina who had been investigating the real pollution around Lake Baikal. Her data showed that it was even worse than the data in the archive. Furthermore, she claims that activities around the lake involve nuclear waste as well as biological and chemical agents.


                        6.3 Earthquake hits Lake Baikal

    All of this is in an area that is still volcanically active as evidenced by earth tremors and hot springs. Some say these tremors have increased recently in number ranging from 3 to 5 in intensity on the Richter scale. A strong earthquake of 6.3 hit the Lake Baikal area on August 27, 2008. 

    It was in 1990 that a group called Blue Wave was formed to protect Lake Baikal. Due to its activities and public awareness campaign a special law in Russia was passed in 1999 which spells out protective measures for Lake Baikal. The group also played a key role in the relocation of a pipeline some 40 kilometers further north of Lake Baikal. 

    Blue Wave brought to the world's attention the pollution from controversial Baikal Paper and Pulp mill when it was restarted. Russian police raided Baikal Ecological Wave in Irkutsk and seized computers on the spurious grounds of suspicion of pirated software. The head of the organization whose name is Marina Rikhvanova claimed that the purpose of the raid was "to paralyze us".  


                Deripaska's motor yacht called the Selena

    One of the most visible successes of Blue Wave was the shut down of the Baikal Paper and Pulp mill on Lake Baikal which probably irritated to no end the owner--Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska. Prior to the financial meltdown which began in 2007, he was Russia's richest man with a net worth estimated at $28 billion. One might say that he almost looked on the world's deepest lake as his personal pond with the construction of his own motor yacht called the Selenga to sail on it. However, after the shutdown of the paper and pulp mill in 2013,  Baikal Wave was dubbed a "foreign agent" under tough new legislation targeting NGOs with foreign funding. As a result, it closed down in 2016 finding that it was impossible to function. 

    Perhaps the refugee tribunal panel has vaguely heard of Oleg Deripaska. It would probably not be due to his alleged involvement during the 1990's "in the struggle for control of an aluminium smelter in Sayanogorsk in Siberia. The battle was so vicious, and so corpse-strewn, it became part of privatisation legend, and dubbed the "aluminium wars". The panel may not be aware of the sanctions imposed by the United States against Deripaska's aluminum company called Rusal in April 2018 unless they were particularly business minded. "The U.S. cited Deripaska’s alleged history of bribery, extortion, and racketeering; his links to organized crime; and his purported order that a business rival be murdered (all allegations he has denied)". However, it is hard to believe that the panel would be totally ignorant of The Associated Press report that Paul Manafort, Trump's former campaign manager, began collecting $10 million a year in 2006 from Deripaska to advance Putin's interests with Western governments. As well, there were recent "allegations about $500k in payments from a Russian oligarch made to Trump attorney Michael Cohen". It has been said that Deripaska is a "key person in the investigation by the special counsel Robert Mueller into alleged collusion between the Trump campaign and Moscow.


            Aluminum Smelters in the Lake Baikal Region

    Let us not forget though that the key issue the refugee panel should be concerned about is how sensitive environmental data researched and recorded by Dr. Musikhina put her at risk of persecution by powerful vested interests. They are concentrated in the Russian aluminum sector of the Irktusk region and would stop at nothing to suppress the truth. A key stream of data concerns river levels feeding into Lake Baikal. 

    Environmental activists and groups have voiced concerns about costly environmental damage to Lake Baikal by power plants of EN+ group owned by Oleg Deripaska. The World Heritage Committee has commented that "the regulations were too loose, and enforcement inadequate to preserve the lake from dangerous “fluctuation between the maximum and minimum water levels of Lake Baikal.” Waters Without Borders (which is a non-governmental group of organisations) charges that "Deripaska was behind a federal government decree which put a stop to 16-year old standards for the water volumes entering Lake Baikal from the Angara River...Medvedev’s decree allows Deripaska to divert more river water into his turbines in the dry season, and release more water in the flood season". 

    Water levels of Lake Baikal have been declining yearly and are now at sixty year lows due to mismanagement, industrial misuse and lax laws. Why should the tribunal panel be concerned with low water levels as measured by scientists such as Dr. Musikhina at this location? It is because it concerns your fate and that of humanity. There will be nowhere for you or humanity to seek asylum from apocalypse if the trend continues. It makes the melting of Antarctica, rising sea levels, monster hurricanes and our current view of global warming look like the proverbial walk in the park.  


                        Methane Bubbles on Lake Baikal

    Put simply, the issue is methane. The amount of methane gas hydrates stored at the bottom of Lake Baikal is 424 Gt. If the temperature of the water increases and its pressure decreases with less water in the lake then the hydrates destabilize and are released into the atmosphere as methane. Methane gas is 20 times more harmful to the environment than carbon dioxide.

    By comparison, the amount of methane in the atmosphere is about 5Gt. One can easily see that if only 5Gt of Lake Baikal's methane were released then the methane in the atmosphere would be doubled. And there is so much more methane that could potentially be released. The impact to global warning under various scenarios of methane release from this one source would have to be calculated with supercomputers. One can say without exaggeration that under the worst of circumstances where all the methane is released at once there would be billions of environmental refugees seeking asylum without any place to go. 

    D. Carlton Rossi

    D.卡尔顿 罗西



    Charlie Rose: Based on what you know of this [US] president, is he capable of that leadership?

    Henry Kissinger: I used to say I'm hoping for an Augustinian moment, for St. Augustine who in his early life followed a pattern that was quite incompatible with later on when he had a vision, and rose to sainthood. One does not expect the president to become that, but it's conceivable and when you realize that the peace of the world and the future of the world depends on you now, so that much of what is day to day actively falls away, I think that's the unique aspect of the American presidency.


                                                Augustine of Hippo

    The American-Chinese Dream

    The time in which Aurelius Augustinus lived was one of turmoil at the end of the Roman Empire. His Confessions outlined "a narrative of youthful dissipation turned to austere maturity" which none of his contemporaries believed because he was always dutiful and restrained. (Encylopedia Brittanica)

    In his early years, he joined a Christian sect called Manichaeism which was criticized by both Christianisty and the Roman State; although, he left it. He fought a campaign against Donatism which was regarded as schismatic by Christian emperors. In his last year of life the Pax Romana fell with the invasion of the Vandals or barbarians.

    It may be that Kissinger would like to see President Trump renounce more radical and schismatic views (as did Augustine) that he held during the campaign and adopt more mainstream thoughts during his presidency. However, it seems that Kissinger is not so sanguine these days because he starts off by saying "I used to say". One must also consider that he is not referring to a time when the Roman Empire could be great again, but to its demise.


                               Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus                                           

    The author is not familiar with Chinese ancient history, but he is familiar with ancient, Roman history. He sees some resemblance between the period of the early Principate under Augustus who assumed the name in an extraconstitutional manner to place himself above the proconculs and the contemporary leader of China who assumed the Core Leader designation. Augustus maintained the illusion in some ways of the continuance of the Roman Republic while the Core Leader retains the illusion of rule of law under the constitution. It remains to be seen though if the Chinese Core Leader will exhibit the brilliant administrative skills, for example, in the areas of SOE's and land ownership, in which Augustus addressed the issues of his time thereby establishing the Pax Romana.

    D.卡尔顿 罗西


    Remembrance of Things Past

    Recently, I read a story about a Parliamentary page who used that platform as a springboard to a political career. My story is different. I never fully developed an interest in politics. It wasn't as if I didn't have the potential to become a politician. My father regularly ran for re-election to the Board of Education. At election time, he would strap on a big sign on his little car. My sister and I would also go door to door delivering pamphlets which reminded the electorate of my dad's accomplishments if not his existence.

    My father was also an ardent supporter of the Liberal Party. In his opinion, the charismatic Trudeau was the answer to every problem. I was rather ambivalent about Pierre Elliott Trudeau. I was aware that he had had Marxist ideas during the 1940's, he provided the intellectual foundation for the Quiet Revolution in Quebec and then became a stalwart federalist and anti-separatist. I was confused about his views on Communist China and Cuba. Oh, it seemed he liked revolutionary leaders like Mao and Castro. I could not reconcile those views about these communist countries and its leaders with his views about Canada and Canadian values. At any rate, he was nominated as leader of the Liberal Party at the convention held on April 03, 1968.

    My own view of politics though was moulded more by my mother than my father. It was expected of my mother that she would vote Liberal. Anything less would cancel my father's own vote which would be intolerable to him. Of course, voting is private and my mother privately voted for whom she chose. In terms of the vote for Board of Education we were instructed by my father to place a "strong" vote rather than a "weak" vote. A strong vote was for him and no one else. We meekly followed my father and disregarded all other qualified candidates--some of which were his best friends.

    The reader is well aware of my support for the civil rights of the peasants of China. This inclination began a long time before I met Sun Dawu--in fact, a decade before. I was teaching the best and brightest students at the most prestigious institutes and schools in Beijing. My students were sons and daughters of peasant farmers. However, there was one student in every class who held a privileged position as a member of the Communist Party. He acted as class monitor. He reported to the "Department of Propaganda" which was just down the hall. Ostensibly, he was there to help, but, in actuality, he was there to report on any independent thought and speech of students or teacher. This student was guaranteed an "iron rice bowl" by the Party which meant that he was set for life. To me this was a travesty of justice and an intrusion into our class.

    The political revolution which had begun at Tiananmen Square three years earlier in 1989 had failed. There was no tolerance for political dissent nor for political expression outside the Party or for that matter inside the Party. What was encouraged was monolithic or uniform thought which meant no thought at all.


    My concern though about social injustice predated my stay in China and my teen years in Canada. My interest began in the United States during the year 1957 when I was just five years old. It began in the state of Florida where I visited as a tourist with my mother and younger sister. I entered a world of separation and segregation which was very alien to me. I have no pictures of that world because only pleasant pictures were taken at that time. The images though of hate and racism of the "black man" and indigenous person were seared into my mind.

    There were two classes of people. One class was white and the other class was non-white. The non-white class was put in its place through discriminatory laws, institutions and authorities. This situation was shocking to me. I had seen nothing like it in my sheltered environment in a middle-class white family in Canada. In a sense, I was like a young prince who had been sheltered in his palace and then went outside to learn about poverty, disease and death.

    There were different lines for whites and blacks at the bus stations. If you wished to buy tickets then there was a white and a black line. I'm not sure what Hispanics, Asians or Indians did. I only saw things in terms of black and white because of the situation. I was white and a Canadian white was apparently equal to an American white; although, I was not sure about that because I was a foreigner in a foreign land.

    My mother had a 3D camera which snapped colour pictures. They were examined on a Viewmaster in 3D. It was exceptional technology. However, my memories more closely match the black and white archival images that can now be seen in museums and on the internet. Everything was separate in black and white. There were separate fountains for black and white, separate washrooms and separate doors.


    I sat on a segregated bus. The whites sat at the front and the blacks sat at the back. The whites got on first and if there were any seats left then the blacks filled them at the back.

    As a young boy in Canada I had always been taught to act gentlemanly to a woman. The woman would always be offered the chance to go through the door first as I held it open. I created quite a stir on one bus when I offered to wait for a black woman while she exited the bus. She refused to leave first. The white driver explained to my mother that I would have to leave first. Apparently, this was a year after the Supreme Court had ruled that buses were not to be segregated, but behaviour remained the same.


    However, blacks were not the only ones who were oppressed in the Floridian south. There were the Seminole Indians who lived on the reservations. The poverty that I saw there was unbelievable. I was embarrassed by my affluence and my whiteness.

    I suppose these impressions had a powerful impact on my thoughts and feelings concerning social injustice thus molding my character. Later, there were two leaders of both the civil rights and then the anti-Vietnam movement who influenced me the most in 1968 at the time that Pierre Elliot Trudeau became Prime Minister in Canada. They were Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Francis Kennedy. I unequivocally and unambiguously and unambivalently supported both.


    Martin Luther King Jr. was the founder of the civil rights movement. He promoted non-violence and civil disobedience as means to an end. In my words, I would say he supported the use of the ballot rather than the bullet. As such, though, he got the attention of the FBI on the domestic front. It was when he expanded the civil rights movement to protest the war in Vietnam that he got the attention of the CIA.

    He was shot by James Earle Ray on April 04, 1968 or a day after Trudeau won his nomination. However, the King family did not believe that Ray fired the shot. On December 09, 1999, Emily Yellen of the New York Times reported that a civil case brought by the King family was settled and that "After four weeks of testimony and one hour of deliberation, the jury in the wrongful-death case found that Loyd Jowers as well as ''others, including governmental agencies'' had been part of a conspiracy."

    After the assassination Ray travelled to Toronto, Canada where he lived on Ossington Avenue and also on Dundas Street West for more than a month. He spent at least eight hours a day at both locations. He secured Canadian birth certificates and Canadian passports under the names Edward Bridgman and Ramon George Sneyd--the latter a Toronto police officer. He fled to London, England.


    As a teen I had a poster of Kennedy on my wall. He had been Attorney General of the United States and one of the leaders of the civil rights movement. He won the primary election in California for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States. However, on that day of June 05, 1968 he was assassinated. My mother knocked at my door and woke me up. She told me the news. I lost my political innocence at that moment.

    In retrospect, I say that in my own small way I was at the forefront of the civil rights movement in China during the arrest of Sun Dawu in 2003. My choice was to continue my support for him which was the hard way in a communist country or take the easy and more profitable way and just look the other way. I chose the right way and supported him and his Group. He has not disappointed China with the development of the Private Enterprise Constitutional System which puts people ahead of profits, democratic elections and the establishment of a model city.

    It may be said that the hope of the civil rights movement in China died with the imprisonment of its civil rights lawyers, the silencing of the Liberal economist Mao Yushi (who won the 2012 Milton Friedman Prize) and with the death of Liu Xiaobo (who won the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize). It seems there are only two routes left. Either there is reformation fostered by members of the Communist Party led by a Core Leader who has been consolidating power or there is revolution by the Chinese from outside of the Party. The Communists came to power by revolution.

    D.卡尔顿 罗西


                      The Case of the Dear Boss Letter

    SH   How busy Watson are you these days in your medical practice?

    JW  Never too busy for something out of the ordinary. Do you have anything in mind?

    SH   Mostly reading and writing.

    JW  As long as there is no 'rithmetic.

    SH   We'll leave the 'rithmetic to Moriarty. I've been thinking about the stories you have written describing our adventures. I have a special fondness for the first one called A Study in Scarlet. I've always wondered whether you wrote Part 2 before Part 1.  At any rate, it's a masterpiece as a detective story.

    JW   You taught me not to explain too much about methods.  

    SH   Rightly so. A Study in Scarlet establishes the genre of the detective story.  The name reminds me of a novel called The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne.

    JW   Doyle claimed that The Scarlet Letter was the best written American novel up to that time.

    SH   It's interesting how the infamous letter "A" which might have stood for angel or adulteress begins the name of your book.

    JW   It's not a coincidence.  What’s up?   What do you have in mind for our adventure, Holmes?

    SH   No wonder your name is Watson. Our case is to determine the author of the Dear Boss letter.

    JW   By heavens! The writer of the letter may be a serial killer.

    SH    The case is limited to the authorship of the Dear Boss letter; however, admittedly, there are overlaps.

    JW   But Holmes, you intend to solve this case through merely reading and writing?

    SH   Precisely.

    JW   I remember how Arthur Conan Doyle had outlined his method to determine the writer of the letter.  He was interviewed by an American journalist. I think it was in the summer of 1894 if I recall correctly.  Doyle had actually seen the letter when he visited Black Museum at New Scotland Yard. He was particularly fascinated by it.

    SH    Yes, it was on December 2, 1892. Isn't it interesting that Arthur Conan Doyle whose acronym is ACD stands for "a consulting detective"?

    JW  Oh! Hi ho!  Doyle said that Holmes would have made a facsimile of the letters, show the oddities of the writing and publish the facsimiles in the newspapers. In this way, someone might recognize the handwriting. I wonder why Doyle didn’t do it?

    SH  Perhaps something can be gained by analyzing the handwriting of The Dear Boss letter. There are several things that strike me as uncommon in the letter. One is the exceptionally long indentation. The normal indentation of a letter runs about five spaces in length.

    JW  There may be many people who begin letters with long indentations.

    SH   You are right, Watson. For example, in a letter written to his mother on November 11, 1891, Doyle uses a long indentation. In this letter he tells his mother that he is thinking of "slaying him [Holmes] in the sixth and winding him up for good and all".

    JW  I hope it never comes to that.

    SH  Thank you, Watson. He doesn't mention you in that letter.

    JW   A longer indentation means a shorter first sentence.

    SH  Exactly. The first sentence in the Dear Boss letter was five words (there were five murders) while the first sentence in the Doyle letter had six words or five murders plus the intended murder of Holmes. We'll have to look though for another similarity that is more striking.

    JW   What's that?

    SH   The way in which the writer writes the letter "I" tells a lot about him/her. It is the most personal letter of the alphabet and a word.

    JH    Wouldn't the Ripper know this?   He would disguise his "I".

    SH   A professional writer might be able to easily disguise his handwriting and style. Remember that the scientific study of handwriting was in its infancy so similarities of samples might go unnoticed. In all probability he would disguise the letter "I" as he would disguise other things in his letter.

    JH  Then how does it help us?

    SH   In the way he disguises the "I" and what it may relate to.

    JW   I don't quite follow you, Holmes.

    SH   Ah, now you want me to explain in detail.  All right, I'll tell. The "I" reminds me of a fish-hook or meat hook. It has a pronounced barb on one end and on the other end an eye loop.

    JW   Does that mean that the Ripper is a fishmonger or butcher?

    SH   That might be a conclusion Lestrade would jump to.

    JW   Don't keep me in suspense.

    SH   It might be possible that at one time or another the writer was a fisherman or fishmonger. He would catch fish with a hook and cut them up. On the other hand, he might cut up larger mammals such as seals or whales. He would be rather insensitive to killing these animals and believe that the animals had no feeling of pain. I believe that Doyle held those views with regard to his adventure aboard the whaler.

    JW   He might be a butcher, eh?

    SH   As a butcher he would have learned the positions of the various organs in an animal's body. And he would use a hook to hang up the animal or its parts. But remember, it is a deception. He is neither a fisherman nor a butcher now. He may have used this symbol because he had used the hook in the past. However, he may also use this symbol because he wished to describe someone who hung up the body parts with a hook.

    JW  This is gruesome.

    SH   No more gruesome than the murders.

    JW   As far as that goes, he could be a doctor. It could be me!  I use a hook as one of my surgical instruments.

    SH   You are getting imaginative now, my dear Watson. It was Doyle who said that a doctor gone wrong could be one of the worst criminals.

    JW   Surely you don't suspect me as the writer or even the killer?

    SH   The Ripper was particularly adept at "dialect writing". For example, he used such Americanisms as "fix", "quit" and "boss". You, too, were able to use American slang; such as, "mother's a deader" and "I didn't go for to do it".  However, you regard yourself as a doctor and not a professional writer.  You are not an expert at handwriting and the Dear Boss letter is written by an expert who can disguise his handwriting.  In terms of the actual murders, you have surgical skills as a surgeon; however, you were wounded at Maiwand. As a result, your brachial plexus was damaged. You find it difficult to undertake surgery due to loss of fine motor control in your left hand. The Ripper was adept with a knife in performance of precise surgical operations. It was generally believed that the murderer was a doctor for this reason and that he was a local resident. Police would have interviewed every doctor at London Hospital. However, it was not assumed that the doctor lived out of town. The fact that the murders were committed on the weekend might lend support to this view.

    JW   Doctors may see hundreds of patients in a day. Wouldn't there be the chance that a passer-by might recognize the Ripper if he were a doctor even though he was from out of town?

    SH   Not if he had a disguise. In the same way that he turned the letter "I" into a hook he might disguise his appearance. For example, he might put on a hooked nose.

    JW  Sherlock, what further kind of disguise might he have? Surely witnesses would remember any man whether he was disguised as a butcher, baker or candlestick maker.

    SH   What if the killer were disguised as a woman?   In A Study in Scarlet, a young man disguised himself as a woman and we didn't recognise him. You'll remember also in The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone how I followed Count Sylvius all day disguised as an elderly woman. Your Literary Agent, Doyle, suggested to the police that the killer might be disguised as a woman.

    JW  Do you mean disguised as a prostitute?

    SH   No, other men might bother her.  A male doctor or perhaps his accomplice might disguise himself/herself as an old mid-wife. He/she could then move freely about and there would be no alarm raised if there was blood on the dress. Furthermore, he wouldn't alarm his victims. Of course, he may not have disguised himself in this way for every murder. In the fifth murder, there is reason to believe that the killer or accomplice might have burned some of his/her own clothes in the fireplace. In other words, he/she may have burned a disguise.

    JW   By Jove, I think you might be on to something Holmes. The doctor would have to be a master of disguise like you. Sometimes I can't recognize you when you are two feet away.

    JW   If the Ripper had a confidant then who would be the most likely candidate?

    SH   The writer of the Dear Boss letter.

    JW   I seem to recall that both Doyle and Donston submitted articles to the Pall Mall Gazette on December 1, 1888. Was there any connection between these doctors?

    SH   Let me see. Donstan said that “one cannot afford to throw aside any theory, however extravagant, without careful examination, because the truth might, after all, lie in the most unlikely one”. A similar quote appears in The Sign of Four (1890); although this was after the murders. It read “When you have excluded the impossible, what remains, however improbable, must be the truth”.  Perhaps Doyle was paraphrasing Donstan.

    JW   What else did they have in common in terms of reading and writing?

    SH   Doyle submitted many articles to newspapers throughout his life: Donston listed his occupation as a journalist. Furthermore, Donston explained the probable meaning of the Juwes message. He said simply that the dot was unnoticed over the “i” and the word should have read “Juives” which is the feminine form of “Juifs” and means Jewesses. It's a French word. What intrigues me though about the entire message of Dear Boss are the letters b, f and o.   If looked at in an altered order they spell the word "fob". In its archaic sense, the verb "fob" means cheat or deceive. This message was meant to deceive, JW.

    JW   The Juwes message was an obvious red herring. It may though indicate an anti-Semitic bias on the part of the killer.

    SH   When Doyle wrote to Mary Doyle he made a slur against the Jews. He said “Are they not Jews after having had such a windfall as the book must have been to them to try & do me on the pictures like this.”

    SH   Let's look for clues in the mystery novella that you wrote—namely, A Study in Scarlet. It may be that the Ripper paid special attention to this novel.

    JW  It appeared as the main story in Beeton's Christmas Annual for 1887.  In other words, it appeared less than a year before the murders.

    SH   We might ask ourselves whether a prominent mystery writer such as yourself might use the word “hook” in his novel and how many times he might use it.

    JW  Heavens Holmes, I haven't the faintest idea.

    SH  There are two reasons I might ask a question. One reason is for me to discover something and the other reason is for the responder to discover something. In this instance, it's the latter.

    JW  You mean you know the answer?

    SH   It's used once. The general rule might be that it's an unimportant word because it's used only once, but the exception might be the context within which it's found. Here is the context. “However, we may as well go and have a look. I shall work it out on my own hook. I may have a laugh at them if I have nothing else”.

    JW  It's rather poetical.

    SH   Yes and draws attention to itself in that way. Furthermore, the word “I” begins the second sentence and the word “hook” ends the sentence. The first and last words are important ones in most English sentences. In this case, they act as bookends. In the middle is the phrase “work it out” standing like a book. Therefore, the word “work” becomes an important word.  We also have the rhyming words look, work and hook.  It might be rephrased as “Look at the work on the hook”.

    JW   You mean to say that the Ripper read these lines and uses these words in his letter.

    SH   There is a high probability.

    JW   My God.

    SH   That common word “work” appears an uncommon number of times in your book.

    JW   I take pride in my work as both a doctor and a writer.

    SH   Rightly so. The word appears directly twenty-three times.

    JW   I'm dazed at your mastery of minutiae.

    SH   If one misses the minutes then one misses the days.
    You rightly chide my pride when you say that “I may have a laugh at them”--meaning the police. The Ripper, too, laughed at the police with his “ha ha”.  He also uses the word “laughed” in the phrase “I have laughed when they look so clever” which refers to the bungling police. Finally, we find the word “look” again when it repeats later.

    JW  Do you remember your cry when you developed an infallible test for bloodstains?

    SH   Ha! Ha!

    JW  One might expect to find the word “rip” as in Ripper,

    SH   Ah ha. The word “rip” does not appear in the novel. However, it is embedded in words like “inscription” and “description”.  These words refer to writing.  Also, the letters r, i and p as in the familiar “rest in peace” appear in various orders of many words. How many detectives have looked at the word Ripper to mean “rip her”?  See how he rips or slashes in his writing.  Pay attention to the t's.  They are written quickly with a rip from left to right. He has given up the cross or rather the crossing of his t's. It looks vaguely familiar. I remember now. The “t” letter resembles the way the “t's” were crossed in your draft of A Study in Scarlet.   So the “t” becomes a symbol that looks like a hook. The Ripper or rather the one who calls himself the Ripper may write quickly because he is in the habit of writing a lot. When he underlines the two phrases “ha ha” the line resembles a rip across.

    JW  You are saying  that the writer of the Dear Boss Letter might have been a writer?

    SH   As the Ripper might say “you are on the right track”. One of his goals was to heighten the sense of horror in his readers.

    JW   What kind of writer?

    SH   Most likely a writer of detective fictions. One might believe that the murders would increase readers' fascinations with horror tales.   However, his interest may have varied and he may also have written scientific papers to medical journals.

    JW   Doyle's friend Dr. George Budd might fit the bill.

    SH   His friend did submit papers to medical journals. However, so did Doyle.   Doyle was suffering from neuralgia and he wished to alleviate the pain so he took the experimental drug called gelsemium nitidum.  Furthermore, he experimented with the drug to determine overdose symptoms. This was potentially a dangerous set of experiments and may have indicated a recklessness of character. The report was published in the British Medical Journal of September 20th 1879.  However, to return to Budd, he did show signs of mental unbalance.  To put it another way, Doyle’s friend showed signs of mental unbalance. 

    JW   I have here Doyle's The Stark Munro Letters. He describes a doctor whose name is Cullingworth to his mother, but that may be a surrogate for Budd. “You've quite come to the conclusion by this time that Cullingworth is simply an interesting pathological study—a man in the first stage of lunacy or general paralysis”.

    SH  It seems though that Budd's main drive in life was to make money as a doctor rather than as a writer. The writer of the DBL may have made money if he was a writer of horror tales because many people would be interested in reading this genre.

    JW   It's ironic that three important people in Doyle's life had similar names; namely, Budd, Bell and Ball. The first two were doctors and the third an architect interested in spiritualism.

    SH   It was in 1887 that Ball and Doyle conducted experiments in mental telepathy. He said that beyond a doubt he could convey thoughts without words. Then there was Doyle's letter published in Light.  Let me refer to my notes.  Here it is, it was on July 2rd, 1887 when Doyle declared “that it was absolutely certain that intelligence could exist apart from the body”. You and I have a keen interest in the bizarre. That's why I knew this case would be of interest.

    JW   I remember in The Red Headed League how I said something to the effect that for strange effects and extraordinary combinations, we must go to life itself. But Holmes, aren't you overlooking the obvious?  In A Study in Scarlet, the killer wrote the five letter, German word “RACHE” in blood on the wall.  The Ripper too wrote in his own blood. Furthermore, there was the Juwes message written in chalk on the doorjamb at some distance from the Eddowes murder. It contained the five letter, unknown language “Juwes” word.

    SH  Exactly.  There are a lot of clues in writing.  This may show again that the writer and/or the Ripper were intimately familiar with the novella A Study in Scarlet.   Look at the phrase “down on” as in “I am down on whores” that is prominent in the letter.  “Down on” could mean literally and/or figuratively. The phrase “down on” is used six times in this letter as in “down on the ground”.   It is known that Dr. Arthur Conan Doyle MB, CM, MD was biased against prostitutes and so was Dr. Robert D'Onston Stephenson MB, CM.

    JW   Why would a doctor be down on whores?

    SH   Doyle’s words might be quoted.  In 1917 he asked “Is it not possible in any way to hold in check the vile women who prey upon and poison soldiers in London?”

    JW    Doyle, too, wrote some stories as part of a Red Light series.

    SH   Doyle's office was often mistaken for a brothel because of the red light in front which was a sign of a general practitioner. A doctor would meet many women of the night who were syphilitic.  More so if he had specialized by earning an MD in this area as Doyle did.  Furthermore, he may have held a grudge against them for spreading the disease to others.

    D'Onston had caught syphilis from a prostitute. He also had admitted to killing two people when he was abroad. In a twisted mind, the letter writer may have thought that he was saving people by supporting the killing of whores. They make a curious pair as members of the Theosophist Society. D'Onston is a classic manipulator and Doyle is a classic case of someone who can be manipulated through his gullibility. D'Onston established his company called The Pompadour Cosmetique Co. right across from us on Baker Street.

    JW  That reminds me of a joke in poor taste. When Doyle received his degree, he drew a cartoon with the caption “Licensed to kill” underneath.  It's of interest to see the slashing of the letter “t” in this caption. The slashing of the letter "t" was characteristic of the writer of the DBL; as well as the slash under the "ha ha". However, the most obvious trademark of the letter writer is the name "Jack the Ripper". The rip or slash is part of the last name. The slashed throat was a trademark of the actual murderer.

    SH   I suppose there is an element of truth in the joke because doctors of that time were just beginning to diagnose diseases in a scientific way.  In some sense, a detective on the force who searches for clues to the crime resembles a doctor who is looking for symptoms of a disease.   Crime detection was just beginning as a science and it may be that many a guilty man hasn't been caught.

    JW  And many an innocent one found guilty.   I'm reminded of the Edalji case.  He was accused of writing letters as early as 1888 (at the time of the Ripper murders) and of maiming horses.  It was only through the efforts of a public crusader (Doyle) who wrote articles for the Daily Telegraph that he was found innocent of the mutilations but guilty of writing the anonymous letters.  In this same way, someone might have been guilty of writing the Dear Boss letters, but not of the murders.  However, he may also have been an accomplice to murder.   In the letters, Doyle commented that Edalji was as innocent of the mutilations as was he.  It's curious why Doyle took such an interest in this case.

    SH   Of course, we must not dismiss the possibility that the Dear Boss letter was a hoax. It may have been perpetrated by someone who was playing a joke.  He talks about “That joke about Leather apron” and “funny little games”.

    JW   He reminds me of a mischievous Irish fairy. The belief in fairies was prevalent in folklore; although, in modern times it may be a sign of schizophrenia manifesting itself in delusions.

    SH   Isn't that usually an hereditary disease?

    JW  It may run in some families and gallop in others.  It's usually intensified by substance abuse such as alcohol or cocaine.   It's well known that Doyle wrote an article of support for the Cottingley fairies in “The Strand Magazine” and a book on The Coming of the Fairies.  His father sketched 'The Fairy Music Stool' in his diary. Finally, his uncle drew 'Enter an Elf in search of a Fairy' for his book In Fairy Land.

    SH    I hope you appreciate the joke, but doesn’t our relationship seem at times schizophrenic?  We are two different people, but almost inseparable.  You are the lamb and I am the hound, so to speak. 

    JW   Ah, say Ah, Ha Ha.  The doctor becomes a writer and the scientist becomes a detective.  We solve the crimes together. 

    SH   It also seems possible that a person could have a delusion about being a murderer.  Let us say as a young boy that he was sent away from home because his maniacal father tried to kill him.  His father commits himself to a home for inebriates or was institutionalized in an asylum. The son might be concerned that he, too, would become like his father--especially if he started to show signs of mental illness.  Maybe the son avoided the pitfalls of alcoholism but succumbed to a cocaine habit.  It's possible through a delusion that he might believe he was the actual murderer; although this scenario seems rather farfetched.  Anyway, he might identify with the one who attempted murder. 

    JW   It's more likely that others might believe he was the murderer.  For example, in A Study in Scarlet  (ASIS), the son Arthur who defends his sis is mistaken for the killer who fights like an epileptic (Charles Doyle) with exceptional strength.  Remember that Arthur Doyle, too, came under a shadow in his medical career when his patient named Jack Hawkins died. Jack was suffering from meningitis. Doyle prescribed chloral hydrate to his patient. There is no evidence to suggest foul play. However, the medicine may have hastened Jack's death.  He may have felt guilt over this and been regarded by others as a murderer who had motive.  Ironically, Doyle married Jack's sister.

    SH   Doyle might also have known or believed he knew who was the Ripper or been a confidant and so in one way or another have identified with him.

    JW  There were several medical men who were suspected of the Ripper murders. He would have to have a Jekyll and Hyde kind of personality.

    SH   It is no secret that Doyle was an ardent admirer of Robert Louis Stevenson who wrote The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in 1886.  That was two years before the murders.

    JH   That's true. The story dealt with crimes and secrets of respectable members of society. On rare occasions, a man's inner beast would dominate. He would act like a wolf or stalking cat.  However, on most occasions, he would wear a mask of propriety on the outside.   Sometimes he might be quite active, but most of the times he might suffer from severe bouts of depression and become lethargic if not catatonic. These states almost seem to parallel the effects of the two drugs of cocaine and morphine.  Sigmund Freud completed a review article in June 1884 called “Ueber Coca” where he extolled cocaine as a miracle drug. A year later he stressed how cocaine would be used by psychiatrists to treat melancholia or neurasthenia. He not only experimented with the drug but took cocaine himself to treat his depression and indigestion. You must realize though that it is a stimulant rather than a depressant. Cocaine can distort one's view of the world and lead one to bizarre behaviour. However, it is recognized now that cocaine abuse can intensify schizophrenia so it is not used as a treatment. Who knows what a schizophrenic on cocaine might be capable of doing?

    SH  Sorry, Watson, I was distracted. Do you want a seven percent solution of cocaine?

    JW   Ah, no. I must keep my wits about me. I don't have so many wits to lose.  I had been reading though through my description of you in A Study in Scarlet. “Nothing could exceed his energy when the working fit was upon him; but now and again a reaction would seize him and for days on end he would lie upon the sofa in the sitting room, hardly uttering a word or moving a muscle from morning to night”. As a doctor, I might classify those as symptoms of manic-depression. I am also concerned about your views on the ex-Professor Moriarty. They seemed highly delusional.  In The Final Problem you claim he is the Napoleon of crime and “the organizer of half that is evil and of nearly all that is undetected in this great city.”  It seems that only you know about Moriarty.  The Professor is almost like death personified.  It can lead to no good.  Your illness may make you suffer from delusions and make you more prone to substance abuse.

    SH  If I was more like you then you wouldn't like me. If I was more like anyone else then I wouldn't like myself.  There may be another work that the writer of the Dear Boss letter read.

    JW  Really. Is it one of mine?

    SH  No, it's written by Arthur Conan Doyle. There seems to be a bit of the chivalrous knight (Arthur) and a bit of the little wolf (Conan) in Arthur Conan. Indeed, one may also contrast the syllables "art" and "con" (counterfeit art).  Perhaps one can also view "art" as on the outside and "con" as on the inside. It's a historical novel called Micah Clarke.  It can be abbreviated as MC but I prefer to shorten it to “HE”. The word Michah ends in “h” and the word Clarke ends in “e”.  As an aside, it was a doctor named Donstan who claimed in the February 15, 1890 issue of the Pall Mall Gazette that he was "the Author of the Original of "She". Anyway, HE was competing against a previously successful novel called She written by Haggard.  Doyle was asked by the publisher to rip out some pages of his novel to make it shorter. It must have hurt his sense of pride.

    JW  Historical novels are not generally read by people who like detective fictions and vice versa.    

    SH    That's true. For that matter, historical novels are not generally written by writers who write detective fictions.  It is a split that is difficult to reconcile except through madness or genius or by a mad genius.  Ironically, your work called A Study in Scarlet has both. The detective aspects are in England and historical elements in Utah.  Are you familiar with the novel called Micah Clarke?

    JW   I've read it. There seems to be an element of autobiography in the novel.  It begins in a village called Havant near Portsmouth off the main London road.   Of course, Doyle practiced medicine in Southsea.  Clarke's father, Joseph, resembles to some degree Doyle's own father who was self-restrained most of the time but on occasion showed signs of a fierce and fiery fanaticism which may be a sign of temporal lobe epilepsy.  Clarke's mother was Mary Shepstone. She is portrayed much like Doyle saw his mother. She was respected by those above and beneath. Generally speaking, the boy's childhood was gloomy.

    SH  There is a curious incident mentioned in the novel regarding the boy's childhood. His father looked at him gravely, took him aside and then chastised him. Then he calls him “corn ripe” ...'waiting only for the reapers”.   Now with a little imagination we can see the word “rip” within “ripe” and the similarity between the word “reapers” and “ripper”.

    JW  Is there anything more?

    SH  Well, the trooper yelled to Joseph 'Hit the crop-eared rascal over the pate, Jack!' There is the name “Jack” as in Jack the Ripper. The name was repeated when he was called “a smug-faced Presbytery Jack”.

    JW  This incident was probably from the childhood memories of Doyle. You imply that when the writer uses the name Jack in his signature, he might be delusorily identifying himself with his father. Is there any other mention of a Jack in the novel?

    SH    We would have to go to Chapter XXX called “Of the Swordman with the Brown Jacket”.  The word “Jack” is embedded in the word Jacket. The owner of the brown jacket is a highwayman called Hector Marot who also owns jack boots.  He glances “about like some fierce wild beast in a trap”.

    JW  He came to the rescue of a woman, didn't he?

    SH   Yes, he had good intentions, but he was not successful.  He had heard the woman's screams and rushed to the rescue.  However, she died with a “rigid face and twisted body” while the hung man was saved.  He tells this story to Sir Gervas [graves].

    JW  I remember that he performed a medical operation. He opened the old man's veins with a knife to let out the blood.

    SH   His words were most curious to me when he rushed to the rescue.  He said, “Why, marry, I”.  You’ve been married five times.  You were successful on the sixth.

    JW   Clarke's mother was named Mary and so was Doyle's.

    SH   Exactly Watson.  And the first and last victim of the Ripper had the given name of Mary.  The first victim was named Mary Anne “Polly” Nichols who was born Mary Ann Walker.  The last victim was named Mary Jane Kelly or Kate Kelly. Of course, one alias used by the fourth victim was Mary Ann Kelly.  However, I would rather not explore at this time depth psychology and oedipal complex which may have a bearing on the issue. 

    JW  It seems more than a coincidence that all three victims had the name “Mary”. Of course, it’s a common name; nevertheless, the murder of Mary Jane Kelly took place on Dorset Street.  It is a fact that four of the five victims had lived or were living on Dorset Street.  It was an infamous street running east-west in Spitalfields of the East End. It was known locally as Dosset Street because of its many common lodging places.

    SH   I don't recall that we were ever there together or for that matter Thrawl, Flower and Dean Streets. These are some of the most vile areas of London where crime and criminals flourish. The area is ripe with pickpockets, robbers and non-convicted murderers.  It's almost as if we were avoiding the area and topic of the Ripper murders. We haven't investigated the Ripper murders nor even referred to those murders in our study of other crimes.  In fact, it reminds me of the curious incident of the dog in the nighttime that did not bark.  It wasn't the barking of the dog that caught my attention but the lack of barking.

    JW   I have chosen cases that exhibited the least sensationalism in order to highlight the full extent of your investigative abilities.  In terms of Dorset Street of Spitalfields, it underwent a name change in 1904 and has since become an unnamed private access road. On the other hand, isn't it more than a coincidence that there is a Dorset Square and Dorset Street running east-west so close to us in Westminster?

    SH  It's difficult to explain it by using deductive or inductive logic.

    JW   It would seem that a close proximity of Baker Street and both Dorset Square and Dorset Street might be a case of acausal  connection. It is synchronicity or “temporally coincident occurrences of acausal events”.

    SH   And it was you who once described my writing in The Book of Life as “ineffable twaddle”.  It implies a kind of recognized pattern which manifests itself as a meaningful relation but cannot be explained using classic scientific method. Your concept though is interesting if it expresses a collective unconscious or grand design of some deeper meaning.

    JW   Sure. There may be a connection between the Dear Boss letter, the murders, Baker and Dorset names which we are aware of but which we can not clearly elucidate or enunciate.

    SH   On another matter, consider the possible significance of the number thirty in Chapter XXX. Needless to say, the third and fourth Ripper murders took place on the 30th of September. That number 30 keeps repeating in this chapter, too, in a curious context.  It is said “mor'n thirty year”, “thirty zeed-toimes” and “harvests we've worked thirty together”. Sow one's seed can have a double meaning and the harvest is one of blood.

    JW   The number thirty is also implicit in the warning countdown that Young gives John Ferrier in A Study in Scarlet. A notice is given to amend within 29 days or face the consequences. “The twenty nine days were evidently the balance of the month which Young had promised”. Perhaps the prostitutes who were killed by the Ripper had 29 days to amend or face the consequences.

    SH   Let's refer back to the Dear Boss letter. The Ripper says “That joke about Leather apron”.   In other words, he is laughing at those who think he wears a leather apron.  In Micah Clarke, the hero's father was a leather merchant and tanner who “prospered at his trade”.  He would have worn a leather apron.  Is the Ripper or writer laughing because people might confuse him with his own father or rather because he confuses himself with his father?  The Ripper also laughs when people think he is a doctor.

    JW  Ah ha, the character Marot performed an operation like a doctor and might seem to be one.

    SH   There are two sides of the author portrayed in Chapter 30.  First, there is Clarke. He may be likened to an innocent lark.  He is son of Mary and Joseph.  But remember, too, that the name of the Ripper's last victim was Mary and her live-in boyfriend's name was Joe Barnett.   No doubt the two names originated from Doyle's mother whose given names were “Mary Josephine Elizabeth”.  Embedded in the name Clarke is the word “ark” with holy significance. Then there is Hector Marot.  He may be likened to the rat. He retch(es), is associated with a “torch” in his fieriness and is “mar rot”.  He has an unsavoury trade as highwayman, but is not unlike a false saviour at times.

    JW  What about the word “hook” in this book?  Obviously it appears as the hook suspending the man upside down by a rope and the hams and meats dangling from the rafters.

    SH  You have the most important usages. Marot sees a birding-piece on hooks. There is the name Hooker that is mentioned several times in this chapter.  That reminds me about the hooked “I” in the Dear Boss letter.  It also somehow resembles an ear, a hooked ear or a hooked earring.  The clipped ear of Mary Ann Nichols may have been hung up on a hook by the Ripper.

    JW   Can you refresh my memory concerning Marot's face?

    SH   His most distinguishing feature is a white seam across his forehead as from a slash with a knife.  Sir Gervas calls it a trade-mark upon his forehead. Note how the Ripper added a postscript to his letter by referring to his signature as a trade-name.  A professional writer might be especially concerned with trade-names and trade-marks. The word “trade” appears several times in the novel.

    JW  I'm wondering, Holmes, what piqued your interest in the novel Micah Clarke?

    SH  I’m a pioneer of forensic linguistic analysis.  One issue was “word frequency”.  I had looked at A Study in Scarlet in terms of phrase frequency. In other words, I concentrated on trying to find some of those singular kinds of phrases found in the Dear Boss letter.  For example, there is the phrase “real fits”. On the whole, I was not too successful. When I recently viewed Micah Clarke, as it was closer to the time of the murders, I decided to take a different tack or track.  I would focus on word frequency. The word “work” stood out in the letter because it was important to the writer and because it was repeated four times. His work is killing.  The word “work” appears one hundred and one times in the novel.  In terms of the Victorian work ethic this may not seem surprising.  However, I noted how each word was used and also the frequency in particular chapters. The word “work” within the phrase “no mercy after the devil's work” stuck out.  It's found in Chapter XXX. So if X marks the spot then this is triple X or should I say triple cross?  I followed up by reading Chapter XXX to determine how many times the word appeared.  The word “work” popped up only three times which meant that the frequency was rather low. This does not though negate the importance of the word in its association with the word “devil”.  In an aside, I marvelled at the similarity between the words “devil” and “evil”. It may be that evil is the act and devil the actor.  I'm not sure which comes first.  Then, does the evil vile devil live?  If I were a consulting poet I might say so.  However, I was rather astonished to see that the other words in the letter had a high rate of frequency in this chapter and in particular within the telling of two stories; namely, the “scream scene” and the “scent scene”.

    JW What words repeat?

    SH  It’s probably just easier to list them rather to explain all their contexts. They are catch, down, ear, ears, game, jack, job, laughed, leather, little, look, jolly, knife, officers, red, right, sharp, stuff, trade, track and work. They appear also in the Dear Boss letter. Incidentally, there are several key words in the opening sentences of the novel that are found in the letter; namely, knife and right.  In the letter the knife or pen slashes left to right to underscore importance. In other words, the knife is right that slashes to the right.

    JW   Can you remark on the word “ears” because the Ripper threatened to clip off the lady's ears?

    SH   The scene where “ears” is mentioned is important.  It is preceded by a whispering of Sir Gervas into the “man's ears” (highwayman's) about the rascal's identity.  In the actual scene, there is a complicated chase.  I call it the “scent scene” because the dogs follow the hare by scent.  It is described though as a “catch-who-catch can” game played by boys.  It could be construed as the peace officers who chase the highwayman who chases the three farmers who chase the hare. Their goal is the hare's ears. This might be taken in the letter to mean the police officers who chase the Ripper who chases the lady.  His goal is the lady's ears.  However, if we use the same fourfold parallel in the Micah Clarke text then we find a hidden agenda. One of the Ripper's motives might be money.

    JW  I don't follow you, Holmes.  How can money be a motive if the prostitute has very little and is out on the street because she can't afford a bed?

    SH   This explains it. The police officers chase the Ripper who chases the customer(s) who chase(s) the lady. The Ripper would hold up the customer(s) at gunpoint before he chased them away.

    JW  If this is true then wouldn't the customer be a potential witness against him?

    SH  Yes, but he would not likely report the crime. However, this scenario is unlikely in a crowded urban environment. It appears that the plan may have been contemplated, but was not consummated.

    JW   There are other references to ears in the detective series.  

    SH   Yes, The Adventure of The Cardboard Box appeared in January 1893 as the second of twelve serialized stories in “The Strand”.  It was removed from the “Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes” ostensibly because it touched on the themes of alcoholism and adultery, but there may have been other reasons. The story involved the cutting off of two ears.

    JW  The publication date was considerably after the time of the Ripper murders.

    SH   That's true. However, the actual case took place in the hot days of August 1887 or one year before the murders.   Also, if you recall, there were my two monographs in the previous year's Anthropological Journal in the month of March concerning the distinctive characteristics or identities of human ears.  In the Cardboard Box case, the killer mailed two ears to a recipient.  Initially, it was believed to be a hoax.  In the Eddowes case, it may have been the killer who mailed a half of a left kidney preserved in wine.  But there is another parallel.  A kidney has a resemblance to a human ear.  In addition, the lobe and auricle of Eddowes' right ear were obliquely cut through. This act seems to fulfill the intention stated by the writer who calls himself Ripper in the Dear Boss Letter.

    JW  It is notable in the Dear Boss letter that the Ripper threatened to send ears to the police officers, but only a kidney was sent to the leader of a vigilance committee.  In the CB adventure, the killer really sent a pair of ears from different victims to the eldest sister who lived significantly on Cross Street.  What I am saying is this.  What the Ripper didn't do in real life was done fictionally in a sense both before the murders when the CB case transpired and after the murders when the story was serialized.

    SH   In the CB case, two ears were mailed rather than a kidney. One was a male's and the other a female's. It sounds rather occult with its balance. However, let's examine the Mary Jane Kelly killing.   It was a ghastly affair. Her whole body was mutilated. However, among those parts mutilated were the ears. The ears were rather overlooked because of the other mutilations which were much more prominent. Or should I say that the Ripper wanted us to overlook the ears. It may suggest that the killer believed someone wasn't listening to him. It reminds me of the incident where Van Gough cut off his own ear because Gauguin wasn't listening to him. It may suggest the killer knew the victim. And in this particular murder it would be the ears and eyes which were the means of identification.  It so happened that the victim had a set of uniquely recognizable ears. That's also true in the CB case. The victim's ears were readily identifiable.  However, there was a similarity between her ears and her sister's ears. In fact, they were essentially the same. The victim of the CB case was named Mary and the Ripper's victim was named Mary, too.

    JW   The unidentified serial killer may have killed an unidentified woman in the fifth murder.

    SH   You are showing insight. Kelly was rather a mysterious woman. There was no record of birth. She may have been Welsh or Irish.  She assumed many names from Mary Jane Kelly, Fair Emma, Ginger to Black Mary. Her hair color may have been ginger, blonde or redhead.

    JW  One of Kelly's most distinguishing features were her ears. The killer removed a portion of each ear. What if the killer and Kelly lured a woman to the apartment?  Kelly left. The woman was killed and disfigured so identification would be difficult. The woman's clothes were burned.

    SH  Indeed, Kelly may have been recognized by Caroline Maxwell at 8:30 am on the morning after the murder and by Maurice Lewis at about 10:00 am.

    JW   Do you remember when there was an art exhibition at a picture gallery near Bond Street?

    SH   It is curious that you mention it.  There were the Belgian masters who included James Ensor. He visited London for four days in 1888. There is a probability that Doyle visited the gallery, too.  Ensor's paintings which were among the group called XX may have reminded Doyle about some of the macabre water colours drawn by his father. He displayed some of his father's paintings on his office wall.

    JW  Ensor's work typified 'mystical expressionism'.

    SH  Exactly. I remember one picture in particular. It was called “My Dead Father”.  It showed how his alcoholic father fell in an Ostand doorway and died of exposure. One might expect that this picture was of special interest to Doyle since his father was an alcoholic.

    JW  He admitted himself to Blairerno House. In May 1885, he was declared insane.  On May 26th 1885 he was transferred to Montrose Royal Asylum. A few months later on August 6th, Doyle was married to Louise Hawkins and in the next year on March 8th, I began writing A Study in Scarlet.

    SH  Doyle could not help noticing the carnival masks at the exhibition that Ensor began to paint in 1884. They were mocking human pretentiousness. It's possible that the Ripper used a mask or make-up to disguise himself as a woman based on the Ensor masks.

    JW  You have looked at other people's names in literature and described their meaning. However, what's the meaning of your name?

    SH   Some have made guesses as to my given name and family name, but not the whole name. For example, Sherlock means “fair-haired”.  Sherlock may come from the name Alfred Sherlock who was a violinist. There was also a Chief Inspector Sherlock. My surname was used by Doyle in an essay called “After Cormorants with a Camera”. There was a Timothy Holmes who wrote “A System of Surgery”. Most probably it came from the well-known Oliver Wendell Holmes.

    JW  I have my own guess as to the origin of your name. The name Sherlock Holmes means “sure lock homes”.  In other words, they are homes that have secure locks.  Here is a riddle, what kind of home is easy to get into but hard to get out of?

    SH  An asylum.

    JW  You guessed it. What I am saying is that one of the factors that went into the making of your name was the character of Charles Doyle. You are not an alcoholic, but you do inject cocaine.  Doyle's wife did say that her husband used “stimulants” which may have implied cocaine. Furthermore, Charles Doyle illustrated the July 1888 edition of A Study in Scarlet.  His picture of Sherlock Holmes was a self portrait of a young Charles.

    SH  You mean that I might be capable of writing the Dear Boss letter?

    JW   If I might quote from the The Sign of Four.  “What a terrible criminal you would have made had you turned your energy and sagacity against the law instead of exerting them in its defence”. You are an expert at handwriting. You have written papers on esoteric topics, so writing comes naturally to you. You understand anatomy. You are an expert on the subject of crime.  You think yourself superior to the police.  At times, you act like judge, jury and executioner.  Finally, you might think yourself able to commit the perfect crime.  However, based on your own words, you are not Jack the Ripper because you were unfamiliar with the novel Micah Clarke until after the murders.

    SH   You might make a detective, yet, as you take little for granted.  Yes, I am one of the hounds and not the wolf.

    JW  I might also draw your attention to the close proximity in time between the death of Charles Doyle and your apparent death. As a patient at Crichton Royal [mental] Hospital, Charles Doyle literally fell to his death in an epileptic fit on October 10th 1893. You fell over the cliff at Reichenbach Falls. The Adventure of the Final Problem may well have been written in the first weeks of April.  Isn’t the final problem really about death? Doyle writes in a letter posted from Norwood on April 6th 1893 that he was “in the middle of the last Holmes story, after which the gentleman vanishes, never to return again. It seems also that Doyle was considering the possibility of his father's death for it was on June 24th that he wrote to his mother “If papa died and you had no pension....”  The Final Problem appeared in December 1893. This is where you have a near death experience through a fall.

    SH   It seems ironic that Doyle conceived of the idea of Holmes' death when he visited Switzerland and that his wife, Louise, was diagnosed with consumption (tuberculosis) just a few weeks after returning from the trip.  Doyle hypothesizes that she may have overtaxed herself or encountered microbes in some inn bedroom. He and Louise were to travel to Davos, Switzerland which for many readers was like returning to the scene of the crime.

    JW  It shook me when I heard news of your death.

    SH   I didn't know you missed me so much, Watson, but I couldn't inform you about the actual situation for your own safety.

    JW  I did miss you and so did Doyle because he resurrected you in another adventure.

    SH   He resurrected his father, too. Three weeks after his father's death he became a subscriber to the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research of which Alfred Wallace was a member. He undertook correspondence with Oliver Lodge who was one of the founding members. Doyle was fascinated by the story of the Cook mediumship. For years he continued to assert his belief in her genuineness. In the summer of 1894 he talked in detail on a frequent basis with Balfour, Lodge and Myers about the problem of communicating with the dead.

    JW  Are you speculating that Doyle's interest was reinvigorated in psychic phenomena at this time by the death of his father whom he may have wanted to contact in the afterlife?

    SH   It is more certain that his prodigious output of stories with psychic themes; such as, mesmerism in The Parasite were linked with his father. Professor Gilroy who is a neurasthenic physiologist is reminiscent of Charles Doyle. Gilroy escapes from his prison by slipping the key under the door. The professor attempts to disfigure his fiancee or perhaps murder her and finally decides to murder the female clairvoyant, but finds her dead. Of course, the Gilroy character may be a composite. He also seems similar to Donstan who had admitted himself to hospital with either a complaint of neurasthenia or neurosthenia.  If the Gilroy character is a composite that includes Donstan then is it possible that Donstan could have earlier murdered Gurney who was a founding member of the Society for Psychical Research and expert on hypnotism?  Or was it just a coincidence that Gurney may have died from chloroform of which he treated himself and Donstan overdosed on chloral hydrate to treat his delerium tremens?

    JW   Those are a lot of coincidences.

    SH  In Memories and Adventures by Arthur Conan Doyle, it is stated that he begins the novel Micah Clarke after October 30, 1886. He spent some months researching historical detail.  However, he then wrote it quickly and was finished in early 1888.  It was submitted to various publishers beginning April 30th but without success. He then began and completed another novel by June 1888.  It appears that he went to London in order to convince publishers to handle the novel Micah Clarke.  Was he in London at the time of the murders?  In a letter dated February 1889, Doyle says that he made his final revise of all four hundred pages of Micah Clarke. This implies that the only ones to have read Micah Clarke before the murders were some of the publishers, someone close to Doyle or of course--Arthur Doyle.

    JW   You mean to say that since Doyle wrote Micah Clarke and there are parallels in the novel and the Dear Boss letter that one might infer that Doyle was the one who signed the letter as Jack the Ripper?

    SH  It's a distinct possibility. However, it is not a certainty at this stage because it is also possible that Doyle revised Micah Clarke by adding Chapter XXX among other changes. This means that he could have read about the murders in the paper and then added Chapter XXX.

    JW  However, as I understand matters, many publishers were uninterested in Micah Clarke for various reasons. Later, Doyle was talking with Longmans in October 1888 and at that time he signed a contract. The critic Andrew Lang then advised him to shorten the text. At around that time he shortened the text by ten pages. In other words, there were probably no changes made to Micah Clarke before the Dear Boss letter and the first murder of the Ripper. Chapter XXX was probably part of the original manuscript. Later, changes were made to make the novel shorter rather than longer after talks with the publisher. Eventually, Doyle shortened the novel by a total of fifty pages and added an appendix.

    SH   That seems to sum up the issue.

    JW  You referred to the novel that was completed in June 1888.   It was The Mystery of Cloomber. The novel appeared in serial form between August and November 1888 in "The Pall Mall Gazette" before it was published by Ward and Downey in December 1888. It was based on the Theosophist concept of the 'chela' or a person who can travel through different dimensions. Does it shed any light on the Ripper murders?

    SH  It indicates Doyle's state of mind prior to the writing of the Dear Boss letter. His thinking was disorganized and dazed. It appears to be a hollow, shallow tale of spiritualism.  It does not match the quality of research and writing displayed in his previous novel. There are obvious factual errors; such as, Buddhist monks who wear Muslim fezes. Doyle recognized that the novel was a mistake.

    JW  Yet, the absurdity that it was accepted for publication before Micah Clarke would not have been lost on Doyle. The Mystery of Cloomber is the only novel excluded from the twenty-four volume Crowborough Edition of his fiction.

    SH   The novel represents a trip down the Thames into "The Heart of Darkness".  As Dante wrote in Canto 12, "He cleft asunder in God's bosom, The heart that still upon the Thames is honoured".

    JW   The three chelas seek revenge for the murder of a holy one. They torment the perpetrators for forty years.  Finally, they lead them down the Hole of Cree.  There is a kind of puzzle that says "Five have gone down, but only three have returned".  It may imply that the three chilas have returned to the light while the two murderers have been lost in a nether Hell.  Doyle seems to want his cake and eat it too for immaterial spirits leave material footprints.

    SH   Doyle refers to Dante's Inferno.  Specifically, it refers to Canto XII at Circle 7, Round One of the Violent Against Neighbours. The poets Dante and Vergil descend into the chaos. One might say that Dante is a confidante of Vergil. They are met by three centaurs. The centaurs are guards to keep the souls submerged in the river of blood. One of the centaurs is Chiron who is known in mythology for his medical skills, but he was also the teacher of Achilles. He was famed as a surgeon and the teacher of Aesclipius.

    JW  There are three centaurs. The Master is Chiron and the others are Nessus and Phobus. So five go down and three come back up. The Centaurs come back up and the poets go deeper.  We may equate Doyle with Chiron since they are both doctors and surgeons.

    JW  The descent to the Hole of Cree represents a kind of evolutionary setback; wherein, man reverts more to his real animal self through his punishment. He becomes like the Centaur who is an imaginary animal and not part of scientific evolutionary development.

    SH  One cannot help recalling the discovery of Piltdown man who had the brain of a man and the jaw of an ape. It provided the missing link between man and ape. The discovery was made near to where Doyle lived. He had an interest in amateur palaeontology. Coincidentally, he may have been visiting Malta at the time of a discovery of the fossilized remains of a hippopotamus in 1907.  One of the planted items at Piltdown was a hippopotamus tooth.

    JW   Doyle's The Lost World was published in April 1912 and the Piltdown discovery was announced to the press in November. It would seem that the book would support the Piltdown discovery which was made on the Weald Plateau. In reference to the plateau of the lost world, it is said that an area "as large perhaps as Sussex has been lifted en bloc with all its living contents." It is said that in order to increase readership and make it seem more real he actually faked photos, maps and diagrams.  Actually, Doyle seriously recommended to the publisher that the book should be illustrated with photographs of himself disguised as Professor Challenger with black beard, adhesive eyebrows and wig.  In other words, this hoax began with The Lost World and continued with Piltdown man.

    SH   In short, Doyle was perverting Darwin's evolutionary theory through the Piltdown hoax in order to discredit materialism. There was also an element of revenge in that the scientist Lankester had discredited his friend Doctor Henry Slade who was a spiritualist and now it was a chance for Doyle to get even.  He used his novel to lend credibility and set the “frame” of mind to the Piltdown hoax.

    JW   Of course, it is neither the first nor the last hoax that he perpetrated.  In his early medical career about 1881, Doyle was cautioned by the Aston Police. He had sent out fake invitations to a Mayor's Ball as a practical joke.  Later, he championed the fake photographs of the Cottingley fairy hoax.

    SH   The Piltdown hoax has some bearing on the Dear Boss letter which may have been a hoax, too. Doyle may have written the Dear Boss letter in collaboration with the actual murderer. It may have been intended to heighten the sense of terror and keep his readers on tenterhooks. Another motive was to discredit the scientific methods used by police detectives. They were unable to determine who wrote the letter or perpetrated the murder and so they looked inept. However, the author of the letter may have intentionally or unintentionally misdirected the police investigation because it was assumed the writer and Ripper were the same person.

    JW  Is there an effort to discredit Darwin's theory?

    SH   Indirectly. The letter writer seems to be someone who is not quite human but appears to have the instincts of an animal.  It is known that Doyle was upset with the way Ward Lock & Co. dealt with A Study in Scarlet.  It was not the Editor-in-Chief Professor George Thomas Bettany who approved of the novella, but rather his wife.  In this respect, Doyle may have felt slighted by the editor. By the way, the anthropologist had written a biographical study in The Life of Darwin's Great Writers Series of 1887.  Also, Doyle had requested royalties for his own work but was forced to sell copyright for only 25 pounds. The importance of the story was minimalized in two ways: publication was delayed for a year and it was included with a couple of other stories in a miscellany. Since it was not a book, it was not reviewed extensively. It was published again as an individual volume in July 1888, but again Doyle did not profit because he had relinquished the rights.

    JW  Doyle also complained of the paltry sum offered his father for the drawings. He calls Ward Lock & Co. the epithet of "perfect Jews". This may not suggest prejudice, but does suggest the use of a stereo typecast.  In short, Doyle must have been exasperated by Bettany so that he would make every effort to change publishers and retain copyright of his future works. If he changed publishers he could also embarrass the editor-in-chief.

    SH  Exactly.

    JW   On a related issue, I would be more convinced that Conan Doyle was the instigator and perpetrator of the Dear Boss letter if you could show me examples of a hoax in his writings.

    SH   Elementary.  I'll begin with the general and proceed to the specific. Generally speaking, the practice of spiritualism has been regarded at best as a parlour game and at worst as a hoax. In the latter category, many spiritualist mediums have been exposed as frauds. Perhaps if a person expressed a belief in spiritualism then it would be necessary to continually sort through those great number of mediums whom he suspected as fraudulent and a small minority of mediums he believed were genuine. He would understand the various ways hoaxes could be conducted.  Furthermore, if he were to write books or lecture to the general public then it would be natural for him to be on the defensive concerning hoaxes.  Conan Doyle explored an interest in spiritualism as early as 1881 and may have been fully converted by the mid 80's.  He expressed a dogmatic attitude toward spiritualism in his book The New Revelation when he said that it is either “absolute lunacy or it is a revolution in religious thought”. One might illustrate his views on spiritualism by exploring briefly his attitude toward Houdini. The master of escape seemed to perform tasks that defied reason. He admitted to Conan Doyle that his techniques could be explained in a normal fashion. Yet, the spiritualist refused to believe Houdini's own admission. He sought other worldly answers. Furthermore, he expounded the view that Houdini may have been able to alter his material state and convert himself into protoplasm in order to manage the escapes. It seems Conan Doyle is not only deluding himself, but is deifying spiritualism. It is a hoax whether he knows it or not. Let's look again at The Adventure of the Cardboard Box. I remarked to the effect that I was constantly in the habit of following the unspoken thoughts of my companion. You expressed incredulity.  In other words, you thought I was performing a hoax or funny game. It was necessary for me to explain my line of reasoning.

    JW   I admit that I was sceptical about the matter until I heard your explanations.

    SH  Now, I will deal with the specific. The case was no less than my death. It seems everyone believed that I met my demise in The Adventure of the Final Problem. They were fooled.  Here I am. Now if I were to show that the DB letter was a hoax then the best example would be to refer to a letter that was a hoax in CD's adventures; so I'll continue with the same case. You will remember that you received a letter from your landlord regarding a lady who experienced a hemorrhage.  You were asked to see her.  You had scruples about leaving me; nevertheless, you responded to the request. The letter was a hoax. It was intended to throw you off the track and separate you from me. I'll now quote what I said to you. "Indeed, if I may make a full confession to you, I was convinced that the letter from Meiringen was a hoax, and I allowed you to depart on the errand under the persuasion that some development of the sort would follow".

    JW  That answers my concerns.

    SW  Many characteristics of the DB letter have been investigated.  It may be, however, that the folding of the letter fooled and has been ignored.  The small size of the envelope limited the number of ways it could be folded.

    JW   Could the writer have purposefully chosen a small sized envelope with this view in mind?

    SH   It is probable. The letter had been folded twice to produce a Christian cross as the dominant pattern. Of course, both age and refolding has accentuated its appearance.  At the time of the murders, the cross pattern would not have been so obvious to an untrained eye.

    JW  What is the significance of the cross?

    SH   The cross symbol refers to the next murders of the Ripper.  There would be a double murder committed on a single night. The fold pattern reflects the location of the murders on a directional grid of north, south, east and west. The pattern is also a cross. The Ripper mocks the cross. The centre of the cross may be regarded as the heart if one were to relate it to the human form.

    JW  What is the significance of the heart?

    SH   The heart is removed in the fifth murder. In the original Christian cross the intersection is at the heart. This explains the symbol of the cross in the letter.  As time developed, the intersection moved toward the head. This may reflect the development of Christianity itself or the movement from feelings to thoughts.

    JW   However, this letter implies four murders and not a fifth.

    SH   It may also refer to the fifth murder. Notice the apex of the cross. There is a date of 25 Sept. 1888.   The vertical line runs through the number 5. This may indicate that there will be five murders.  Will five go down and three come back through a medium?   The number 2 may indicate that either two murders have been committed or more likely that there will be two murders in the near future.  It is clear that a further investigation is needed of the letter in terms of fold patterns.  For example, is it merely a coincidence that the top word is 'on' and the word down at the bottom is 'off'?  The word 'on' is used elsewhere in the expression 'down on'.  The reversal is obvious.  The phrase “down on” would represent a profanation of the cross. The word 'down' of the phrase 'down on' is found significantly on the vertical line of the cross.

    JW  All of this is mere coincidence unless the Ripper planned his letter on this grid.

    SH   The cross pattern may be planned. He wrote the letter by carefully positioning key words and numbers. It might have taken him several drafts and tracing is also a possibility.

    JW  It's almost unbelievable.

    SH   What if we were to go further in terms of the placement of words on the cross symbol? Let's look at the last letter of each word at the five points of the cross. The words are "on, off, job, to and the". The last letters are therefore n,f,b,o and e.  One of the more interesting phrases that can be formed is 'no fob'. A fob  is a strap, ribbon or chain attached to a watch.  If we use the word 'fob' along with the word 'off' found at the bottom of the vertical line then we have the verb 'fob off'. This means to put off with a trick, to pass off as genuine or to put aside. This indicates that the letter may be intended as a trick to throw off police.

    JW  Do the folds tell us anything else?

    SH  There is a third fold pattern. This pattern is more problematical for one reason: the letter may have been folded by another person at another time. For example, a journalist or police officer may have again folded the letter.

    JW   If the letter was folded intentionally for a third time by the writer then what does it indicate?

    SH   The top right hand corner is folded down in a triangular pattern. The result on the front of the letter is a curious set of two convex lines which if extended might then form an oval shape.  It may have an occult significance in that it represents a vesica piscisor form resembling a fish.

    JW  It is apparent that the writer of the DB letter was well acquainted with the newspaper business. The destination of the letter was the Central News Agency or a place whose news would reach many newspapers. This has lent credence to the belief that the writer was a journalist.

    JW  The note forwarded to the police describing the DB letter was unsigned, but may have been in the handwriting of Tom Bulling who was a journalist. The CNA certainly benefitted by the publicity. This led Chief Inspector Littlechild to conclude that Bulling was the originator and his boss John Moore the inventor.  I see though that the note is not folded in the same way as the DB letter.

    JW  Donstan classified himself as a journalist, too.

    SH   Donstan was paid by the piece that was published by publications such as the Pall Mall Gazette. It would have been out of character for him to have made a submission for which he was not paid.

    JW   Is there someone else like a journalist?

    SH   A writer and public crusader may fit the bill.  He may write to various outlets in order to express his viewpoints on various issues.  For example, he might want to express views on prostitution and also policemen.  He would be familiar with the CNA. He would not care about direct reimbursement. However, he might be compensated indirectly through sales of his other publications which would benefit by the publicity.

    JW  Do you have someone in mind?

    SH  Arthur Conan Doyle. He wrote hundreds of letters to newspapers in order to sway public opinion. The topics varied. Let me tell you a short story that is apocryphal. His medical practice  had been slow. One day there was an accident in front of his business. He submitted an article to the newspaper describing the accident and his treatment of the victim. Business picked up. It would not be out of character then if he were to write a letter to the CNA in order to promote his career as a professional writer of detective fiction. The sobriquet of Jack the Ripper crystallized the public's interest in the Whitechapel murders and in the genre of detective fiction.

    JW  I would not say the case is closed, but rather open to further investigations in the areas of the DB letter, possible relationship of Donstan and Doyle, re-examination of the fifth murder in particular, and a study of the life of Doyle and all his letters ie. to mother, Dr. Waller, others and to the newspapers.

    SH  Consider a doctor who was raised in a religious environment as a boy, who rebelled at the authoritarianism and who gave up religion for science. In other words, he changed from a belief in religion to a belief in materialism. Yet, he couldn't quite give up his belief in life after death and so he became a spiritualist. He asked Bell in front of a packed auditorium if the cadaver has a soul. As a scientist, he wanted to prove everything. He took nothing for granted. He may have conducted experiments upon himself like taking various drugs and submitting his findings to medical journals.

    But the ultimate experiment is conducted in a real life environment. He wants to communicate by seance to the departed prostitutes. He wants to see if there is life after death. He believes in telepathy and theosophy. He said "I have seen my mother and my nephew, young Oscar Hornung as plainly as I ever saw them in life" in Memories and Adventures.

    He is not a particularly successful doctor. He turns to writing, but is not really recognized as a serious writer in the historical field. Instead, he achieves notoriety for writing pulp fiction detective stories.

    He is upset with the publisher in the way A Study in Scarlet was treated.  He seeks a kind of revenge by changing publishers and by popularizing the horror genre. The Dear Boss letter ignites the public interest in detective fiction stories.

    His father is institutionalized and he worries that he, too, is succumbing to a hereditary disease. He is influenced by those who are steeped in the occult and magical practices.  His first novella is a macabre tale of bloodlust. He finishes a novel that is somewhat autobiographical which has the seeds within it of bloody murder. Another novel is written as a trip to Hell and references are made to Circle 7 where murderers are punished. His mental health is deteriorating when he enters a phase of depression. Typically, he became depressed after the completion of a novel and perhaps more so after this one. When he writes The Dear Boss letter, he becomes his alter ego--the little wolf.

    The letter draws on many ideas expressed in three of his novels; namely,  A Study in Scarlet, The Mystery of Cloomber and Micha Clarke.  Some ideas were known only to the writer or to a select group of publishers.  Those ideas expressed in Micah Clarke were not published in the public realm before the murders.

    He delusorily regards the letter as a hoax or one of his "funny little games".  It seems Doyle perpetrated the Dear Boss letter hoax because he guessed who the murderer was, or he knew who the murderer was, or he identified in some way with the murderer, or he collaborated with the murderer. 


    1.  Booth, Martin, The Doctor The Detective & Arthur Conan Doyle.Coronet Books, Hodder and Stoughton, London: 1997.

    2.  Costello, Peter, Conan Doyle: Detective, Carroll & Graf Publishers, New York: 2006.

    3.  Doyle, Arthur Conan, Ed. J. Lellenberg, D. Stashower & C. Foley, A Life in Letters, The Penguin Press, New York: 2007

    4.  Doyle, Arthur Conan, Memories and Adventures. Wordsworth Editions Limited, Hertfordshire: 2007.

    5.  Doyle, Arthur Conan, The Complete Classic Series of Sherlock Holmes. CIP, Beijing: 2007.

    6.  Doyle, Arthur Conan, The Stark Munro Letters, Quiet Vision Publishing Inc., USA: 2000.

    7.  Freud, Sigmund, ed. Robert Byck, Cocaine Papers, The Stonehill Publishing Company & Robert Byck, New York: 1974.

    8.  Higham, Charles, The Adventures of Conan Doyle, W. W. Norton & Company Inc., New York: 1976.

    9.  Edwards, Ivor, Jack the Ripper's Black Magic Rituals.
    John Blake Publishing Limited: London: 2003.

    10.   Evans, Stewart P., Keith Skinner, Jack the Ripper: Letters From Hell. Sutton Publishing, Gloucestershire: 2001.

    11.  Odell, Robin, Ripperology, The Kent State University Press: Kent: 2006.

    12.  Pascal, Janet B., Arthur Conan Doyle: Beyond Baker Street, Oxford University Press, New York: 2000.

    Copyright 2008-2019  D. Carlton Rossi

                                        Hockey Eh


    As a Canadian, I’ve grown up with hockey.  I learned to skate at age three. My father placed a wooden chair in front of me and then told me to push it across the ice. He and his neighbour built the outdoor rink across their backyards.  It cannot be done anymore because yards are now fenced. The other boys liked to play hockey but didn’t like to clear off the ice. I had to clear off the ice.  It was my first job.

    On hot summer afternoons, the boys would play ball hockey on the road or wherever they could. In a close scuffle, I was cut across the forehead with a stick. I rode my bike to the hospital, got stitched up and then returned to the game.

    On a cold winter day in January I broke through the ice.  I was alone on the marsh.  My legs went right out under the ice.  I wondered how deep it was.  I was lucky.  It was only a few feet deep.  It didn’t make it easier to get out though because the ice kept breaking wherever I touched it.  I froze in the frigid temperature.

    My father took me to a Leafs game in Toronto. I saw Tim Horton. You see, he was the defence man for the Leafs.  Today, he is a coffee shop.  Yes, I stayed up to see the Leafs win the Stanley Cup--twice.

    Then there was the Canada-Russian hockey series in ‘72. No Canadian or Russian will forget that hockey series.  It broke the ice so to speak between the two countries.  It was before the US- China ping pong tournament. I asked my teacher if I could play hookie to watch the final game of hockey.  He thought lessons were more important. I didn’t. However, I attended the lesson. 

    In the past, the players were skilful. They loved the sport. They loved the rivalry. They respected their opponent.

    Then hockey changed. The money became important. The violence escalated. That is when I lost interest in the game of hockey.

    The final Stanley Cup Game between the Vancouver Canucks and the Boston Bruins is the first I have seen in years.  It’s still a shock to see modern hockey.  It’s a shock to hear the commentator say the teams hate each other—despise each other.  It’s a shock to see the charging, spearing, tripping, elbowing and slashing. All of it ended in riots.  This isn’t the game of hockey that I remember or that my great grandfather played as goalie for the local team.

    Today, I like mixed martial arts. It’s bloodier, yes.  However, they fight by the rules.  Fighters respect their opponent.  I remember reading Mandela’s autobiography.  It was boxing that made Mandela strong. He respected the rules and he respected his opponent.  He led the peace movement in the Republic of South Africa and won a Nobel Prize.  He is one of three honourary Canadian citizens. 



    Inferiority Complex

    So Canada has an "inferiority complex". It no longer regards itself as a middle-power, but only as an observer. I believe rather that Canada is capable of becoming a "superpower". It has a bountiful grain supply and potash to nourish it.  The country has abundant fresh water.  It has significant reserves of heavy and light rare earth elements. The second largest country in the world has the second largest confirmed oil reserves. Canada's Northwest Passage will link Europe and China. It shows technological leadership in many areas that include chemistry, medicine, engineering, banking, communications, entertainment and robotics.  Its people have a strong moral sense. It is a peaceful society and needs only a small military. It lacks only what most other countries lack--leadership.





                                                      The Eight Anniversary

    The eighth anniversary of this website approaches. Its inauguration was August 2003. Prior to that time Mr. Sun Dawu was held incommunicado without a lawyer while awaiting trial.  His company ceased to operate as a going concern. His funds were seized. His brothers were arrested. His company’s website was blocked. 

    I had been at the village establishing a university in co-operation with an international college and various universities in Beijing at the time of the arrest. Other foreigners had left because of the SARS crisis, but I remained.

    My website provided an insider’s view of the situation before, during and after the trial. It supplied uncensored pictures of Mr. Sun and the sprawling conglomerate. It recorded public opinion at the time. Its audience was Chinese.



                                         The poet in mountainous region near Fushan 


                        Changing Concepts and Constructs

    The mobile version of this website was recently converted from a Blackberry to an Android platform. This should provide better, faster and wider access to a growing readership. It is undeniable that readers prefer a mobile version to a laptop version by a ratio of 4:1. The downside is that fonts, spacing and text can become distorted on a smaller screen.

    The laptop version is undergoing an extensive and intensive transition from a distributive approach to a more focused and compact layout. A new system of categorization and reorganization may help illustrate and illuminate relationships more clearly and concisely. For example, the trilogy of poems called “My Grandparents”, “My Parents” and “Myself” will appear together chronologically for the first time rather than on separate pages. 

    A secure website is of paramount importance to the author to protect the integrity of the material and the privacy of the reader. During the first two weeks of March, 2016 this website came under repeated, relentless and sophisticated attacks by arbiters of taste. These attacks were both collective and selective in nature. Among other things it seems that the arbiters find some poems, at best, materially useless and, at worst, valueless if one wishes to trace the placement of planted viruses.

    Some examples will suffice to show the general trend of censored poems. The five line poem called “Ideas” appears to be five lines too long for the arbiters.  The poem called “Their Four Familiar Walls” also deals with walls and focuses on the number four. It alludes to the existential writing of a French philosopher. The poem called “The Village” perhaps has too many flowers in the garden. A virus of 1000 lines was embedded in these poems and others. 

    All of the poet’s Chinese poems garner particular attention for censure. This is rather mystifying since the language is not foreign English but rather Chinese. It appears though that ancient cultural, poetic and philosophical ideas expressed in these poems is of foreign nature to those who are materially minded and favour Chinese “social least” culture. The poem of cyclicality, flux and harmony of the elements may be deemed offensive because of its use of a traditional Chinese character in its title. Who knows why? One doesn’t ask “Why?” in modern China as it can clog cog.

    One must not ignore the poetic-philosophic poem called “La Lune” which is written in French. It deals with the uncertainty principle, chaos theory and quantum physics with respect to a love triangle. The poem ends with a rhetorical question rather than an answer.  

    However, it is not just targeted poems which are rejected by the critics, but any material on Fushan. What could be controversial or consequential about a mountain that was systematically torn down for slate by mining interests?  In addition, thousands of years ago it was seen to resemble a tortoise. Now, tortoises don’t move too fast in their long lives; although, eventually, they do go from here to there. Finally, some stones are found at the top of Fushan. What else would one find at the top of any mountain?




    She was Meg or Marguerite d'Anjou who was the daughter of Rene of Anjou. Her father held the titular titles of King of Naples, Sicily and Jerusalem. Meg was born in the year 1430. She was the dark version of Joan of Arc who did die in the year 1431.

    Meg became the Queen consort of Henry VI.  She effectively substituted in terms of rule for her husband who had bouts of madness.  It was she who called the Great Council which excluded the York faction; thus, sparking the War of the Roses. 

    Meg was taken prisoner by the Yorkists and then ransomed. She lived as a relation of the French King.  She did die in 1482.

    The war might be understood by today’s younger generation as Armageddon in the War of the Roses game play. Meg also appears as a fictional character in Shakespeare’s Henry VI and Richard III. In the latter play, she acts as a prophetess. She utters imprecations which are fulfilled against the nobles who have brought down the House of Lancaster. 

    A decisive battle of the War of the Roses was fought at the Battle of Bosworth some three years after Meg's death. It was here that Richard III of the House of York met the forces of Henry Tudor.  In this decisive battle, Richard was defeated and lost his life.  His remains were identified 528 years later on February 4, 2013.

    The word "meg" might also be regarded as an embedded word found in the name of the ancient city called Megiddo. Megiddo was the location of Armageddon or a totally destructive war. The Battle of Megiddo was fought in the 15th century between Egyptian forces led by Pharaoh Thutmose III and Canaanite vassal states.


    The central figure is Shu, who is holding up Nut (his daughter) who is arching over him. Geb (her lover) is the Earth god lying upon the Ground. In Egyptian Myth, as depicted here, Shu is seen forcibly separating Nut and Geb from union.

                                         The Lovers

    The Chinese Double Seven festival takes place on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month in the Chinese calendar. The formal name in Chinese is 七夕 or Qi Xi in pinyin. In English, it is translated as Seven Night. This year the festival takes place on August 9, 2016. It marks the annual reunion of the cowherd Niu Lang and his wife Zhi Nü who is a seamless weaver of clouds. They were separated by the Jade Emperor. On this festive day, the lovers are able to cross the river of the Milky Way on a bridge of magpies. The reunion refers to the appearance of Altair (Niu Lang) and Vega (Zhi Nü) on both sides of the Milky Way which appear to move closer.  

    The passage quoted at the end of this written piece is an expression of exquisite poetry in a novel called Achilles written by Elizabeth Cook. To set the scene, Achilles follows the pale-moon face of his lover Polyxena to the temple of Apollo where Paris has taken refuge. Achilles plunges over the threshold of Apollo's temple when he follows a face which is as bright as the moon (ie. the temple has been cleansed to allow the bright shafts of the sun to enter). Achilles has gone unarmed to the temple. However, he is hit by an arrow shaft of Paris directed by Apollo. 

    Chaos ensues when the Trojan scavengers fall on his carcass. The bright blue waves are replaced by the dark waves of purple, green and deep blue. The scene mirrors the beginning of the novel where the Bosphorus is described as two rivers flowing in contrary directions separated by a membrane. 

    In the upper river which swiftly flows can be found fish streaming as a rain of arrows in a sharp green sea teeming with life. Below it is another black river (same but not the same) which flows sluggishly and where nothing lives. They are roped together as a single cord pulling the boat to the edge of ocean. 

    The cord may change into several things symbolizing harmonized fate. It is the twang brought about by a bow cord composed of separated sinew combed orderly. It is the tight mosaic of the Muses' song before the bones of Achilles and Patroclus are placed separately in the urn and mixed with time. Finally, it is the sight and sound of silver fish weaving a kind of seamless sail for ship or wings for soaring bird in the afterlife. 

    "The sound is the sound that would happen if every fish in a silver shoal had its own fine note. An intricacy of sound, a close-stitched cloth. Each fish a needle darting over and under, under and over, till the cloth is tight. Each needle a note, taking its place in the vast canopy of sound that spreads itself out over their heads. This pliant, seam-free cloth of shot silk which encloses them unfurls, interposing itself between them and the sky." 1. 

    1. Elizabeth Cook, Achilles, Picador Publishing, New York: 2003, p. 64 (paperback edition).


                                           The Lost Bicycle

    On the surface, there is no connection between an underwater drone and a bicycle. However, the closer one looks at the two then the more resemblance one sees. I rode a Schwinn bicycle in 1993.  Coincidentally, that was the same year that Schwinn went bankrupt.  My Schwinn though was a used one and probably about twenty-five years old. It was basic black with a mousetrap behind. I  rode it on Third Ring Road from Chaoyang District to Zhongguancun Road of Haidian District in Beijing. The journey took 45 minutes.

    At that time, new Schwinn bicycles were expensive in the capital. They retailed for 300 yuan which was one-third of my salary. I opted for a cheaper used bicycle for 50 yuan. I reasoned that it wouldn't be stolen. It wasn't. Rather, it was lost.

    I had parked it with thousands of other bicycles outside the classroom.  It was hard to find among so many bicycles, but usually after a five minute search I would come across it. One day though I didn't.  When all bicycles were removed my bicycle was gone without me. It had been stolen.

    I didn't report it to the police because technically speaking I was required to have a bicycle license. Rather, I reported it to my 300 students.They told me that nothing is stolen in China.  What a workers' paradise! There is no theft. Rather, they said to me, it was lost. What does that mean I asked? They answered that if it was not there then it must be lost somewhere. Their deductive logic was impeccable. At any rate, it is much better having 300 students looking for a lost bicycle than one policeman looking for a stolen bicycle without a plate.

    The next day I had to take a taxi to work. It was an eye-opener. The driver drove like a bat out of hell.  He literally knocked down a bicycle rider while turning a corner. Now I was confused how I should get to work. I had lost my bicycle, but I could lose my life on a bicycle or in a taxi for that matter.

    There was some good news when I arrived at my office. My students had found my bicycle. They took me there. We walked up to the fourth floor of a student dormitory. I knocked on the door. When it was opened I saw my bicycle. I had found the lost bicycle. I wondered how it had found its way up there?

    The student was rather surprised to find a professor in his room. He hadn't known it was my bicycle. He explained that he had seen the bicycle without its lock latched. As a public minded citizen he naturally wanted to prevent a theft, so he had taken the bicycle to protect it. He was happy to have provided this public service and return the bicycle to its owner.

    Naturally, I didn't believe a word he had said. He had not acted in the public good. Rather, he had acted in what he had believed was his own good. He was mistaken in that belief though because it was obviously not to his benefit to have everyone know that he was a self-appointed custodian of lost and found. Tongue in cheek I thanked him for protecting my bicycle from thieves (who weren't supposed to have existed in China).

    A similar situation exists today in China. If you have had something stolen then you never yell "Thief!". No one will come to your assistance. On the other hand, if you yell "Murderer" then everyone will come to your assistance.

    D.卡尔顿 罗西



    It may be of interest to some of my friends to describe my impressions of Huairou which hosts the APEC conference next week. However, I will refrain from commenting on either the preparations for the conference or the recent controversies concerning attendance. 

    The author was familiar with Huairou for two reasons.  A colleague had lived there in the past.  Secondly, nearby, there was a restored section of the Great Wall.  The author has visited this site on several occasions.  At that time, Huairou was called a village.

    It is still called a village by the local inhabitants, but it has every characteristic of a modern city.  For example, the local hospital opened within the last year. It lacks nothing in terms of knowledgeable experts and modern equipment.  The author visited the hospital during his one week stay in the village at the time of the National Day celebrations at the beginning of October; but, he was not a patient himself.

    The people of Huairou are very friendly.  The best place to meet new friends is at one of the local parks.  At the break of dawn people are exercising, practicing Qi Gong and playing ping pong.  Later, a walk through the park is a common practice.  At night, the dances take place.  I counted five separate group dances each of which appealed to a specific taste. 

    It is a village whose backbone is the movie industry. It may also be the reason why a special kind of neon street lighting is prevalent. These lights are programmed to vary according to set patterns. They convey a sense of surrealism to the atmosphere. However, what seems to be more surrealistic to the author is that the lights are turned out at around 10 pm.  It is totally dark in this village and few people venture out for a walk. 

    I’m sure that you have all heard of ghost cities in China.  However, for the first time I became aware of ghost companies. These companies look like the genuine article from the outside. However, if one looks closer they are empty with no activity. They are seemingly purposeless. In one sense, they almost appear as movie sets except for the fact that they are overgrown with underbrush, have locked gates and old newspapers plastering the windows.

                                   Indian Democracy 


                           1/34 Model of Crazy Horse Sculpture

    Crazy Horse (Lakota: Tȟašúŋke Witkó in Standard Lakota, literally "His-Horse-Is-Crazy";[3] (c. 1842 – September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. Celebrated for his ferocity in battle, Crazy Horse was recognized among his own people as a visionary leader committed to preserving the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life. Following the Lakota victory at the Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull and Gall retreated to Canada, but Crazy Horse remained to battle General Nelson Miles as he pursued the Lakota and their allies relentlessly throughout the winter of 1876-77. This constant military harassment and the decline of the buffalo population eventually forced Crazy Horse to surrender on May 6, 1877.

    Part 1 The Akicita Society

    The Sioux had a number of devices to keep any akicita society from becoming dictatorial. First and foremost, they rotated the authority; the Kit Foxes would be the police one month, the Brave Hearts the next, and so on. Second, no man could simultaneously be a head of an akicita society and a tribal chief or member of the governing council. Third, the Sioux did not delegate real power to an individual, be he a head of an akicita society, tribal chief or member of the governing council. As Lowie puts it, "in normal times the chief was not a supreme executive, but a peacemaker and an orator." Chiefs--all chiefs--were titular,"and any power exercised within the tribe ws exercised by the total body of responsible men who had qualified for social eminence by their war record and their generosity."

    Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors, Stephen E. Ambrose Anchor Books: New York, 1996, p 48.

    In this time of disorder and disorientation the author as a romantic returns to what might be regarded as pure democracy on the Great Plains of the Sioux before the arrival of the saints, sinners, settlers and soldiers. In other words, the Sioux had not yet received the "blessings" of civilization. It reminds him of how far democracy has become distorted today with demagogues and dynasties. The summary is divided into three parts; namely, The Akicita Society [primarily warrior], The Installation ceremony of the shirt-wearers and The Spiritual harmony with all.

    However, the author as a realist is also aware of how fragile this pure democracy was of the Sioux tribes. It was based on resources--particularly the buffalo--which numbered in the millions. The army could not catch the Sioux to exterminate them so they decided to eradicate their resource or the buffalo. This would allow them to fence in the Sioux on reservavtions making them dependent on the State. To paraphrase the former Prime Minister Trudeau, in Canada eradication was accomplished through starvation.

    Canada's most important resource today is water. If the water is polluted then our democracy, lifestyle and lives are threatened. Our very existence is at stake. Why should Canada endanger this primary resource through free-trade at the insistence of China which has polluted 90% of its water? Why should Canada expand the tar sands and pump out more oil to another country if its own water becomes polluted?

    The author taught briefly more than fifteen years ago on a part-time basis at the head office in Beijing of a Chinese oil company. He asked his students whether oil or water was more important? They responded by saying oil was more important. However, the author followed up by asking how long each one of them could live without water? He was told shortly thereafter that his services were no longer needed.

    D.卡尔顿 罗西



                                                    The Battle of the Rosebud

    Crazy Horse (Lakota: Tȟašúŋke Witkó in Standard Lakota, literally "His-Horse-Is-Crazy";[3] (c. 1842 – September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. Celebrated for his ferocity in battle, Crazy Horse was recognized among his own people as a visionary leader committed to preserving the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life. Following the Lakota victory at the Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull and Gall retreated to Canada, but Crazy Horse remained to battle General Nelson Miles as he pursued the Lakota and their allies relentlessly throughout the winter of 1876-77.


    B.    The Shirt Wearers

    In 1865 the Oglalas decided to revive a governmental system which was learned from the Blackfeet. Seven leaders, men over forty, called the "Big Bellies", formed a chiefs' society. They would advise and govern on various issues. To execute their orders they chose four "Shirt-Wearers". The duties and responsibilities of the "Big Bellies" and "Shirt-Wearers" were carefully circumscribed; although, their powers were not precisely defined. (p. 135)

    Crazy Horse was appointed a Shirt-Wearer. He was told that he must consider others rather than himself. It was his responsibility to look after those who could not look after themselves. For example, he would often go out alone to bring back antelope or buffalo for the poor, widows and those with little power.

    The Black Hills or Pa Sapa to the Indians were promised to the Sioux forever in the treaty of 1868. However, only four years later, President Grant signed the Mining Act of 1872. It stipulated that any company or prospector "can stake a claim on Federal land and mine metals there virtually free of charge". They can also buy the land outright under patent from the Government for $5 per acre.  

    In 1874, Sheridan established a fort in the area of the Black Hills on Sioux land. Furthermore, he sent out an expedition led by Custer to explore for gold. It was found at French Creek. In 1875, the United States Government put pressure on the Sioux to sell the land. Basically, the government wanted to settle the west, end the Great Depression which had begun in 1871, increase the circulation of dollars  and establish an infrastructure project (to use modern terminology).

    However, the government did not want to meet the price set by the Sioux. Furthermore, some Sioux such as Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse were unwilling to sell the land at any price. They would forcefully oppose the seizure of Sioux land.

    It is said by Ambrose that the United States Government was embarrassed that it could not find a legal reason to take the Hills. Basically, it made a decision to delare war on the Sioux and then looked for a cause. General Crook led a column of 1000 troops to find the Sioux, but the Sioux found Crook. Crazy Horse had left half of his warriors to protect the women and children and the rest were employed at Rosebud to counter Crook's incursion. Crook was forced to retreat. It was known as The Battle of Rosebud Creek. It may be imaginatively speculated by the author that his last word on his death bed was "Rosebud".

    Fast forward to the future. During the late 1980s the Bank of Canada began to sell its gold reserves. No satisfactory reason has been provided for this decision. Of course, on every side of a sale there is a purchase, so who exactly purchased the gold or collarterly used it? The reserve had been used to defend the Canadian dollar and to guarantee zero interest loans for infrastructure projects such as the Saint Lawrence Seaway.  

    Somewhat earlier, in 1985-86, a Canadian company with an American subsidiary bought the rights to the Goldstrike mine at Elko, Nevada which was located on federal property. It began the process to obtain full legal title to the property by developing the claim. Ultimately, the company was looking to purchase the property for $5 an acre and avoid paying royalties to the US government on 10 billion dollars worth of gold. Of course, gold in the ground is one thing, but full title is another thing and so, too, are the costs to develop the infrastructure of the mine. Mysteriously, miraculously and magically, these problems evaporated.

    While the Bank of Canada was established as a public bank to counter effects of the Great Depression and to create jobs for those in dire circumstances, its ability and responsibility to provide zero interest loans for infrastructure projects to benefit the public is in abeyance. This situation is being challenged in the courts. In the meantime, an infrastructure bank has been established outside of the public sector which will fund projects at market rates of interest. There is little that is transparent about this bank.

    One is reminded of Orson Welles' movie Citizen Kane. It is loosely based on the life of William Randolf Hearst. "Kane's career in the publishing world is born of idealistic social service, but gradually evolves into a ruthless pursuit of power." (Wikipedia). The young Kane  pushes the sled against his guardian Thatcher when he is about to be taken away. In some respects this act resembles Crook's campaign against the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne at Rosebud in Bighorn County, Montana on June 17, 1876.

    As a young boy, Kane is playing with his sled in poverty riddled Colorado of 1871 at the fictional Little Salem while it is revealed that gold has been discovered on his mother's property. The resentful Charles Kane is sent away with Thatcher who acts as his guardian, but after gaining control of the trust at age twenty-five Kane publishes scandalous and salacious attacks against the banker which in a sense imitate Crook's nefarious camapaign against the Sioux. In the film, Kane is given the line "You provide the prose poems; I'll provide the war," undeniably similar to "You furnish the pictures, and I'll furnish the war," a quote widely attributed to Hearst. Ironically, Kane loses control of the New York Inquirer to Thatcher at the beginning of the Great Depression in the 1930's. Charles Foster Kane's last word before he died was "Rosebud".

    D.卡尔顿 罗西


    Crazy Horse and Custer:
    The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors,
    Stephen E. Ambrose
    Anchor Books: New York, 1996


    Non nobis solum nati summus

    The philosophical treatise entitled De officiis or On
    Obligations was written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in late 44
    B.C. to son of the same name--Marcus Tullius Cicero. The
    treatise encourages his son to strive for honourableness in
    public and private life. The honourable emerges from the
    perception of the truth in the philosophical sense or from
    safeguarding the community, or keeping faith with contracts or with maintaining a lofty unconquered spirit. There may appear to be an opposition between the honorable and the expedient; however, they are not in opposition. They are the same. An expedient preserves life. Since life is honourable then that which is honourable preserves life.

    The manner of the philosopher’s address to his son is
    illuminative.  Each of the three books begins with the
    personal salutation of “Marcus my son”. In this address
    he uses the personal praenomen “Marcus”. By using the
    phrase “Marcus my son” he expediently appeals to him
    on a personal level to improve the fulfillment of his son’s
    everyday obligations.

    The praenomen “Marcus” is a popular one in Latin. It means either Mars (Roman god of war), one who was born in the month of the god Mars or one who is a warrior. In 43 B.C., Marcus, had abandoned his studies and joined the forces of Brutus. It may be that his father wished him to live a more contemplative life or if he were a soldier then to meet his full obligations.

    However, the philosopher also addresses his son as “my
    dear Cicero”.  Cicero is the honourable family name
    or cognomen. It is a down-to-earth name which may
    mean “chickpea”. By using the cognomen, Cicero reminds
    his son of the necessity to pay attention to the past and
    follow the family tradition. He reminds him to follow in his father’s footsteps. And most particularly he reminds his son that when the father became a senior magistrate and senatorial that he ennobled his son. This ennoblement
    means that he has obligations of honour to the gods, the
    state, the senators and citizens, the army, his friends, his
    his relatives and his family.

    The praenomen and cognomen may appear to be in
    opposition. One is personal, of the hour and at the beginning of the full name. The other is familiar, familial, of fame and of honour at the end of the full name. However, they are not in opposition. The apparent differences may be reconciled in the whole name through obligations of honour which are the same. And both father and son have the same honourable name.

    D. Carlton Rossi




    The Signature of Mao Tse-Tung

    If you are Chinese then you will recognize the signature of Mao Tze Tung who was a master calligrapher. His signature is based on a unique style of calligraphy which dances and flows across the page. It is sheer rhythm expressing vivid images which are panoramic, operatic and poetic. Classically, he paints through words the beauty and strength of nature; although, as a modern poet and revolutionary using both lu (regulated verse of late Tang dynasty and ci (irregular verse of Song Dynasty), he manifests the majesty and power of human nature. This essay will primarily examine the poetic aspect of his signature in terms of three critical military campaigns and will touch on embedded images of weapons, fish(ing) and English script.


                                              Mao Tse Tung

    It may be there are three campaigns represented in his full signature. First, there was the Against The Third Annihilation Campaign which began on July 2,1931. Second, was the well-known Long March (which began in October 1934). Finally, there was the Huaihai Campaign 淮海戰役 in the north-east between 1948-1949 with the Battle of Xu-Beng being the decisive military action of the Chinese Civil War. It was the poet and writer Robert Payne who in 1946 interviewed Mao Tse Tung about his poems. However, Mao was rather reticent to talk about his poems. In fact, his lieutenants related to Payne how Mao used to toss them on the floor as if they had little importance. They were picked up by his lieutenants as lost treasure mainly for their calligraphic value.


                               Tung  (Third Annihilation Campaign)

    However, one should not underestimate the brilliance of Mao's poems. He wrote in a classical style of lu or ci and relied on mythical allusion. The New York Times said "Mao [is] a poet of originality and masterful strength." Payne commented that "perhaps it is no accident that part of his signature closely resembles the serpentine curve shown in the map of the The Third Annihilation Campaign." The poet believes the "curve" refers to the third character or Tung. The movement of the army is north-west from Juichin to Hsingkuo, north-east past Tungku, east to Kwangchun, looping to the west and then over to Tungu. On the character of the signature, the city of Kwangchun would be at the base of the triangle. It is interesting to see that the character is Tung while a major battle is fought at Tungku.                

    In his description of guerrilla strategy, Mao said "Our policy for dealing with the enemy's first, second, third and fourth "encirclement and suppression campaigns" was war of annihilation. The forces annihilated in each campaign constituted only part of his total strength and yet all these "encirclement and suppression campaigns" were smashed." Routing an enemy is secondary to annihilating an enemy in battle or in the campaign. There is not a poem of the third siege. However, lines of poems from the first and second siege will have to suffice to give an impression of it. The following lines come from The First Siege written in January or the spring of 1931.

    We woke a million workers and peasants to have one heart.

    Below the mountain of Buzhou an anarchy of red flags.

    The following couplet express the images of The Second Siege.

    In fifteen days a forced march of two hundred miles through gray Gan waters and Min mountains of jade.

    We sweep away their troops easily, like rolling up a mat. 


                               (Against) Third Annihilation Campaign

    The Third Annihilation Campaign is described by Payne. A patrol of the Red Army discovered a fifteen mile gap between a division in the north and an army of 100,000 in the south.They fled at night encountering two divisions under commander Shankuan therein defeating them in a forty-eight hour battle. After marching for three days they defeated another division and then another army a few days later. The Red Army took Kwangchang and then suffered heavy losses at Tungku when encircled by the 19th Route Army, but found a gap to escape. The campaign was decisive because the Red Army broke or defeated seventeen of the enemy's thirty-three divisions.


                                         Tse  (The Long March)

    The Long March which began in October 1934 may be seen as a strategic retreat of the Red Army. It prevented an attack or encirclement by the enemy. The march lasted 368 days. It covered 3700 miles and crossed 24 rivers and 18 mountain ranges. It marked the emergence of Mao Tse Tung as undisputed leader of the Chinese Communists.

    The Long March was written in October 1934.

    None in the Red Army feared the distresses of the Long March.
    We looked lightly on the ten thousand peaks and ten thousand rivers.

    However, there is another poem that comes to mind when one thinks of the campaign of The Long March. It is called The Yellow Crane Tower 黄鹤楼 (1927) which alludes to a poem written by Cui Hao in the Tang Dynasty.

    The yellow crane is gone, who knows whither?

    Only this tower remains a haunt for visitors.


                                        Legendary Yellow Crane

    While the yellow crane does not return; nevertheless, its majestic power surfaces in an age of revolutionary struggle. It promises long life and prosperity. It is the quintessence of immortality. The crane represents the Red Army, the route of the retreat and is personfied as Mao Tse Tung himself. For Mao it is a reminder of past battles described in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the retreats and famous generals


                                       The Long March as Crane

    Poetically speaking, a map of The Long March in the Yunnan, Szechuan and Sikang regions may be imaginatively construed as a giant crane. The second army splits into two parts and meet again at Kantzu. This forms the beak and head of the crane. The fourth army above Luting makes up the body of the crane.


                                                Crane's Leg

    Most importantly, the first army under Mao turns north at Chiaoche and walks past Anshunchang. This is the leg of the crane. Consider the second character in the middle of Mao's signature. Its size is immense which stresses its importance. The crane is balanced on one leg. The leg itself resembles another, smaller crane whose wing appears like an arm. This crane is joined to the main crane. Mao resolves the apparent contradictions of large crane (army) and small crane soldier), large rifle (leg) and small pistol (hummingbird), large snake (rod of Asclepius) and small frog and finally Mao himself as a large general and as a common, foot soldier. Harmony is established.

                               Huaihua    Long March   Third Siege

    As the reader can see we are moving right to left in terms of the Chinese characters of the signature. The year 1931 begins the sequence through to 1934-35 and finally to 1948-49. It covers a period of eighteen years. The campaigns covered respectively are Against The Third Annihilation, The Long March and the Huaihua Campaign: (淮海戰役) or Battle of Hsupeng (徐蚌会战), and also Battle of Xu-Beng was a military action during 1948 and 1949 that was the decisive battle of the Chinese Civil War.The campaign began on November 6, 1948 and ended on January 10, 1949. It was one of the few conventional battles of the war. 550,000 troops of the Republic of China (led by Kuomintang) were surrounded in Xuzhou (Hsuchow) and destroyed by the communist People's Liberation Army (PLA).

                             Huaihua Campaign: (淮海戰役) 1948-1949


                                                MAO  (Huaihua)

    The third character of the signature is Mao or the chairman's family name. It may be that the three horizontal lines represent the attack of the PLA's third army under Chen, the first army under He and the second army under Liu. They began the encirclement and destruction of the Huang's 12th army of the Nationalists and the three armies under the Suppression General Headquarters of Xuzhou Garrison. Notice the loop in the Chinese character which symbolizes the process of encirclement. The campaign was over when the 6th and 8th armies of ROC retreated to south of the Huai River.

    Marxism was attractive to revolutionaries in China because it was restructed to fit the "multi-dimentional historical situation". According to Erik Dirlik in Marxisim in the Chinese Revolution there were three critical factors in this restructure of Marxism in China; namely, counteracting capitalism, viewing socialism as an alternative to capitalist hegemony and national self-discovery of a society that capitalism threatened to consume. Chinese Marxism was articulated in Mao's essay in 1940 called "On New Democracy". "We must evaluate it [history] from Confucius to Sun Zhongshan, assume this precious legacy, and derive from it a method to guide the present movement.... "


    Is it any wonder that the dominant image in the character of the family name of Mao in his signature is a hammer and sickle of Chinese Marxism? It symbolizes the struggle against capitalism. In other words, Chinese Marxism as interpreted by Mao is undertaking an encirclement of capitalism on a national basis, among Third World countries and on the international stage.


                                                   PLA Soldier

    It is time for the reader to be acquainted with poetic, embedded images in the signature. The weapon of choice at long distance for the common soldier of the PLA was the rifle (mauser usually captured from the enemy). The Tung character may be construed to be a soldier wearing a hat who carries a rifle. Ironically, it is pointed at the crane which represents long life. It should also be noted that when the character Tung is viewed from a side angle it portrays the soldier's horse. The leg of the horse metamorphoses into a rifle.



    Mountain (1934-35)

    I whip my quick horse and don't dismount and look back in wonder.

    The sky is three feet away.


                                                 PLA Rifle

    In the Tse character of the signature, the rifle is also evident. Previously it had been described as a person, but now it appears as both the leg of the crane and a long rifle. In other words, just as the rifle of the soldier's horse becomes the leg of the horse, so, too, does the rifle of the soldier's crane become the leg of the crane. One can also poetically imagine that a tired soldier might use a rifle butt as a crutch in his long march. However, a guerilla soldier also needs a hand gun or pistol. It is used for close fighting. The bill, head and and body of the crane metamorphose into a hummingbird which may double as a flower from which it seeks nectar. Both then transform into a hand gun. 


                                            Pistol or Handgun

    Another weapon evident in the Tse character is the handgun. It is used for close fighting. In terms of perspective though it is the same size as the rifle. The handgun is both a dynamic (active) weapon when firing and a static (passive) weapon in the holster.


                                         Hummingbird and Flower

    In a sense, the pistol or handgun used to shoot the enemy mirrors the relationship of hummingbird to flower in the process of pollination. Both are natural acts expressing freedom according to Mao. The hummingbird is active when it seeks nectar and pollinates the passive flower whose colors attract the bird. The small bird transfers grains of pollen containing reproductive cells between male and female flower parts. The hummingbird and flower become one until the bird goes on to the next flower.

    In the Mao character, one might construe the hammer as a rifle. However, it seems more likely that the net is the weapon or tool of choice here. It does not single out a fish as does a rifle, but rather scoops up fish through an encircling movement. In the "Problems of Strategy in the Guerilla War against Japan" written in 1938, Mao says "as a frequent change of position is necessary in fishing, so a frequent shift of position is necessary for a guerrilla unit".

    The next type of embedded image to be discovered are fish and fishing. It has been said that the Tung character carries a rifle. One can imagine though that it may be a fishing rod. In the author's childhood, he used a collapsible, bamboo fishing rod from China. It was light, strong and flexible. It may not be surprising therefore that the image of the rifle in guerilla warfare is flexible enough to bend as a bamboo fishing rod. The aim is to catch a single fish. The soldier and fisherman use their tools for survival. The fish symbol is found overlapping the hat of the soldier and the soldier's nose. 


                                         Red-Crowned Crane

    In the Tse character a crane is portrayed. It may not be The Yellow Crane of immortal fame with yellow under its wings, but rather a red-capped crane. Perhaps the red star on the cap of a soldier resembles the crane's crown.



    The crane may be viewed as a fisherman. It scoops up small fish in its long beak. It also targets. amphibians like frogs. In the poem Ode to the Frog, compares the frog to a crouching tiger which he emulates or becomes. "Sitting alone by the pond like a tiger who squats". A frog image may be seen to be embedded at the top of the crane. It is clear that the frog here is the hunter and not the hunted.


                               Guilin where author had honeymoon

    The Mao character may be viewed as a fisherman at the tiller of his shallow boat. The horizontal line at the top represents his bamboo hat. The fishman casts his net of encirclement (ie. the semi-circle shape of the boat) at a school of fish as a general encircles the enemy in a war of annnihilation.

    Perhaps the most controversial images in the signature are those of English script. It is a mystery wrapped in a maze. However, it is not the purpose of this essay to analyse why English is used in the signature of a Chinese name and especially the Chinese name of Mao Tse Tung. The scripts are found in both family and given names.




    In conclusion, Mao's signature is a masterpiece of calligraphy. It expresses powerful images reflecting the revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people against oppressive forces culminating in the foundation of the People's Republic of China. There is no doubt that the calligraphic signature is a poem of the highest calibre. "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun".

    D.卡尔顿 罗西


    Erik Dirlic, Marxism in the Chinese Revolution, Roman and Littlefield: New York, 2005.

    Mao Tse-Tung Ruler of China, Robert Payne, H. Wolff: New York, 1950

    Mao Tse-Tung: The Man and the Myth, Eric Chou,Cassell Ltd: Toronto, 1982.

    Selected Military Writings of Mao Tse-tung, Mao Tse-Tung, Praetorian Press: New York, 2011.

    The signature of Mao used in this essay was taken from the jacket of Mao Tse-Tung: The Man and the Myth. It may be said though that Chou does not think highly of Mao's calligraphy.

                                The Three Trap Laws

    China’s new “core leader” – Xi Jinping

    Professor Joergen Delman

    November 02, 2016

    Xi Jinping’s three traps

    Xi’s handling of the Plenum shows that he wants to deal with the future leadership line-up, to swing support from all corners of the party for his tough disciplinary policies, and to gain new momentum for reforms. The underlying argument for doing this are three traps he has identified that that are critical to navigate in order to safeguard the power and survival of the party.

    Finally, China is facing a middle income trap (中等收入陷阱). This concept stems from the 2006 World Bank report An East Asian Renaissance. The report pointed to the risk that some East Asian economies could end up with dwindling growth before becoming fully developed. To avoid the trap, middle income countries have to diversify their economy, accelerate innovation and equip workers with skills that allow them to adjust to new technologies. These are all focus points of Xi’s economic policies according to official Chinese sources.



                                     Country Incomes Groups

    Escaping the National Middle-Income Trap

    SEPT 1, 2016

    By Noah Smith

    Noah Smith is a Bloombery View columnist. He is an assistant professor of finance at Stony Brook University and he blogs at Noahpinion

                                       The Problem

    Most poor countries become middle-class by a fairly familiar process -- they move people from agriculture to cities, build a bunch of buildings and roads and machines, and begin manufacturing stuff. For countries without large amounts of exportable natural resources, that’s the tried-and-true path. But eventually it loses steam -- the surplus labor from the countryside runs out, the economic return from building more stuff goes down, and it gets harder to increase productivity by imitating foreign technology.


    So advancing to the top rank probably requires a shift in development strategy. One idea is innovation. Once countries reach a somewhat advanced level of technology, they may need to shift from copying foreigners to creating their own new ways of doing things. South Korea, Israel and Ireland made this shift effectively; Malaysia and Thailand, not so much.

                                     Human Capital

    Another strategy is to build human capital. As nations advance up the value chain, producing more valuable and complex products requires more knowledge and smarts. Improving education systems and attracting high-skilled immigrants are two ways to boost human capital.


    Advanced infrastructure is a third strategy. Middle-income countries have roads and electrical grids, but to be a modern economy, you need broadband internet. Some of the papers Agenor surveys verify the importance of broadband.

                           Property Rights and Rule of Law

    Institutions, of course, may also be very important. Agenor suggests improving property rights and the rule of law, and also taking steps to reduce economic inequality -- three common economist prescriptions.


                                  The Three Trap Model

    The first is the Tacitus challenge (塔西佗陷阱), named after the ancient Roman philosopher, Tacitus. The argument is that if the party does not have the trust of the people, ie. legitimacy, it does not matter whether the party tells the truth or not, or whether it does good or bad things -- nobody will believe what it says or does anyway. Therefore, the party needs to rebuild trust with its constituency, i.e. China’s ordinary citizens, primarily through measurably more equitable and inclusive development, not least to bring more people out of relative poverty.

    Individualization and the Political Agency of
    Private Business People in China

    Jorgen Delman and Yin Xiaoqing

    The Rise of the Individual in Modern Chinese Society



                            The Year of the Four Emperors

    It has been a decade since the author has completed his poem called The Thread. It involved years of research in the area of ancient history. However, at this time, the author would like to refer to an historical work called the Historiae (Histories) by Tacitus, concerning the Roman Empire from 69 to 96 as interpreted by Rebecca Edwards in her paper called Deuotio, Disease and Remedia. Particular stress will be laid on the case of Emperor Galba in terms of his loco deuotionis or devotion to the Roman state.


                                         The Four Emperors

            (from left to right Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasianus)

    Galba made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex. He was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69 CE. He was the first emperor in what was known as The Year of the Four Emperors; although, some construe it as five emperors which included Nero.
    By setting his Historiae in the consular year 69 CE Tacitus links the period of this civil war with Lucan's version of the great civil war between Pompey and Caesar. During the reign of Augustus (who was the adopted son of Caesar) normal practices of the senate and people were restored under one man.


               The Spheres of Influence in the Roman Empire in 69 CE

    On the other hand, Galba was not trusted. With respect to his choice of L.Calpurnius Piso as successor and adopted heir, the people believed he favored the man rather than republican welfare. The Praetorians were angry because he did not give them the usual donative. He alienated Otho who had expected to be made heir. He executed many Senators and Equites without trial. The legions of Germania Inferior rebelled and proclaimed Vitellius as emperor.

    Victoria Emma Pagan said that "Tacitus depicts a rift between the Roman people and their gods which needed to be healed not by the sacrifices of Galba, but rather by the sacrifice of Galba himself as loco deuotionis."  This concept of sacrifice of self in Tacitus' work is extended also to Galba's successors or Otho and Vitellius.

    The practice of loco deuotionis was an ancient one which needs to be explained. By ancient custom a deuotio was a ceremony wherein a magistrate would usually have himself as deuotus consecrated as an expiatory sacrifice. The purpose was to avert disaster and ensure Roman supremacy. [Feldherr, 1998, 85]. He infects the enemy army with a plague and takes them down to the underworld with himself.


                                            Emperor Galba

    Galba mistakenly idealizes the republican system which applied to the principate of Augustus. He does not have the authority of the princeps. Therefore, his rituals are in vain. Basically, reason and the gods desert Galba so he falls into his own trap. The gods expect nothing less than for him to be the sacrifice. In his last moments, according to Plutarch, he said "Strike, if it be for the good of the Romans!" Tacitus cynically says that the murderers cared little what he said before they lopped off his head. [Tacitus, The Murder of Galba, Book XVI, 41]

    Fate dictated though that Galba was not to be alone in his self-sacrifice as a deuotus according to Tacitus. The emperors Otho and Vitellius each sacrificed their lives to the gods. All of them were preceeded by the Emperor Nero (the last of the Julio-Claudian dynasty as recorded in the Annals) who sacrificed a pig on the altar and later himself through suicide. The remedy of the four self-sacrifices is a stable government under Vespasianus and a return to earlier morality. He established the Flavian dynasty with two sons following him. It was a relative time of peace resembling on a smaller scale the 200 year Pax Romana established by Augustus as the remedia after a large scale civil war.


    Victoria Emma Pagan ed., A Companion to Tacitus, Wiley-Blackwell: Chichester, 2012

    Rebecca Edwards, Part III, Interpretations, Deuotio, Disease and Remedia in the Histories

    pages 237-260.


    Cornelius Tacitus, The Histories, The Murder of Galba (1250)


    Annals of Tacitus

    Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb


    D.卡尔顿 罗西

    December 16, 2016


                                                The Gravestone of Tacitus

    Tacitus challenge (塔西佗陷阱)

    It seems to the author that the trap which contemporary Marxists fall into is they do not have a sufficient understanding of Tacitus' Germania.  This history was translated by Marx.1  The Germania is as much a description of the Germanic peoples as it is of the peoples of imperial Rome. It was written after the death of Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus or Domitian. His reign was one of terror. The Germanic peoples appear to be free as they brandish their spears2. It is an illusion since they face the point of a spear.

    Recently, President Fidel Castro died. State television announced the passing of Castro. The people of Cuba were not aware of the death because they were not listening to State television. In other words, if the party does not have the trust of the people then nobody will believe what it says or does. 

    D.卡尔顿 罗西

    November 25, 2016

    1.  Quote from a letter written on November 10, 1837 from Karl Marx to his father in Trier

    "I also translated Tacitus’ Germania, Ovid’s Tristria, and started learning English and Italian on my own, that is, out of grammar books, though up to now I have accomplished nothing from this."


    2.  Councils

    About minor matters the chiefs deliberate, about the more important the whole tribe. Yet even when the final decision rests with the people, the affair is always thoroughly discussed by the chiefs...
    Their freedom has this disadvantage, that they do not meet simultaneously or as they are bidden, but two or three days are wasted in the delays of assembling. When the multitude think proper, they sit down armed. Silence is proclaimed by the priests, who have on these occasions the right of keeping order. Then the king or the chief, according to age, birth, distinction in war, or eloquence, is heard, more because he has influence to persuade than because he has power to command. If his sentiments displease them, they reject them with murmurs; if they are satisfied, they brandish their spears. The most complimentary form of assent is to express approbation with their spears.

    Thomas Gordon  18th Century translation




    三个陷阱定律    The Three Trap Laws

    On the surface, The Three Trap model addresses the issue of why civilizations decline. The first trap concerns the Roman empire from the viewpoint of Tacitus as it is understood by some Marxists. It deals with internal order established through trust. The second trap involves the Athenian empire as it is purportedly seen through the eyes of Thucydides. This trap involves relationship of states. It should be noted that these traps are considered in reverse time order. This time order is somewhat special in itself but is further enhanced when a unique reference is made in the third trap to the modern issue of the middle class. It deals with the problem of the decline of the western middle class whose emergence began in Germany at the time of Marx. 

    The traps are a dialectical argument. In other words. Roman civilization is the thesis. The Greek civilization is the antithesis. Modern civilization is the synthesis. 

    Using an argument with broad strokes, the Roman empire might be compared to a tortoise whose development was slow but sure. The Greek empire may be compared to a hare whose run is swift and short like the life of Achilles. The British and American empires were longer than the hare, but shorter than the tortoise.  

    For the Chinese, it may be appropriate to compare their empire to the tortoise which has moved at glacial pace. However, through the industrial and information ages the pace has quickened. China now resembles the hare as the glaciers are retreating at an accelerating rate through global warming. One might say that the west is retreating through isolationism and China is closing the encirclement. 

    One realizes though that the Athenian empire did not immediately transform into the Roman empire. There was a mid-step. That step was the Macedonian empire which emerged with the conquests of Greece, Egypt, Persia and India. At the death of Alexander (who was conqueror rather than administrator) the empire divided into four parts. Without the middle step there would have been no diffusion of Hellenistic culture.


                            The Four Empires after Alexander

    If one were to reverse matters in a linear chronological order it would be as follows. The Roman empire divided into four empires; that is, Seleucus took control of the Seleucid Empire composed of Syria, Babylon, Persia and India. Lycimachus took over Thrace and much of Asia Minor. Cassander seized Macedonia and Greece. Finally, Ptolemy gained Palestine, Cilicia, Petra, and Cyprus thus establishing the Ptolemaic Dynasty.They were united under a visionary leader (Alexander of Macedon). This leader was highly influenced by Greek culture. 

    Coincidentally, there is a correspondence in numbers between the leaders of the four empires and the core leaders of the Communist Party of the PRC. They are Mao Zedung, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin and Xi Jinping. Is it an historical necessity if not an inevitability that a visionary leader will emerge within the Communist Party who will contribute to the long term avoidance of the three trap problem? Who will the people trust, the international community respect and  provide a private model of a constitutional system? Who will diffuse Chinese culture centred on Confucian values of the family throughout the world?

    From a materialist point of view one may consider the four basic Chinese elements. They were earth, water, air and fire. The fifth element was recognized later as metal which could be considered to be in the middle of the rectangle. The most important metal is gold. To earn trust one must also establish a virtual gold standard based on a reserve. One should be aware or beware of a new president of the United States who is a billionaire expert at bankruptcy and a billionaire commerce secretary who is an expert in restructuting bankrupt corporations. 

    The decline of the middle class has accelerated in the west. This is evidenced, for example, in the countries of Canada, England, Germany and the United States. On the other hand, China's middle class has been growing. It seems almost fated though to decline with an ageing population and the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few as it has in the west. Potentially, this could be a disruptive factor. Trickle-down trust, however, may have to be supplemented by "well-up responsibility" to avoid a middle class trap.  

    D.卡尔顿 罗西
    D. Carlton Rossi

    November 29, 2016


    Kissinger discusses US-China relations at New Economy Forum

    November 21st, 2019

    Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger talks with Hoover Institution Senior Fellow Niall Ferguson about the relationship between the United States and China. They speak at Bloomberg's New Economy Forum in Beijing. (Source: Bloomberg)

    Video: 28:09





    General Impressions of the Kissinger-Ferguson Forum

    Generally speaking, I've had a bias against former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. That bias stems from the war in Vietnam which was a proxy war between the United States and China as the Korean War was a proxy war between the United States and Russia-China. It was Kissinger who oversaw the escalation of the Vietnam War into Cambodia and Laos through a four year bombing campaign which left 100,000 civilians dead. The ensuing power vacuum led to the rise of the Khmer Rouge and the Cambodian holocaust.

    At the time of the Vietnam War, I visited the embassy of South Vietnam in Washington, D.C. to listen to their official view of the war. I didn't believe a thing they said. Also, I couldn't agree with the views and actions of Kissinger and Nixon on the Vietnam War. I wore a bracelet with the name of a missing US soldier on it along with a surplus military jacket to express my opposition to the war.

    Despite these latent biases I am still open to what Kissinger says not because of the normalization of relations with China in 1972, but rather because Xi values his views as did Mao. I suspect that President Xi recently invited him to China to find out his views on the Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2019. Kissinger's views may have reflected what he said at the New Economic Forum about Hong Kong. If I recall correctly he said to the effect that Hong Kong is not of strategic value to the United States as it was to Great Britain. While the PRC reacted vociferously against the act as blantant interference in China affairs; nevertheless, its response in terms of actions was rather mild--perhaps in response to Kissinger's comments to President Xi. That is real diplomacy--not Donald Duck Diplomacy.

    While Kissinger would like to see the trade war between the United States and China resolved he says that they are at least talking to one another about an important issue. Of course, Trump's comments today may override the talks since he indicates that he is happy with the tariffs until after the 2020 election. In other words, he is not talking with the Chinese but at the Chinese.

    The main thrust of Kissinger's argument is that the US is no longer an exceptional uni-power, but it has an equal rival in China. The United States must realize this situation if it hopes to achieve a state of equalibrium with China. “So those countries that used to be exceptional and used to be unique, have to get used to the fact that they have a rival.”

    According to Kissinger there are a number of flashpoints that could erupt into a catacyclsmic war. This war would exceed anything known in history without any winner and both sides losers. The author was expecting him to zero in on the South China Sea, but Kissinger perhaps diplomatically or uncertainly did not emphasize a particular flashpoint in the New Economic Forum.

    It is President Xi who says “At present, Sino-US relations are at a critical juncture facing some difficulties and challenges.” He calls on the two countries to deepen communication on strategic issues which is mirrored in Kissinger's views. It is better to communicate than annihilate.


                      Death of Sparticus at the Sileras River in 71 BCE

    Contrary to popular belief, Spartacus was not crucified as he was unidentified when he fell in battle. 

    One of the areas of interest for the author is military history. For example, he has just finished reading The Spartacus War by Barry Strauss. It depicts how the gladiator Spartacus led an army of slaves to defeat two Roman legions from 73-71 BCE. His military genius is highlighted when his army tried to cross a narrow passage to Sicily. One might surmise that he realized that there had been two major slave revolts in Sicily during the periods 135-132 BCE and 110-104 BCE. By invading the island he would be able to enlist new recruits for his revolt thus opening the way to escape by sea to another location.


    The author has had a particular interest in ancient Greek history since his high school days. He is just completing a book by Ernle Bradford called Thermopylae: The Battle for the West. Surprisingly, it provides many new insights into the topic of the invasion of the Greek city-states. At the time of Xerxes' campaign the pro Persian Carthaginians under Hamilcar also tried to take Sicily. The struggle between Persia and the Greek poleis is really a clash of civilizations manifesting itself through warfare. Today, China and the United States might mistakenly fall into a similar armed conflict through what is called The Thucydides Trap.

                                                        2015   Dawu Village

                                    To Be Prepared

    Most young boys—including myself—used to dawdle to school and dash away from school. Perhaps, it was the four walls or the 3 r’s that bothered us. Yet, there was something that I learned outdoors from my physical education (PE) teacher. He said to us that we must always be physically prepared for whatever happens. I suppose that recommendation was also ingrained in me from boy cubs and scouts. I extended the concept to mental and spiritual areas, too.

    In terms of physical training, though, I trained daily. I carried this habit with me to Saudi Arabia. The Saudis didn’t quite know what to make of it since they shy away from work let alone work-out. My training involved two hours a day--shine or shine. I suppose though I would be called a slacker by Olympic standards. Depending on my work schedule, my work-out might have been at noon, after school or in the early evening.

    If you have doubts about this schedule or training then you need only ask the military to show you their recording of my training session. One night I noticed a red flare that shot up into the sky. A half mile away there was a helicopter hovering. Twenty feet away from me they had set up a camera. It all came as a surprise to me, but I was prepared.

    Basically, I exercised almost non-stop for one and a half hours. My training was done to the music of Rammstein which certainly got me pumped up. To give you an idea it began with quick punches concentrating on accuracy through the openings in an iron gate. Then, from a standing position I would drop 10 times and catch myself—practising how to fall. I would throw 2000 punches or about the length of three songs. This was followed by a series of side punches and kicks. Several hundred kicks were done afterward. I then ran full speed toward a wall practicing flying kicks. They were followed by kicks against the cement wall. Open palm punches against the wall were numerous. I always remembered the number of sit-ups and push-ups because they equalled my age. I would then throw punches with two bricks in each hand. Of course, there were very quick sprints. However, what they couldn’t film was the half hour of long distance running after this routine—making a total of two hours.

    My objective was simple. Be prepared for any physical test. If it were a fight then my objective was to crush my opponent in one minute. If I failed to accomplish it then I was prepared to flee or continue fighting for one hour. The irony though was that two of my “tests” involved non-combat.

    Generally speaking, in Saudi Arabia, I felt safe. This is despite the fact that one of the five places in which I was stationed was Al Baha. The highway of death ran through the truck stop where I lived. It was not called that for vehicles which lost their brakes on the mountainous declines. Our bus driver simply jumped out of his moving vehicle to safety. Rather, the area got its name from the fact that most of the 911 hijackers had lived along the route. I personally witnessed the arrest with shots fired of an individual in the city.

    I routinely hitchhiked the 17 km to the city from the truck stop around which troops of baboons were running around. The young drivers were quite friendly and didn’t mind some gas money. My employer warned me not to hitchhike, but he was the one who put us out there in the wilds in the first place. Effectively, we were in a hotel prison. My employer and I happened to be standing near a guard gate when advise was proffered. I side kicked over it with ease. I won the argument.

    One can’t however be prepared for everything. On one occasion, I was exercising in the mountains. When I turned around I was face to face with a camel. I learned to detect them at a distance by the sweet smell of the leaves when they grind them with their teeth.  

    It wasn’t though in the land of baboons and terrorists that I had my first test. It was in civilized Damman along the Corniche where Saudis liked to picnic. They would park along the road, toss a blanket on the ground and start up a barbecue for their family.

    One time I was running along the sidewalk. There was a Saudi standing in the middle of the sidewalk about 50 yards ahead. It was odd that he wasn‘t going to his car or from his car. Curiously, he also had his back to me. I asked myself if I would turn my back on someone coming up behind me. Certainly not. Then, I realized that if I passed him I would have my back to him. That I would not do either. I thought something was wrong so I immediately crossed to the other side of the road. 

    However, I wished him to think that I had crossed by chance to the other side. Therefore, as I passed him on the other side I did not look directly at him, but only with peripheral vision. He had jumped into his car. He was matching my speed. I knew I would be vulnerable up ahead because a road crossed my path. I continued to jog leisurely for a few more hundred meters. He was still pacing me. I quickly veered off into the sand and zigzagged my way home. He couldn’t follow me with his car and for all intents and purposes never knew I was on to him. This non-encounter I won.

    In China, I faced a new set of issues with regard to my training program. No doubt you are all familiar with Chinese athletes who have won numerous medals at the Olympics.They train rigorously with direction of coaches for eight hours a day. However, the average Chinese is not inclined to design his own specialized, individualized training program nor does he have the will to follow it. Anything associated with the individual is discouraged by authorities, too. Furthermore, cooperation rather than competition is encouraged in physical training. Badminton is fine—especially when there is no winner. From my own point of view, though, one is a winner, whiner or wiener. I train to win.  

    There were many impediments placed in the way for the average person who wished to physically excel. For example, at one university the track and field was out of bounds. I suppose it was saved for mass rallies or as a monument to greatness. A few of the more intrepid athletes including myself would climb over the barb wire fence to gain access. That came to an end in the dark one night when I saw someone wildly waving his arms on the track in front of me. I ran through him knocking his shoulder. Supposedly, he was the guard.

    That permanently ended my access to the track. I was refused entrance. I did what any typical Chinese does and went around the problem (and I don’t mean the guard). However, I did it in a unique way. I created my own track at the center of the campus. There was a man-made lake at that location which was sunk down about 15 feet. It had a path around it and that became my race track. For competition, I would run short distances against motorbikes and cars along a road that passed nearby. Students used to find it humorous to shake the leaves of snow-covered tree limbs to coincide with my passage. 

    Of course, the administration did their best to dissuade me from exercising at that location, too, but to no avail. I would begin training at 5 am. There were no athletes out at that time, but students would practice their English by reading out loud across the lake. No doubt these winners had been discouraged from practicing in their dorm at that hour.

    The attempt to dissuade me came in the form of nurses who were concerned about my health. It was my habit to train without shirt in any weather. That meant training in wind, rain, heat, snow or ice pellets. They said I would catch cold or pneumonia in the below zero weather. That may be true if I had had a shirt on to absorb my sweat or had not become daily accustomed to the cold or stopped exercising thus ceasing to generate heat. I was actually worried about their health because they were shivering in hat, coat, scarf and mitts.  

    However, I was also prepared for the cold weather for another reason. At the end of August I had submitted a request to the administration to repair my hot water heater. It wasn’t done. As a matter of course, nothing is done about one’s problems in China until it becomes their problem. One might remember that concerning the human rights issue, too.

    From that point on, I added cold showers to my training. The water got colder and colder through fall and winter. I thought of the Macedonians whose habit was to bathe in the cold rivers throughout winter. I learned to wash head first and dry it, torso next and dry it and finally legs. The temperature of the water was approaching freezing.

    Naturally, I knew that if the temperature got cold enough then the pipes would freeze and burst. It happened on one of the coldest days of winter. The pipes on the roof froze and water poured down into the apartment above me. That apartment happened to belong to the Vice-President of the university. The hot water heater was fixed immediately. I had won by doing nothing.  

                              Meihuazhuang 1993  Beijing

                                       Graduate School







                              Walk and Chew Gum

    Canada’s troubles with China are only temporary, says former ambassador: ‘Chinese people and Canadian people are good friends'

    Nathan VanderKlippe

    July 29, 2020

    Less than six months after he was fired as ambassador last year, Mr. McCallum became a senior strategic adviser for McMillan LLP, the law firm.

    He first made a public appearances for Wailian last October and November, when he came to China to deliver remarks and pose for photographs. Over two weeks, he appeared at Wailian events in Qingdao, Beijing, Suzhou, Shanghai and Shenzhen. In each city, he spoke to a room with dozens – in some cases more than 100 – prospective clients for Wailian. The company paid for his attendance through an agreement with McMillan, according to the person familiar with the events.

    Wailian promotional materials identify Mr. McCallum only as former ambassador and immigration minister, with no reference to McMillan.

    Mr. McCallum in turn has called on his federal government connections.

    Mr. Mendicino spoke with Mr. McCallum in mid-June, Kevin Lemkay, the minister’s spokesman, said in a statement. He “reached out to Mr. McCallum as a former colleague to discuss immigration and refugee issues,” Mr. Lemkay said, adding: “At no time did Mr. McCallum ever mention this company [Wailian] to the minister.”

    Under Canadian law, Mr. McCallum is barred from lobbying the federal government for five years after leaving office. He said his conversation with the minister did not constitute lobbying. Mr. Mendicino “approaches me from time to time for general discussion as a friend and former minister,” Mr. McCallum said in response to questions from The Globe and Mail.


    Wailian makes no reference to McMillan in promotional material and McCallum never mentions the company to the Minister. And the Minister reaches out to McCallum rather than the other way around. It looks like a circle, but is described by McCallum as a one-way "straight" line.

    I'm reminded of the testimony of the Kielburgers. They are bathed in angelic white light which reflects in the background like they are surrounded by white auras--maybe halos. Craig Kielburger says he--or should one say WE--wanted to help the government rather than be helped. He says the government phoned him on that fateful day looking for help. Of course, if he had phoned the government for financial help then it would look like lobbying for which WE Charity was not registered.

    "Under Canadian law, Mr. McCallum is barred from lobbying the federal government for five years after leaving office. He said his conversation with the minister did not constitute lobbying. Mr. Mendicino “approaches me from time to time for general discussion as a friend and former minister,” Mr. McCallum said in response to questions from The Globe and Mail."

    In April, WE made a proposal to create a social entrepreneurship program to the Small Business Minister Mary Ng. If the author recalls correctly Craig Kielburger's said to the effect at his testimony that WE had had trouble for two years trying to integrate an entrepreneurship program [which would normally have been for profit] with a charity program [which was not for profit]. The author wondered if he had heard about the social entrepreneur Sun Dawu who is prominent on the author's website.

    Perhaps Kielburger never will learn about Sun Dawu because the author's website is under illegal attack, impediments are piled on daily to prevent publishing, his browsers and VPN modified, his keyboard changed to a French template. Let's not forget that searches by the author for Sun Dawu's blog, his website or any mention of his name on the world-wide web by the author are exclusively restricted through targeting his unique identification address.

    The following is but one example of targeting my search capabilities on anything related to Sun Dawu.


    [Search domain www.haoz.net/lizhi/yulu/197252/]


    Hmm. We’re having trouble finding that site.

    We can’t connect to the server at www.haoz.net.

    Ironically, hackers don't target my search for his image on the web. The hackers have though compensated for this omission by forbidding my website to publish any images whatsoever, for example, of Sun Dawu or Justin Trudeau.

    However, getting back to the proposal on social entrepreneurship by WE to the Small Business Minister, the Ministry asked WE to revise its proposal to which WE complied. In defence of itself, WE said that "it was incorrect to conflate the testimony about the unsolicited April 9 proposal with its eventual partnership to deliver the CSSG; the earlier pitch, it says, was "distinct and clearly unrelated." In other words, lobbying is not an issue. The author does not contest this defence as the situation was extremely complicated and moving very quickly; as well, he has not seen copies of any proposals.

    The author returned from an engagement in time to hear Trudeau's testimony. He was flabbergasted to listen to Trudeau's claim that he only heard of the WE proposal hours before it was made. Rather than recuse himself he made the excuse that he had pushed back at the proposal because it might be perceived he and his wife might have a conflict of interest. The operative phrase here is "might be perceived". He admitted no conflict, but only admitted it might appear to be that way by others--to paraphrase him. To the author this is but a reflection of his relativistic philosophy which means in effect that conflict of interest rules don't apply to him. By the way, his "pushing back" rather than being "pulled in" by the WE proposal didn't seem to mean any more due diligence of WE by either the public service or the cabinet.

    For the author, the most intriguing part of the testimony were Trudeau's last words. "In fact, as of May 8, it was my belief that a supercharged version of the Canada Service Corps would deliver the program. From my perspective, WE Charity hadn't come up," Trudeau said. That word "supercharged" is usually applied to cars where a supercharger is added to deliver more oxygen to the engine. Since he doesn't explain the word "supercharged" it has many possibilities. However, in terms of probabilities it may refer to WE.

    In effect, he wanted to supercharge the Canada Service Corps which he instituted in 2018 with the supercharger WE. In the May 8th WE proposal the terms "core program" and "cohort" are used many times. This seems to suggest a semantic relation to the word "Corps" in Canada Service Corps. Basically, what the author is suggesting is that Trudeau was not faced with a binary choice on May 8th by the public service between WE and nothing, but rather prior to May 8th, he faced the dilemma of how the Canada Service Corps could be partnered with WE. What this means is that a potential conflict of interest may have been perceived earlier.




    Dumb-Down Déjà Vu

    Dumbed down might be mindlessly reduced to Dumb-Down and then matched with Déjà Vu to become Dumb-Down Déjà Vu. When I write of Dumb-Down Déjà Vu I am not referring to the album called Déjà Vu released by Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young in March 1970. While I go back to the album many times because of songs like Woodstock, Teach your Children and Our House I do so because of its brilliance and not because of its banality and brainlessness. Did you notice how the words repeat themselves at the beginning of the song called Déjà Vu? Rather, I am referring to dumb-down déjà vu as the sense of unease I have when I contrast what is taking place in the present and what has taken place before.

    My first dumb-down déjà vu experience concerned the Canadian Security Exam offered in Toronto by the Canadian Security Institute. I took the six month course in 1983. It was a required course for every stock broker; although, I took it simply for interest. There was a textbook to read. Another requirement was to complete a ten page essay along with bar graphs which contrasted the operations of the Imperial Oil and Shell integrated operations. The essay was graded by a professional. At the end of six months I travelled from Waterloo to Toronto in order to write the exam at the Farmer's Market in the old distillery area.

    There were three parts to the exam. There was the one or two sentence answer, the paragraph answer and finally the longer explanation. All were graded by an examiner. One had to know one's material in order to complete the exam in the alloted time. I remember Morton Shulman who was the millionaire currency expert thinking he could pass the exam without studying. He didn't pass. About 40% of the students didn't pass either.

    Twenty-five years later I sat down with someone who had just completed the course. He too had a textbook. He didn't have to travel to Toronto to write the exam as he was sent a form with multiple choice questions. Choose either A, B, C or D. It was graded by a machine. I was rather shocked since even Morton Shulman could have passed that exam had he been given it in 1983. Then I was naive enough to ask "Where is your essay?" The answer was "What essay?" Gee, I'm so stupid to ask.

    Now, I am having another déjà vu episode of a dumbed down sort. It's not out of The Matrix where there is a glitch which indicates an error in the program. Rather, it has to do with my re-reading of the novel called Anna Karenina by Tolstoy. I originally read the novel through a course in Russian literature at the U of T. Our instructor was Russian, but the course was taught in English and we used an English translation of the novel. It's a long novel over 800 pages. I read it twice before I wrote a required essay.

    When I went to China I didn't waste my spare time in idle pastimes. Rather I re-read all the English classics. It also included all novels by Tolstoy translated into English-including Anna Karenina. I read the same translation differently this time because I was not re-reading other novels at the same time. I devoted myself entirely to that novel before I went on to the next one. This meant that I understood it quite differently and I appreciated it more.

    I have begun to read a new translation of the novel by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. It has won critical acclaim. I am thinking to myself maybe it is a better translation since a man should understand the male point of view and a woman should understand the female point of view. However, I don't understand anything. Am I really reading Anna Karenina? There must be some mistake. This can't be the same novel. Have I forgotten so much about it? Not really. Scenes like the skating rink episode involving Levin and Kitty appear. The thing that makes this translation so different for me is that it is in simple, everyday language of today. It doesn't imitate the Russian of yesterday, but makes it come alive today.

    It is probably true that each generation has a different interpretation of the world. This is reflected in translations of the same novel. It also means that those of a different generation reading the novel in the Russian language also experience it in a different way. However, for me, today, this new English translation is very foreign to me. It is like reading Russian which I know nothing about.

    The dumb-down déjà vu now becomes "dd dv. DD DV doesn't have to involve taking an educational course. DD DV doesn't have to involve reading a novel. It can involve anything. If you drove an 18 wheeler, 15 gear, double-clutch with air brakes as I have done then you might experience DD DV if you were driven by an autonomous vehicle especially if you were DWI or are DUI. What are your experiences of DD DV, DD DV and DD DV etc?

    Xi Jinping wants to make China great again

    Julia Lovell

    Contributed to The Globe and Mail

    Published 24 hours ago

    Julia Lovell is a professor of modern China at Birkbeck College, University of London. She is the author of Maoism: A Global History, which was the winner of this year;s Cundill History Prize.

    The directives project a seamless unity between five thousand years of “Chinese tradition” and the “red genes” of revolutionary Marxism-Leninism, ignoring the way that Chinese Communism for decades treated older patterns of belief and behaviour as dangerous heterodoxy. Even in his dying years, Mao still found energy to wage war publicly on Confucius. Mr. Xi’s credo paradoxically lauds the sage’s favourite virtues – benevolence, harmony, respecting the elderly and the family – and merges them with Maoist markers of merit. Chinese emperors promoted Confucian virtues to forge loyal subjects: Just as children should revere their parents, imperial morality preached, so should subjects revere their rulers. The CCP under Mr. Xi similarly hopes to use a Confucian revival to inculcate devotion to the “motherland” and its ruling party-state.

    The basic difference between President Xi's hopes to inculcate devotion to the ruling party-state and the motherland through Confucianism and Sun Dawu's reliance on Confucianism to better the family and hence the state is that the former system is undertaken by coercion whereas the latter is a matter of choice. The forceable separation of family members in Xinjiang is certainly not Confucianism as has been practiced for thousands of years by both the state and family.

                                     Make Something Great Again

    Donald J Trump wants to make America great again ie. when Donald Duck was a quack. With respect to recent history, he wants to take America back to the McCarthy era. It began with a speech by Senator Joseph McCarthy in February 1950. McCarthy claimed there were many Communist Party members in the State Department and he was initially supported by J. Edgar Hoover. This period coincided with segregation. Since then the term "McCarthyism" means the excesses of similar efforts of unsubstantiated accusations and demagogic attacks.

    However, Trump also beckons back further to the period of the Antebellum South. It began at the start of the eighteenth century to the beginning of the Civil War. It was a time in which the economy was growing because it was based on slavery. There was also a gradual polarization between the abolitionists and the supporters of slavery.

    Xi Jinping wants to make China great again as Professor Julia Lovell says. Xi harkens back to the Cultural Revolution which was begun by Mao in 1966. Mao charged that bourgeois elements had infiltrated the government and society and these elements aimed to restore capitalism. Unfortunately, the Cultural Revolution damaged China's economy and led to the death of an estimated 500,000 to 2,000,000 people. It was a failed experiment as was the earlier Great Leap Forward.

    The dream of making China great again by the Communist Party though goes back much further to Qin Shi Huang who was First Emperor of China from 246 BCE to 210 BCE. Qin defeated the Han kingdom in 230 BCE and then six other warring states thus unifying the northern empire. He then expanded the empire to the south. In order to fend off the threat of the nomadic Xiongu he had slaves build the first portion of The Great Wall. He regarded Confucian scholars as a threat to his authority and burned their books. The only approved school of thought was legalism: Follow the Emperor's laws, or face the consequences.

    If the reader doesn't mind the author will briefly contrast the aforementioned views with those of Sun Dawu. Sun also wishes to make China great again but in a different way. He would like China to return to the period of Deng Xiaoping which followed the Mao era. Deng introduced a new constitution (fourth) in December 1982. Most of its content is effective today. Basically speaking, Sun would like its laws protecting individuals and property to be enforced.

    Deng Xiaoping also was the architect of a system which combined socialist ideology with free enterprise. Its slogan was "socialism with Chinese characteristics". He also opened up China to foreign investment and the global market. Sun established the Dawu Group more than thirty years ago. It definitely is socialist as it serves the people while it makes a substantial profit mainly due to the fact that it has virtually no debt. Sun also introduced China's first Private Entrepreneurial Constitutional System which is based partly on the Confucian concept of the family.

    Sun knows that the Qin Dynasty was short lived as it lasted only from 221 BCE to 206 BCE. He therefore thinks that China was great in the Han Dynasty which replaced the Qin. The Han Dynasty spanned four centuries and was regarded as a golden age. Even today, China's major ethnic group refer to themselves as Han Chinese and the script is known as Han characters. The dynasty was founded by the peasant Liu Bang who was know posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was a period of economic prosperity. While salt and iron mines were nationalized in the Western Han Dynasty they were repealed in the Eastern Han Dynasty--a precedent which might have bearing on state-owned enterprises today. Finally, under the Emperor Wu the court officially sponsored Confucianism synthesized with cosmology.

    孙大午, Sun Dawu, 刘会茹,Dawu Group, 私营企业主立宪制度, 大午农牧集团有限公司,河北省,徐水县郎,五庄,2020年11月11日,November 11,2020,1911,辛亥革命,孫德明, 三民主义,Unirule,天则经济研究所,茅于轼,土地扣押,农民,农业集体 伦理资,本主义,D.Carlton Rossi,拆迁,寻衅滋事,709案,709大抓捕,警察,保护伞.

    Sun Dawu, Sun Dawu, Liu Huiru, Dawu Group, Private Entrepreneur Constitutional System, Dawu Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Group Co., Ltd.,Langwuzhuang, Xushui County, Hebei Province, November 11, 2020, November 11,2020,1911,Xinhai Revolution,Sun Deming,Three Principles of the People,Unirule, Tianze Economic Research Institute,Mao Yushi,land seizure,farmers,agricultural collective,ethical capitalism,D. Carlton Rossi,demolition and relocation,picking quarrels and provoking troubles,709 case,709 crackdown,police,protective umbrella.