D. Carlton Rossi



                                                   

 
                                                            3D Simulation




  

Pharyngeal Teeth of Common Carp


The common carp or Cyprinus carpio has pharyngeal teeth.  The tooth count is 1, 1, 3-3, 1, 1 (Hubbs et al 1991).  However, the count may be 1,2,3-3,2,1. The pharyngeal teeth are molar-like with flattened crowns. (Goldstein and Simon, 1999).   

The origin of pharyngeal teeth in fishes has been open to debate. A paper written by Linden Edwards in May 1929 outlined the basic issue. “The idea of ectodermal migration to account for the presence of scales and teeth in the pharyngeal cavity of fishes is suggested in some text-books, the thought is implied in others that these structures could have been formed from endotherm in situ.”  Edwards, Linden, The Origen of the Pharyngeal  Teeth of the Carp (Cyprinus Carpio Linnaeus), The Ohio Journal of Science, Volume 29, May 1929, No.3.


                                      Pharyngeal Teeth of Common Carp

                
                 


Fresh water Cyprinids which include the common carp do not have teeth in their jaws.  This is also true for the salt water genus Tribolodon found in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. “Carp have no teeth in their jaws, but have pharyngeal teeth (teeth in the throat cavity behind the mouth) that are broad and form three rows, with the inner rows acting to crush/grind their food. Because of this, the design of a Carp's mouth is not for chewing plants or other fish, but for crushing and grinding molluscs, seeds and algae.” (What is a Carp?) . “The fifth ceratobranchial is enlarged as the pharyngeal bone, with teeth ankylosed (joined) to it. For cyprinids, pharyngeal teeth are in one to three rows, and there are never more than eight teeth in any one row…” (Jiffynotes)

In 1982, F.A. Sibbing analyzed the structures that determine the movements of pharyngeal teeth and chewing pad in the carp (Cyprinus carpio. He says that the masticatory mechanism is still poorly understood. His view is that “Masticatory cycles are bilaterally synchronous and show distinct crushing and grinding patterns.”

The pharyngeal tooth remains of crucian and common carp from the Tinaluoshan site of the Hemudu Cultural Stage, Zhejiang Province, China have been studied by a group of scientists. They infer that Neolithic dwellers used gill nets to catch fish of a specific size during breeding season. Dwellers along the Yangstze River depended on fish as a major source of protein.  Nakajima goes on to show the relationship between fish and rice cultivation.  

There may be an image of a fish that is perceptible which has been created through an arrangement of boulders and carving on Fu Shan. The fish appears to be a common carp. However, it seems that the image has teeth in its jaw.  If it is a common carp then it is a unique and uncommon common carp.

 

Goldstein, R.M., and T.P. Simon. 1999. Toward a united definition of guild structure for feeding ecology of North American freshwater fishes. pp. 123-202 in T.P. Simon, editor. Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 671 pp.

 

Nakajima, T., Nakajima, M., Mizuno, T., Sun, G.-P., He, S.-P. and Liu, H.-Z. (2010), On the pharyngeal tooth remains of crucian and common carp from the neolithic Tianluoshan site, Zhejiang Province, China, with remarks on the relationship between freshwater fishing and rice cultivation in the Neolithic Age. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. doi: 10.1002/oa.1206

 

Sibbing, F. A. (1982), Pharyngeal mastication and food transport in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): A cineradiographic and electromyographic study. Journal of Morphology, 172: 223–258. doi: 10.1002/jmor.1051720208

 

http://www.ccmoore.com/pdfs/nutritional_information/what_is_a_carp.pdf

 

http://www.jiffynotes.com/a_study_guides/book_notes/grze_04/grze_04_00263.html







                                              



The most important image that may appear on Fu Shan is that of a mask-like face. The left and right sides of the mask are parallel with each other. The decline of the mountain from its peak forms the top of the mask which joins the two sides. The eyes of the mask are oval in shape. The nose is prominent. The mouth is long. Both are in proportion to the size of the mask. The mask conveys a sense of serenity and tranquility.  

The mask may be divided into two parts. On the right appears a reptile that has crocodilian features. On the left appears a fish that has carp features—with one important exception—the fish has visible teeth. 

The depiction of a mask may be an important aspect of early Neolithic art as found on Seaman pottery. It is not uncommon to find what may represent a mask(s) portraying a fish-face. This type of painting has both fish and human-like characteristics and is called 人面 “renminyu”. 




                         



On the above piece of Banpo pottery there is a complex painting of a fish-face. The face itself is round. Perhaps the various fins are also portrayed in their triangular shapes.

There are two triangular shaped, small “young” fish that are attached or in a dependent position to the side of the round head. They may represent ears or perhaps elaborate barbels. Each of the young fish is divided into three triangular shapes or parts.

There are two larger “adult” fish drawn below the fish-face. They, too, are triangular in shape. They have tiny barbel-like feelers. Their bodies are arched to swim in a circular pattern. The independent fish on the right seems to be swimming after the smaller fish and looking out for it. Their scales are drawn to resemble nets. One might wonder if actual fish nets were designed to resemble scales. 




                        


On this bowl there is a vivid fish-face drawn on the side. It is somewhat oval in shape with a small triangular shaped chin and triangular point on the top of its head. There are hook- like lines running from each side of the forehead. There are two large size fish attached to the jaw where the barbels might be located. It now senses the world through its two small fry. 

There are dot features throughout the painting which may represent hairs or scales. Perhaps the dots have a numerical significance in terms of time. It looks like the following sequences are visible from the bottom: a) 26 (13 +13), b) 2 (1 + 1), c) 24 (13 +11), d) 16 (8 + 8) and e) 12 (6 + 6). Letter a) would seem to be twenty-six weeks or one half year. Each year divided into four parts of thirteen weeks. Letter b) could be a multiplier to make one full year. Letter c) seems to be twenty-four hours in a day.  Are the odd number of hours or 13 and 11 significant? Letter d) is unknown. Letter e) most likely to be 12 months in a year or could be 12 periods a day of two hours each.



D. Carlton Rossi

     





                                        




                                              


                                        Guang Ming Daily

                                     
 



                                            





      

                                            

                                


                   河北徐水釜山是真正的黄帝合符之所吗?





           




http://www.panoramio.com/photo/42715160  by botao_vip

39° 6' 55.72" N  115° 25' 28.85" E 

This photo is selected for Google Earth - ID: 42715160

'徐水 釜山 锅顶山)







October 19, 2011

 

 

                                             

                                                      Chinese Alligator by H.E. Rohde

                                                  

                                                        Chinese Alligator


The author has now viewed a full version of photo ID 42715160 selected for Google Earth and taken by bao_tai vip. This is a high quality color version of Fu Shan. In this photo the middle animal is more clearly outlined. It appears more like an alligator. The size seems to be in proportion to the monkey on the left and fish on the right. The eyes of the three animals are in line. The base line of the three animals is roughly horizontal.

It may be that the bulging eyes are those of an alligator rather than a tortoise; although both animals are reptiles. The body would extend from the head with both the left and right side defined. If this animal is an alligator then this is rather surprising since alligators are not seen today in Hebei. However, they were present thousands of years ago in the swamps and near the old course of the river.

Before the East Han Dynasty the Yellow River flowed near  Busan, Xushui, Hebei Province. At this geographically significant location it changed direction 90 degrees from the north to the east. If one poetically imagines that the Yellow River is a dragon then this might mark the beginning of the head of the dragon. It continued its flow to Tianjin and the Bohai Sea. See the map below where an arrow marks the bend in the river.


东汉以前的黄河故道显示,黄河曾在徐水釜山脚下折了个近乎九十度的弯,掉头东去,从天津的北边进入渤海                               

The inclusion of an embedded image of an alligator in the face image may be of importance. The face image would now incorporate entire images of an alligator and fish. It is generally believed that the alligator (crocodile), fish and snake were prototypes of the dragon. 

 

D. Carlton Rossi



                            

Course change of Yellow River from Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) to Eastern Han Dynasty "Dong Han" (25-220 BCE)


The Yellow River flowed through the Hebei Plains and emptied into the Bohai Sea during most of Neolithic history based on studies of pollen, village sites and ancient texts. However, it changed course due to the influence of East Asian monsoons and also sediment build-up in the river because of agriculture. During the period from 3650-3000 B.C. it flowed into the Jiangsu Plains and discharged into the Yellow Sea. Significantly though it changed course again around 2900-2200 B.C. when it reverted back to the Hebei Plain. (Wang Qing 1993a, 1999b)


The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States

Li Liu, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. 2004, p.29-30

The Cambridge History of Ancient China

Michael Loewe & Edward L. Shaughnessy, 1999, p. 30-31


Zhang Chi, The Discovery of Early Pottery in China



  


                      


Course changes of the Yellow River from 2278 B.C.E. to 2001 A.D.

http://www.paulnoll.com/China/History/history-Yellow-River.html







October 22, 2011





            



This picture was modified through Corel Paint Shop Pro X4
The following steps were taken:  Adjust-Sharpness-High Pass Sharpen-Hard Light-Increase Radius 100



 








                                                               


                               International Zhuangzi Conference
                          Tiananmen Square, Beijing



              Poet is located in top row in middle with blue shirt






                                                     October 27, 2011






                                           

                                                      Crocodylus_porosus


                                       The Jiaolong


Edward Schafer describes the Jiaolong as spiritually akin to the crocodile.  It was most often regarded as a dragon, but sometimes it was man-like or like a fish. They were interchangeable.

"The etymology of the word jiao is obscure.  It may have derived from the word kog which has more meanings than any other draconym according to Carr.  The seven meanings are "1. aquatic dragon 2. crocodile; alligator 3 hornless dragon 4. dragoness 5. scaled dragon 6 shark and 7. mermaid."

“The "Dragons and Snakes" section of the (1578 CE) Bencao Gangmu which is a comprehensive Chinese materia medica, differentiates (tr. Read 1934:314-318) between jiaolong 蛟龍 Saltwater Crocodile, "Crocodylus porosus" and tolong 鼉龍 "Chinese alligator "Alligator sinensis".  Most early references describe the jiaolong as living in rivers, which fits not only this freshwater "Chinese alligator" but also the "Saltwater crocodile" that spends the tropical wet season in freshwater rivers and swamps.  Comparing maximum lengths of 6 and 1.5 meters for this crocodile and alligator respectively, "Saltwater crocodile" seems more consistent with descriptions of jiao reaching lengths of several zhang "approximately 3.3 meters".  In the dry season they move downstream with the tide to estuaries.  

Prof. David Chuenyan Lai of the University of Victoria wrote an article called The Dragon in China which relates the dragon and crocodile. He says that in the North of China about 4000 years ago reptiles called Crocodilius Porosus lived in the swamps and river deltas on the eastern coast of China. Later, in the Shang Dynasty, a musical instrument was found with an engraving of a dragon. This image of the dragon led to the belief that the dragon originated from the crocodile. The Chinese crocodile became extinct around the 12th century A.D. with the drainage of swampy coastal plains and deltas.

            

Edward Schafer describes the Jiaolong as spiritually akin to the crocodile.  It was most often regarded as a dragon, but sometimes it was man-like or like a fish.  They were interchangeable.

"The etymology of the word jiao is obscure.  It may have derived from the word kog which has more meanings than any other draconym according to Carr.  The seven meanings are "1. aquatic dragon 2. crocodile; alligator 3 hornless dragon 4. dragoness 5. scaled dragon 6 shark and 7. mermaid."


                              



D. Carlton Rossi

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiaolong

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saltwater_crocodile

http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=187





 

                                          

                                                         

                                                           魚之


                           The fish image sees me as I seize it. 

                       It leaps free to break bonds that hold.

                       A bold bound upward does unfold.

                       Gold drops fall off of scales sunlit.   

 

                           D. Carlton Rossi





                                             
November 9, 2011





      

                                               


                                    
Wild and Common Carp


A fish image appears on the face of the mountain. It may be the image of a common carp. Probably it would be a wild carp as they were domesticated about 200 B.C. It peers through small eye which sees at an angle and upwards. The lower lip protrudes. Its dorsal fin is well defined. A caudal or tail fin may also be faintly perceptible .

While the colour eyesight and visual displays of the common carp is important in clear waters, other senses take over in muddy waters. They have acute senses of hearing, taste and smell.  In terms of hearing they have three different methods. These include inner ear, lateral line sensor and Weberian apparatus.

The gold-olive colour dorsal fin extends well along the back. The dorsal fin has a sharp spine of 17 to 22 branched rays. On the front edge is a hardened tooth ray. The outline of the dorsal fin is concave anteriorly.

Mature female carp are easy to spot because the stomachs are mostly plump.  Ovaries are larger than the testes of males. The male carp tends to be sleek and torpedo shape.

Cyprinidae are actually the largest family of fresh water fish. In China, there are roughly 210 genera that have been reported. There are also 532 living species of cyprinids found throughout China. According to Sifa Li of Shanghai Fisheries University, Cyprinidae compose about 55.6% of the Yellow River fish.  

China was among the first countries to domesticate carp. These carp have a fast growth rate. They are also characterized by a relatively short and deep body. The body has a high back.  Note, unlike the cultivated carp, the wild carp lacks the distinctive hump behind the head.

The wild ancestor of modern carp (Cyprinus carpio) originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages. They then dispersed into Siberia and China.  Finally, they spread over the Asian continent some 20,000 to 9,000 years ago.

Carp fossils were found  in South Western Guangxi Province. They are about 20,000 years old. All told there are 28 genera and 34 species of fossil cyprinids that have been identified from Tertiary sediments in China.

There were two main predators of the wild carp in the Yellow River of ancient times. First, there was the Chinese paddlefish (Polyodon gladius) found in the Yellow River and Yellow Sea. They reached a standard length of 7 meters.  However, they can reach up to 9 meters in length.  It can no longer be found in the Yellow River and it is on the verge of extinction in the Yangstze River. Then there was the Chinese alligator or crocodile. The crocodile has been extinct in China for centuries.



 

http://nsgd.gso.uri.edu/hawau/hawauw93001/hawauw93001chap5.pdf


http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Cyprinus_carpio/en
                                                     




November 10, 2011



                                                         


                                 Common Carp and Salinity

 

The Common Carp can live in heavily silted water or clean streams. When these carp live in rivers they are in the slow flow sections.  For example, the section of river after a bend might be suitable fit.  If rains have swelled the river they may move into flooded fields to deposit eggs on submerged plants.  Cyprinids—including the Common Carp are fresh water fish.

The Common Carp can tolerate salinity up to about 5%.  Common Carp have been reported in brackish marshes with salinities up to 14 ppm in southern France (Crivelli 1981). However, the Common Carp species is rarely found in brackish waters because high salinities cause excretory problems and may interfere with water balance. (Panek 1987).  “Asian strains start to spawn when the ion concentration of the water decreases abruptly at the beginning of the rainy season”. Common carp will move from brackish waters to fresh water when they spawn.

Whiterod and Walker has completed a study on the effect of salinization in the Murry-Darling  Basin of Australia.  It is titled  Will rising salinity in the Murray–Darling Basin affect common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)?  In particular they studied the effects of high salt levels on the alien species of Common Carp which is the most common fish in the river system. 

 Carp are moderately tolerant of salinity (direct transfer LC50: 11 715 mg L–1), particularly after slow acclimation (LC50: 13 070 mg L–1), but sub-lethal effects are evident at lower salinities. These include effects on osmoregulation (>7500 mg L–1), behaviour (7500–12 500 mg L–1) and sperm motility in mature fish (150–300 mm) (8330 mg L–1). Salinities in some Murray–Darling Basin wetlands already approach half seawater (17 500 mg L–1) and carp populations in these important nursery areas could be impacted through sub-lethal effects on adults and lethal effects on juveniles, eggs and sperm.”

Tribolodon is a salt water Cyprinid genus that is found in the Yellow and Bohai Seas. The species T. brandtii is anadromous which means that it is fresh water born, resides in salt water and returns to fresh water to spawn. The species hakonensis is both anadromous and/or river resident.

D. Carlton Rossi

                             

http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Cyprinus_carpio/en


http://www.fish.state.pa.us/pafish/fishhtms/chap12minnows.htm




November 18, 2011


                                       Embedded Images

                                  
                                


   
The scope of this report will deal mainly with embedding of images on Banpo pottery (4800 BCE to 4200 BCE) of the Yangshao culture. An embedded image is a part of an integral whole. The images have a dual character and also a transformational aspect. The topic of embedding seems pertinent to the images that may be perceptible on Fu Shan. In particular, these fish-face images 人面 on the pottery may somewhat relate in a general sense to the image of the fish which overlaps half of the face image on Fu Shan. In other words, they may be prototypes of the images of Fu Shan. Kindly keep in mind that the author is in a different time and place and that he lacks expertise in the area of archeology. The author provides merely guesses and impressions. He is often humbled by his lack of knowledge and awed by the strength of the human spirit when confronted with the fragility and frailty of life.

There can be seen a fish-face or 人面 “renminyu” on the inside of what may be a lid. It may be that this was used to seal a funeral urn of a child’s remains. The inside rim of the lid has arrows and lines that may represent directions. The face of the fish is round. It has slit eyes, small nose and mouth. There appear to be two small fish to left and right of the face. The small fish on the right appears to have a pair of barbels or touch sensors. The face is resting on an oblong shape with ray-like sticks. Each stick is the equivalent of a human hair or a fish scale. The shape may represent the pectoral fin of a fish like a carp. There is a triangular shaped symbol above the face which may represent the dorsal fin of a fish. Underneath this face-fish there are two larger scaled fish to the left and right.

The face-fish image has a dual character. It is both human-like and fish-like. It may be a human face imposed on a fish or fish features connected to a human face.



                                    

 

In the second picture there are two fish and two nets that are prominent. The fish on the left has two bent sticks sticking out of the side of its head. The dorsal fin also appears at the top. However, it may be that this drawing can also be viewed upside down. Upright it appears sad and upside down it appears happy. It may be that it stands for a live and dead fish. A live fish is upright, but a dead fish is upside down.

The two nets indicate that they are used by two fishermen. There are triangular shapes at each corner of the nets which may be stone weights which symbolize the basic shape of fish and/or the upper and lower lip of a face. Note that on the human-fish face these triangular shapes appear together and touch at the apex of the triangles. If these are the lips of the face or perhaps larger fish then they would consume whatever fish were caught in the nets. Two corners of each net is grabbed by each hand to catch the fish. Since the nets are weighted then they would most likely be dropped or thrown.



                                              

 

The third picture of Banpo pottery appears to be an urn--perhaps for the burial of an infant. The mouth of the fish-face is composed of triangle upon triangle which may represent fish on fish. What was described earlier as resembling a pectoral fin also resembles a mouth. So the small mouth is within the big mouth which resembles in shape the mouth of the urn itself.

The two bent sticks coming out of the side of the head have small fish attached. The bent sticks might represent fish lines with hooked fish. Alternatively, they may represent stylized ears. The dark and light patterns on the two fish are also repeated on the face-fish. 

Further signs of embedding may be evident on the face of the urn. The two fish symbols may represent eyes of a large fish-face. Of course, the two fish have eyes themselves. The dark triangular shapes on the forehead of the smaller fish-face might become the nostrils of the large fish-face. The mouth of the large fish-face is the long horizontal oblong shape.

One may hazard a guess as to what the sculptured shapes represent at the top of the forehead. Perhaps they represent the pharyngeal pointed teeth of a grass carp. They may be intended to dispel evil spirits. Functionally they may have been used to secure the lid with rope. Wouldn’t the pattern of the rope then resemble a square or round fish net depending on how it was tied? The wavy lines above the shapes may represent hair of a person or waves of water.


                       


This piece of Banpo pottery is boat shaped to carry water. Perhaps the shape of the boat was inspired by a fish. A rope might be threaded through the eyelets to raise and lower the vessel into the water. These eyelets could be construed to resemble the eyes of a fish. The gaping mouth of the fish is represented by a fish net with sharp teeth at either side. It would be a case of a big fish catching smaller fish or a fisherman catching fish. The black teeth might also resemble smaller fish particularly when combined with the lighter triangles on the net.



D. Carlton Rossi



                         









                                   
          










                                           









                                                         

  
                                                          




 
   


         
 Ten Achievements



The Special Shape of Fu Mountain

Places Named after Fu Mountain

Historical Records of Fu Mountain

Cultural Relics of Fu Mountain

Folks Legends

The History without a Break


The Old Course of the Yellow River

The Ancient Temple of Suffering

Fushan Cultural Circle

The Mystery of Yake







     
The Special Shape of Fu Mountain


Ancient Ruins of the Temple on top of Fu Mountain






Fu Mountain of Xushui is commonly referred to as “Pot Top Mountain”.  It obtained its name because it resembles a reversed pot.  The mountain is actually an arch. The towering place on the top the mountain is like the trace of the bottom of a pot, left by the folks who cast the big pot. The whole mountain resembles an overturned pot.  From a distance, it looks as if it was created or granted by God.

Located 22.5 kilometers to the northwest of Xushui County town, Fu Mountain is the transition region from Taihang Mountain to Hebei plain. Fu Mountain is actually like a crouched tortoise, with four paws scratching the ground,head, slightly up, facing the south, and with a tiny rump. The mountain is in a northwest-southeast direction and three of its sides are steep while the east mountain slope is not so precipitous. It has an elevation of 290 meters and covers 2 square kilometers.



Places Named After Fu Mountain

Beihezhuang village is 1.5 kilometers the northwest of Fu Mountain. There is a historical site called Beihe Mesa, where the Yellow Emperor reconciled with Yandi (a leader of a tribe). That’s how the village got its name.

Xie village is located about 3 kilometers to the east of the Fu Mountain  and 1.5 kilometers to the southeast of Chiyou’s tomb (a leader of an old tribe).  It was in Jie village that Chiyou was drawn and quartered upon sentence of the Yellow Emperor. So the village is called Jie village.

Fan village is approximately 4 kilometers to the southeast of Fu Mountain.  It was the camp where the Yellow Emperor stationed troops.  At first, the walls were fences, so the village was named Fan village (of tree, grass).  The name was later changed into Fan village.

Big and Small Mou Mountain villages were originally 2.5 kilometers to the east of Fu Mountain. They were scattered about  the two sides of Chiyou’s tomb. Through the textual research conducted by experts on historical relics, Chiyou’s tomb was found on Red Soil Hill which was supposed to be man-made. Chiyou temple was on the top of the hill. Bull was the totem of Chiyou’s tribe and Mou is a mimetic word for bulls. Later, the word developed into “mou”. In 1958, the two villages were moved to other places because of the building of the Pu River reservoir.


Dean Li Boqian's Dedication


                         


The dedication was written for the Xushui Cultural Studies of Fu Mountain.  The author is Li Boqian who is the Dean of the Sinian Period Civilization Research Center at Peking University and also former President of the School of Archeology and Museology.




Historical Records of Fu Mountain


Fu Mountain of the Xushui is the site where the Yellow Emperor unified totem.  This was clearly recorded in many historical documents, stone tablet inscriptions and poems etc. "The Yellow Emperor once chased Xunyu in the north of China and unified totem on Fu Mountain”. This was recorded in the biographies of five emperors according to the Shiji.

Zizhi Tongjian written in the Song dynasty has it that “The Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain which is in Wusui (Suicheng, in Xushui, was once called Wusui). “Fu Mountain is in Ansu County” (Xushui was once called Ansu) according to the Yanhuagnhuidian.  District Records volume, Tongjian Zuanyao (an authoritative history book). Cihai has the record that “The mesa of unifying totem is in the west of Xushui”.

“Fu Mountain is in Ansu County.  It is right here, on Fu Mountain, that the Yellow Emperor and leaders of other tribes unified their totem” as recorded in the 8th volume of the Annals of Baodingfu (written in the 7th year of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing dynasty).  Mingshengzhi has it that “Fu Mountain is to the west of Ansu County town, about 40 li”.

“Fu Mountain, on which the totem was unified, lies like a pot some 45 li to the west of the County seat. The Yellow Emperor and other vassals unified totem on Fu Mountain which became one of the eight scenic spots” as recorded in the 9th volume, County Annuals of Ansu County written in the 13th year of Emperor Jiaqing in the Qing dynasty.

“Xuanyuanshi (the Yellow Emperor) visited places to know the customs and climbed Fu Mountain to assemble vassals to unify totem in the west of Xushui County. There is a Yellow Emperor platform standing on the top of the mountain, and its vestiges still exist”.  This record is from the 10th volume, New County Annuals of Xushui County which was written in the 32nd year of the Republic of China.

In the Yanhuanghuidian (a history book) there is an essay written by Wangyuyou who was a scholar in the Qing dynasty.  He wrote that “Fu Mountain, the place where the Yellow Emperor met other vassals to unify totem, has been a place of interest for a long time and it is a must to climb the mountain and ascend a height and look far into the distance.

A famous poet in the Qing dynasty also wrote a poem for Fu Mountain in Xushui. He wrote that “Unifying totem was an event in the old times. The spring is quite deep of itself. Taste the water and you will still be able to understand the intention of the Yellow Emperor”.

The Yellow Emperor temple was restored in the 13th year of Qianlong (1784 AD), Qing dynasty.  When a stone tablet was installed, there were three poems engraved on it; namely, The Paean to the Yellow Emperor written by Caozhi in Three Kingdoms Period, Xuanyuantai by Chenzhengang in the Tang dynasty, On the Way to Suizhou by Wenqianxiang in the Song dynasty.


The Yellow Emperor


   



Cultural Relics of Fu Shan



There are forty-six cultural remains and unearthed incomplete stone tablets on top of Fu Mountain which are strong evidence to prove that the Yellow Emperor unified the totem in Xushui.

There are many historical remains on the Fu Mountain; such as, the site of the Yellow Emperor temple, the site of enclosing wall, the platform of the Yellow Emperor, the spring of the Yellow Emperor, ancient wells, ubiquitous standing or lying or piled up stone tablets. Professor Liboqian (Peking University Dean of Sinian Period Civilization Research Center, former President of School of Archeology and Museology, who climbed to the top of the Fu Mountain and said with a tinge of emotion “It is rare to discover so many historical and cultural remains in Fu Mountain and they are worthy of protecting.”

Pre-Painted Pottery Culture, Painted Pottery Culture, Black Pottery Culture, and Xiajiadian culture were unearthed not far from Fu Mountain. And Painted Pottery Culture ancient ruins are found at the Wencun site, Jinjiafen site, Fangling site, Beiheshouying site, and late Painted Pottery Culture site (the Xueshan First Stage) in the Puhe area or altogether more than 46 sites. They existed approximately in the same era as the Yellow Emperor’s, with a history of 5,000 years.

 

In Hebei Province, only on Fu Mountain in Xushui, or in the north of Mancheng, did people discover Han dynasty pictures and stone inscription.  These can also be found elsewhere in Henan province, Shandong province, the north of Jiangsu province and the north of Shaanxi province. Han dynasty tombs and burial stones engraved with pictures unearthed in Fu Mountain and areas around it were of large quantity, high quality and rich contents.  So we can see the prosperity of Fu Mountain in the Han Dynasty.  And it is easy for us to arrive at the conclusion that there were many residents who lived around Fu Mountain which was named when Sima Qian wrote the Shiji two thousand years ago.

From September to October in 2008, when the archeological team from Hebei Research Center of Cultural Relics excavated the groundwork of a temple, they found an incomplete stone tablet in riprap, deeper than a meter beneath the ground. The characters on the stele could still be read “The Yellow Emperor Unified totem here … the dragon is prominent…”

According to the textual research, Long, which means dragon, was a big family name in the Fu Mountain area.  During the Qing Dynasty, in the 13th year of Emperor Qianlong, the expenses needed to build the temple were collected from some rich families whose surname was Long. Twenty years ago, a Han dynasty stone door for a tomb engraved with a dragon was unearthed in Wangkan village, near Fu Mountain. The stele and stone door for tombs engraved with the dragon provided the research on dragon culture with text and definite objects.


   


Jomon Pottery



   








Folk Legends



The fairy tales and folklores about the Yellow Emperor in Fu Mountain and the places around the mountain are the rich cultural heritage and essence of Chinese history of 5,000 years ago. Like places named around Fu Mountain mentioned above, these ancient myths, to some extent, reflect the shadow which is cast by history.

Various myths and legends have been a controversial topic in academic research all the time.  As a matter of fact, like other peoples in the world, Chinese civilization has its own fairy tale and legends at the beginning.  Because at that time, there were no characters to record and the best way to hand down civilization from generation to generation was speaking and listening. There are many fairy tales and folklores about the Yellow Emperor that spread among people on Fu Mountain and areas near it.  For instance, the fight between the Yellow Emperor and Yandi at Banquan, the legend of drawing dragon and unifying totem on Fu Mountain, the banquet for vassals at the origin of Fu Mountain, a lady from Xiling who was good at weaving silk, the show of dragon lanterns on the eve of the Spring Festival, and so on. These myths are included in The Spectacular Scenic Spots in Xushui and the Records of Anecdotes about Fu Mountain and its surrounding areas.  These records which were compiled respectively by Jinfengyun  the former Vice-Chairman of the People's Political Consultative Committee of Xushui, and Yangzhonglin, a knowledgeable person, from Dawangdian, Xushui County.

There is much strong, evidence that has been unearthed to verify the legend of drawing dragon and unifying totem. It was said that when ancient ancestors from many tribes gathered to form alliances,they cut one part of their totems with typical characteristic to form a new one as a united totem which marked that there would be no war from then on. So everyone drew a stroke; consequently, a nondescript animal was created. Anyhow, what kind of name should it have?

Production and daily life endowed the ancient ancestors with almost infinite wisdom. All tribes living in the Yellow Emperor era were facing a new turning point from nomadic to an agriculture civilization. At that time, our ancient ancestors made cages with bamboo strips or flexible materials. These cages were used to lock in birds or other prey. Legend has it that after the creation of the nondescript animal, people had a swift imagination that since this special thing could bring all the totems together, let us call it “Longzi”(cage) which developed into “Long”(dragon). In the long period of history, the owner of Fu Mountain was always a family surnamed Long, which was a big family name. Until now, there are many people surnamed ’Long’ in several villages at the foot of the Fu Mountain. In 1978 and 1981, some stone reliefs engraved with the image of a dragon in the Han Dynasty were successively unearthed from tombs in the South Fu Mountain. The dragon had a long mouth and sharp teeth, beard in rhynchodaeum , horns on its head, crooked neck and beast body, an upturned tail and a pair of special wings on its back.

In 2008, an archaeological team dispatched by Hebei Research Center of Cultural Relics found an incomplete stone tablet carved with this statement “The Yellow Emperor unified totem here ….dragon is prominent...”In an historical aspect, it was not until late in the Shang dynasty, about a thousand years after the action of drawing dragon and unifying totem, that eight hundred vassals revolted in Mengjin, Henan Province. There had been no big war before.  Ancient ancestors of all tribes raised the political wisdom to a kind of cultural spirit, and universal value through drawing dragon and unifying totem. From then on, the Chinese nation had a uniform totem of “Long” which started a new journey to civilization. China was called “Dragon of the Orient” and Children of China were called “Descendants of the Yellow” or “the Descendants of the Dragon”.  In addition, there are many folk activities which are preserved in Fu Mountain village of sacrificing the Yellow Emperor on March 1st.  The Yellow Emperor temple fair which is held annually on 1st of March on Fu Mountain is a good example.


Unifying Totem on Fu Mountain


                            


Unifying Totem on Fu Mountain, one of the eight Scenic Spots in Ansu County (the ancient name of Xushui County) recorded in County Annals of Ansu in the Qing Dyansty







 

The four villages of Dongfushan, Beifushan, Nanfushan and Xifushan are located near Fushan.








The History without a Break


The history of Xushui and its surrounding areas is without break, which confirms that the historical context of unifying totem on Fu Mountain has been continued and inherited.

 Judging from the age of the remnants, Nanzhuangtou archaeological sites date back 10,000 years or so.  Pre-Painted Pottery Culture, Painted Pottery Culture, Black Pottery Culture and Xiajiadian culture sites unearthed around Fu Mountain revealed a developmental process of thousands of years from the Yellow Emperor period to the Xia, Shang, Zhou dynasties, Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period.

Beifudi prehistory cultural relics are located in Shenshi village, Gaochun town, Yi County, on a mesa bordering the middle of the north bank of the Yishui River.  On this site, the cultural remnants of the three phases of Neolith Era were discovered, and these remnants were nearly in the same age as Ci mountain culture and Xinglongwa culture, about 8,000-years ago.

Qilizhuang village which is located 3 kilometers to the northeast of Yi County town belongs to the north bank of the northern Yishui River.  In that village, cultural relics of five periods from the Neolithic Era to the dynasties of the Xia, Shang, Zhou, and the Warring States Periods were found. The significance of the ancient ruins lies in connection of the human activities with a history of 10,000 years in this place. The discovery was rare at home and abroad. As a result, it shocked archaeological circles.

When the archaeological team of Beijing City Research Center of Historical Relics carried out the rescue excavation of tombs in north Fu Mountain (traversed by projects for diverting water from the south to the north) they unearthed some implements buried with the dead. These implements consist of four main periods, namely, the Han, Tang, Song and Liao Dynasties and also the Ming and Qing.  The dynasties span two thousand years. It indicated that this area was the main place of activities of  our ancient ancestors.

On the 16th of July 1987, Zouheng and Liyangsong, famous archaeologists of China and Professors of Peking University, sang highly of historical relics in Xushui after making an on-the-spot investigation.  “The ancient ruins discovered in Xushui County in our national survey of cultural relics are of large quantity and high quality.  Furthermore, there is no break in the history of these ruins. They offered an approach to solve the difficult and perennial questions. Most importantly, some new academic subjects have been put forward”.

Jiajinbiao, a researcher of Hebei Research Institute of Cultural Relics, who graduated in his early years from the Department of Archaeology at Zhongshan University, has participated almost in all archaeological activities in Xushui County and has arrived at the conclusion that Xushui is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization.


East Subordinate Palace


                 




West Subordinate Palace

                  



The Old Course of the Yellow River


At the foot of the Fu Mountain, there could once be found one of the bends of the old course of the Yellow River and also the inferential place where the Yellow Emperor unified totem.

After many year’s spot investigation and textual research conducted by historical geographers and departments of archaeology and cultural relics, the primary conclusion was drawn that “Unifying totem” on Fu Mountain was a kind of cultural phenomenon of the Yellow River and the Yellow Emperor laid the foundation for the reunification of the Chinese nation.

The Yellow River is the mother river of the Chinese nation. Along its river basin the Yellow Emperor led the tribes to the north and settled down where there was water and grass. Any study of the event of unifying totem conducted by the Yellow Emperor on Fu Mountain should be based on the Yellow River. Whoever breaks away from the Yellow River to seek the whereabouts of the Fu Mountain on which totem was unified, he equally vetoes the historical fact that the Yellow Emperor initiated the civilization of Chinese nation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River.  In a word, the Yellow River is a touch-stone, and any study is valueless without the Yellow River as support.

Tanqixiang, a historical geographer, renowned as “WenhuaShenzhou(a poetic name for China)”(means a person who is the leading authority on historical geography) found an old course of the Yellow River called Shanjing River to have undoubtedly existed. The sketch of Shanjing river showed the Yellow River flowed from Xiaolangdi Dam, along the east foot of Taihang mountain, then, it ran northeastwards, running through places today called Anyang, Handan, Shenzhou, Gaoyang and turned sharply at the foot of the Fu Mountain. It flowed eastwards, traversing Anxin, Bazhou and Tianjin and into the Bohai Sea.

In the aspect of some related geological material, it is found that in prehistoric times water of the Yellow River flowed down.  The water carried huge amounts of sediment and formed which formed the Hebei plain.  After that the Yellow River still overflowed unceasingly. There were many gorges in the plain along the east foot of Taihang Mountain. This was the old course of the Yellow River, including parts of the gorges in Xushui County.  Ivory fossils of Palaeoloxodon, about 4 metres long and 200,000 to 300,000 years old, were excavated around Fu Mountain.

It was confirmed by the national survey of cultural relics conducted between 1985 and 1986 that ancient cultural relics of various periods could almost be found everywhere around Fu Mountain; namely, the banks of the old course of the Yellow River. For instance, in the 10,000-year-old ancient ruins in Nanzhuangtou, pieces of pottery, stone implements, building stones, bone objects, and large amounts of animal bones were unearthed; and in the village ruins of prehistoric times of the  8,000 years’ old Beifudi ancient sites, many jade articles, stone implements, potteries and other important remnants were discovered. Numerous ancient ruins and the continuative historical context reflect the ancient civilization of the old course of the Yellow River around Fu Mountain.



The Old Course of The Yellow River


                        




The Ancient Temple of Suffering


More than 3,500 year-old pieces of Jomon pottery, building units of past dynasties, history books, and stone inscriptions have been unearthed at the site of the Yellow Emperor Temple on Fu Mountain.  They furnished strong evidence to prove the fact that the Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain in Xushui County.

The site of the Yellow Emperor Temple is located on the top of  Fu Mountain.  It is said that the temple was built by Emperor Shun in memory of the Yellow Emperor. The Yellow Emperor Temple suffered repeated destruction on more than ten occasions due to act of man, lightning strike, wildfires, and wars etc.

Xushui County annals said, Cuizhidao and others restored the Yellow Emperor Temple on the top of the Fu Mountain in the 25th year (1546 A.D.) of Emperor Jiajing, Ming dynasty.  This was recorded in a tablet’s inscription.

According to the inscriptions on the incomplete tablets in the Ming and Qing dynasties that were found on the top of Fu Mountain, the Yellow Emperor Temple was rebuilt in the 13th year (1622 A.D.) of Emperor Chongzhen, Ming dynasty, destroyed in a wildfire in 12th year (1734 A.D.) of Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing dynasty and burned to pieces in the 10th year (1745 A.D.) of Emperor Qianlong. It was reconstructed in 1748, damaged in the 4th year (1878 A.D.) of Emperor Guangxu, and burned down again in 1900 A.D.  It was told by the local old folks that the stone tablet on the top of the Fu Mountain was bombarded into pieces by Japanese invaders in the war of Japanese Resistance.

The archaeological team of Hebei Research Center of Cultural Relics excavated ancient ruins of the old temple and two upper sections of tablets were found.  They referred to the “Rebuilding of the Temporary Palace in Tai mountain” and “the Tablet Inscription of Reconstructing the Temple of Goddess”. The work statement on the excavation of old temples says that the ancient ruins exhumed at this time were in the Ming and Qing dynasties. We not only unearthed the pieces of yellow glaze porcelain pot of the Tang dynasty and White porcelain of black flower in the period of Jin and Yuan in the courtyard filling in the top, but also pieces of Jomon potteries in the early Shang dynasty about 3500 years ago.”

The building units unearthed ranging from the Han, Tang, Song and Liao dynasties to the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, provide physical evidence for the fact that the Yellow Emperor Temple on the Fu Mountain experienced repeated destruction and sufferings.




Fushan Cultural Circle


More than 3,500 year-old pieces of Jomon potteries, building units of past dynasties, history books, and stone inscriptions have been unearthed at the site of the Yellow Emperor Temple on Fu Mountain.  They furnished strong evidence to prove the fact that the Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain in Xushui County.

The site of the Yellow Emperor Temple is located on the top of  Fu Mountain.  It is said that the temple was built by Emperor Shun in memory of the Yellow Emperor. The Yellow Emperor Temple suffered repeated destruction on more than ten occasions due to act of man, lightning strike, wildfires, and wars etc.

Xushui County annals said, Cuizhidao and others restored the Yellow Emperor Temple on the top of the Fu Mountain in the 25th year (1546 A.D.) of Emperor Jiajing, Ming dynasty.  This was recorded in a tablet’s inscription.

According to the inscriptions on the incomplete tablets in the Ming and Qing dynasties that were found on the top of Fu Mountain, the Yellow Emperor Temple was rebuilt in the 13th year (1622 A.D.) of Emperor Chongzhen, Ming dynasty, destroyed in a wildfire in 12th year (1734 A.D.) of Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing dynasty and burned to pieces in the 10th year (1745 A.D.) of Emperor Qianlong. It was reconstructed in 1748, damaged in the 4th year (1878 A.D.) of Emperor Guangxu, and burned down again in 1900 A.D.  It was told by the local old folks that the stone tablet on the top of the Fu Mountain was bombarded into pieces by Japanese invaders in the war of Japanese Resistance.

The archaeological team of Hebei Research Center of Cultural Relics excavated ancient ruins of the old temple and two upper sections of tablets were found.  They referred to the “Rebuilding of the Temporary Palace in Tai mountain” and “the Tablet Inscription of Reconstructing the Temple of Goddess”. The work statement on the excavation of old temples says that the ancient ruins exhumed at this time were in the Ming and Qing dynasties. We not only unearthed the pieces of yellow glaze porcelain pot of the Tang dynasty and White porcelain of black flower in the period of Jin and Yuan in the courtyard filling in the top, but also pieces of Jomon potteries in the early Shang dynasty about 3500 years ago.”

The building units unearthed ranging from the Han, Tang, Song and Liao dynasties to the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, provide physical evidence for the fact that the Yellow Emperor Temple on the Fu Mountain experienced repeated destruction and sufferings.




The Mystery of Yake

The period of ancient characters (Yake characters engraved on cliff stones) of Fu Mountain was in accordance with the time when the Yellow Emperor unified the totem on Fu Mountain.

In 1978, Jinfengyun found 109 ancient characters in the caves of Fu Mountain. And recently, another 30 have been detected on the animal fossils around Fu Mountain and parts of characters in many other places. After expert speculation, they are considered as symbols left by the ancient ancestors in the times of the Yellow Emperor.  Even now, these characters are indecipherable for anyone. Although difficult to know the purpose and contents of Yake, it is no doubt that characters engraved in stones are a kind of phenomenon prior to the real characters, earlier than hieroglyph and inscription on the oracle bones. Judging from the rich contents of the Yake, it is easy to know that ancient ancestors had powerful abilities of observation and imagination towards the nature.

Through the study, Yake in Fu Mountain share some of the same characteristics with symbols of prehistory unearthed before as well as signs inscribed in the ancient bronzes.  It indicates that the cliff stones engraved with characters on Fu Mountain not only inherited the features of the Neolithic Age in Painted Pottery Period, but also continued to develop to the Bronze Age, and its inheritance is continuative. These engraved symbols date back to 5,000 ago and last until the early years of the Shang dynasty. The age when the ancient characters were carved in Fu Mountain was almost the same as the period of unifying totem done by the Yellow Emperor.

 It is not an accident that the discovery of over 5,000-year-old ancient characters tallies the event of unifying totem performed by the Yellow Emperor on Fu Mountain. If these ancient characters could be deciphered, they might verify the fact that the Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain.



Yake characters engraved in cliff stones on Fu Mountain



     













                                         How to Find Fu Shan

 


Map #1 (English)


http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&sugexp=kjrmc&cp=8&gs_id=5&xhr=t&q=%E6%B2%B3%E5%8C%97%E9%87%9C%E5%B1%B1%E5%9C%B0%E7%82%B9%E4%BD%8D%E7%BD%AE&gs_upl=&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&biw=1366&bih=571&um=1&ie=UTF-8&hq=&hnear=0x35e576dcd01ca351:0x209e61df190e9486,China+Hebei+Baoding+Xushui%E5%8D%97%E9%87%9C%E5%B1%B1%E6%9D%91&ei=dAWYTvXLHcXg0QGN6cy2BA&sa=X&oi=geocode_result&ct=image&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBoQ8gEwAA


 

Map #2 (Chinese)


http://ditu.google.cn/maps?hl=zh-CN&q=%E6%B2%B3%E5%8C%97%E9%87%9C%E5%B1%B1%E5%9C%B0%E7%82%B9%E4%BD%8D%E7%BD%AE&gs_upl=6300l14913l0l15797l29l26l1l12l0l5l594l2973l2-2.0.3.2l7l0&bav=cf.osb&biw=1366&bih=617&wrapid=tlif131848428678210&um=1&ie=UTF-8&hq=&hnear=0x35e576dcd01ca351:0x209e61df190e9486,%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E6%B2%B3%E5%8C%97%E7%9C%81%E4%BF%9D%E5%AE%9A%E5%B8%82%E5%BE%90%E6%B0%B4%E5%8E%BF%E5%8D%97%E9%87%9C%E5%B1%B1%E6%9D%91&ei=AKaVToSCHs3QrQfw14DNBg&sa=X&oi=geocode_result&ct=title&resnum=1&ved=0CCEQ8gEwAA



 

Chinese Search terms:  河北釜山地点位置

(Copy and paste these Chinese search terms into the English Google search bar)

 

 

 

Directions for Fu Shan from Xushui, Hebei

 

Fu Shan is located 27 km from Xushui, Hebei in a NNW direction. (Fu Shan is located 23 km from Dawu City in a NW direction).The Puhe Water Reservoir east water channel ends roughly at Yufeng Road in Xushui. On the map follow the channel in a NNW direction, cross the G5 Jin Kun Expressway, continue to follow the channel and you will arrive at the Puhe Water Reservoir. It is just east of the main mountain range.

Find the western water channel from the Puhe Water Reservoir. You will see a village just south of the bend in the western channel. The village is called Dongushanxiang or East Fu Shan village. There are actually four villages here. They have directional names. There is North (Bei or ), South (Nan or ), West (Xi or 西) and East (Dong or )  Villages. Fu Shan mountain is located about 3 kilometers SW of Nan Fu Shan Village. 

At this point switch to the satellite view at about one-half the scale. You will see the south water channel. Follow that channel in a SW direction. At the bend in the channel you will discover Fu Shan. It is a very short distance from the bend of the south water channel. 
 





                                           



黄帝合符徐水釜山圣迹多

The Yellow Emperor is in line with the Xushui Busan Sanctuary

发表时间:2010-03-03  | 来源:保定老年网 | 作者:刘瑞河



The Yellow Emperor is in line

with the Xushui Busan Sanctuary


The Seminar participants reached a consensus.

The Yellow River is the mother river of the Chinese nation. The Yellow River should be identified as the "Busan" touchstone. "Records of the Historian" records: the Yellow Emperor had led the tribes to the north along the Yellow River Basin. They lived by the mountain and water for survival. Therefore, the study of Yellow Emperor must be based on the Yellow River rather than out of the Yellow River. How can one deny that the Yellow Emperor created the history of the Chinese nation outside of the Yellow River. That is to say, to study the Yellow Emperor one must be in line with Busan. The Yellow River is the road "threshold".

What is the origin of  Xushui Busan and the Yellow River?
In 1975, the Chinese historical geographer Tan Qixiang in the "Shan Hai Jing" found that the old course of the Yellow River could be tested. The old name of the Yellow River was the Shangjing River. A flow chart showed the Yellow River flowed from  Xiaolangdi, Anyang, Handan and Goyang to the foot of the foot of Xushui, Busan where it made a sharp 90 degree turn east to Bazhou and then north to Tianjin into the sea.

After excavation of underground sandstone the old course of the Yellow River in the Xushui Busan foothills has been verified. In addition, the control of "Shan Hai Jing North by the three" shows that "Shan Jing River" on the map marked the Baoding Waterfall South Bank Xuanyuan (Huangdi title) Hill. It is now Xushui Busan.




Published: 2010-03-03 | Source: Baoding elderly Network | Author: Rui River





                                             Introduction


Where is Fu Mountain on which the Yellow Emperor Unified Totem


Fu Mountain of Unifying Totem Veiled in the Mists of History


The Blurry Historical Shadow Cast by Fu Mountain in Xushui County


The Research of Ancient Civilization should extensively absorb the Non-Governmental Strength


Research of Ancient Culture continues the Cultural Memory of the Chinese Nation


Where is Fu Mountain on which the Yellow Emperor united Totem








                                   



Guangming Daily 

May 5, 2009

Reporters:   Yuan Xiang and Wang Yiyin


Shiji (Records of the Historian) has the record that the Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain. The Yellow Emperor and representatives of other tribes unified totem and made an alliance between them. After that time, all the tribes whether big or small of the Chinese nation were in the charge of the Yellow Emperor thereby initiating the 5000 year history of the Chinese nation.



Where is Fu Mountain on which the Yellow Emperor Unified Totem


A research question of ancient Chinese civilization aroused the achievement of a non-governmental organization.  Xushui Hebei Studies of Fu Mountain Culture is a non-governmental organization launched by Hebei entrepreneur whose name is Sun Dawu.  It has obtained the preliminary conclusion, through looking up historical documents and making on-spot investigations, that it is probable that the Fu Mountain on which the Yellow Emperor unified totem is the one in Xushui County.


The achievements of this nongovernmental academic organization attracted the attention of both Zhangwenbin (former Chief of the State Cultural Relics Bureau) and Liboqian who is Chief Scientist of “Dynastic Project of Xia, Shang, Zhou Dynasties and expert on cultural relics. Not long ago, a seminar of experts was specially held for this study. And two topics were put forward as follows: first, how the Chinese Studies of Ancient Civilization extensively absorbs the nongovernmental strength.  And second, how the Study of Ancient Civilization continues the memory of the Chinese nation.



Fu Mountain of Unifying Totem Veiled in the Mists of History

The phrase ‘Unifying Totem on Fu Mountain’ stems from some related records in the Shiji (Records of the Historian). Simaqian who is the author of the Shiji, wrote in the Biographies of five Emperors, the first article of Shiji, that the Yellow Emperor once unified totem on Fu Mountain. The historian told how the totem, also named Fujie (a totem used in ancient times) or Fuxin (a totem used to represent a pledge), was often made of bamboo, wood, animal leather, jade or bones etc.  The totem was divided into halves carried by two owners as seals. Unifying totem was a keepsake system of alliances before the creation of written characters and it was very popular for a long time and applied to the big political events, administration, ceremonies and military affairs.  Fu Mountain was the place where the Yellow Emperor and representatives of other tribes unified symbol and made an alliance. After that, all the tribes of the Chinese nation, big or small, were in the charge of the Yellow Emperor, initiating the 5000 year history of the Chinese nation.

Zhangwenbin, Executive Vice-Chairman of China Research Institute of the Culture of the Yellow Emperor and Emperor Yan and who was also the former Director of State Cultural Relic Bureau, said," Unifying totem on Fu Mountain is an important turning point in the history of the Chinese nation. From then on, the tribes developed into an alliance of tribes, walking towards the fusion and unification of the Chinese nation. It played an essential role in the formation and development of the Chinese nation."

Some experts also hold that Chinese unification started on Fu Mountain which was the origin of the Chinese nation. Thereupon, to locate the position of Fu Mountain and unveil the mystery of history is the goal for which many experts and nongovernmental organizations are striving.

Opinions are widely divided on the location of Fu Mountain of unifying totem recorded in the Shiji (Records of the historian).The majority of the positions of Fu Mountain taken down in historical documents includes:


1.  the Fu Mountain in Libao, a county-level city in Henan province

2.  the Fu Mountain in Gaoping, a county-level city in Shanxi province

3.  the Fu Mountain in Zhuolu,  Laishui  and Xushui  Counties in Hebei Province




The Blurry Historical Shadow Cast by Fu Mountain in Xushui County


In the past few years, Sun Dawu and his team have consulted a number of historical books and scriptures, made on-the-spot investigations, and invited experts to hold seminars validating the issue. Finally, they came to the conclusion that it is probable that the event of unifying totem on Fu Mountain took place on the Fu Mountain in Xushui County.  In October 2008, in order to conduct in-depth studies, Xushui Studies of Fu Mountain Culture was set up and a book was compiled which was named The Beginning of the Yellow Emperor and Emperor Yan--the Inspection of Fu Mountain. The book explained the fact that the Yellow Emperor unifies totem on Fu Mountain in the following aspects:  the shape of the mountain, places named after Fu Mountain, historical records, historical traces, and folk legends etc.

The Fu Mountain is an isolated mountain located at the east foot of Taihang Mountain, about 22.5 kilometers to the northwest of Xushui County town.  Fu Mountain got its name because it is like a reversed pot. There are many records about the Fu Mountain in historical documents.  Zizhi Tongjian  written in the Song dynasty has it that “The Yellow Emperor unified totem on Fu Mountain which is in Wusu.  Suicheng, in Xushui, was once called Wusui ).  Xushui County was once called as Ansu.  According to the records in the Annuals of Ansu (written in Qing dynasty) and the New Annuals of Xushui County (written in the Republic of China), Xuanyuan, the Yellow Emperor once visited places to know the custom. He also killed Chiyou (a leader of a tribe) in the field of Zhuolu (a county of Baoding city in Hebei Province).Then he climbed to the top of Fu mountain and summoned the vassals to a unifying of the totem, showing his prestige in Xushui County.

The more than 46 ancient cultural traces discovered in the regions of Xushui county provide to a great extent some strong evidences to prove the fact of unifying totem on Fu Mountain.

In 1986,  Liboqian, a professor of the Department of Archeology, Peking University, and the archeological team excavated the Nanzhuangtou Ancient Ruins to the due east of Fu Mountain in Xushui County. There were a large number of cultural relics coming to light, including, stone saddle-querns, stone bars for millstone mill, bone stabbers, bone needles, a few dark-grew potteries with sand marks, pieces of russet earthenware with sand buckles, and some stone pieces. “I forgot the date of that day when the first piece of pottery was discovered, but I can remember the time was a quarter past ten in the morning.” When recalling the sight of more 20 years ago, Professor Liboqian is still very excited. “The excitement at that moment was beyond words, because that piece of pottery was the earliest piece we had discovered in North China Region.”

According to evaluation, Nanzhuangtou ancient ruins are the earliest historical sites of the New Stone Age in the North of China, about 9,700 to 10,500 years old. The Wencun, Jinjiafen, Suicheng, and Pu River ancient ruins of Painted Pottery Culture and Black Pottery Culture were also found in the regions around the Fu Mountain in Xushui County. They were in the middle and late periods of the New Stone Age, roughly the same age as the Yellow Emperor, dating back to 5,000 years ago. In these ruins, pottery axes, pottery basins, pottery bowel, and pottery tripods with three bulbous hollow legs were found, demonstrating a development process of thousands of years from the epoch of the Yellow Emperor and Emperor Yan, going through dynasties Xia, Shang, Zhou, to the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States.

In addition, there are many legends about the Yellow Emperor spreading among the folks in Xushui County; for instance, the Platform of Unifying Totem on the top or around Fu Mountain, the Temple of the Xuanyuan (represents carriage invented by the Yellow Emperor, so the Yellow Emperor is also called Xunyuan) Yellow Emperor, and the Cliff of the Yellow Emperor, etc. These legends, to some extent, reflect the blurry shadow cast by history.




Research of Ancient Culture continues the Cultural Memory of the Chinese Nation


Although there are historical records, archaeological discoveries and folk legends, experts still take a deliberative attitude towards the achievement accomplished by the non-governmental organization. They hold that the location of Fu Mountain needs further investigation. 

Zhangwenbin thinks that Xushui Studies of Fu Mountain Culture ought to focus on the deep study, arrangement, and analysis of historical old scriptures and documents. Do not pay much more attention to the records of the Qing dynasty. These records can only be regarded as your references. The older the records are, the more valuable they can be. So you should hunt for the historical records between the Han dynasty and Tang Dynasty, and then sort them out completely.”  Mr. Zhang also suggests that Hebei Research Institute of Cultural Relics should attach more importance to Xushui and do some further archaeological work. "It is not possible that the Fu Mountain is isolated, and there must be more valuable things for us to discover. I conjecture that the mystery of Fu Mountain will be unveiled one day."

However, the work of Xushui Studies of Fu Mountain Culture gets its universal recognition as an attempt of folk strength participating in the study of ancient culture.

“Personally speaking, we should take different approaches to study Chinese ancient civilization. On one hand, we can rely on the scholars. On the other hand, we should depend on people from all fields of the society, who are interested in Chinese ancient culture”.

Acting as the present dean of Peking University’s
Sinian Period Civilization Research Center and a consultant of Sun Dawu’s team, Liboqian is presiding over  the Project of Tracing to the Source of Chinese Ancient Civilization. He believes that in a sense we should carry forward Chinese ancient spirit, meanwhile, develop Chinese ancient culture, and the latter is more important because it connects all aspects of the society.  “Xushui Studies of Fushan Culture had better give priority to the collection, arrangement and protection of the non-material things, such as folk legends, etc. And the archeological departments should be responsible for the clearing of the ancient construction sites. Both can accomplish study in a cooperative manner without coming into conflict.”

Non-governmental promotion has achieved successful results. Xushui County Party Committee and government attatches great importance to the study of Fu Culture, and takes it as a great event.  At the same time, actively do a lot of related work of protection, management, and utilization on historical culture sites. The Fushan historical ruins has also been made a major historical and cultural site under state protection of Xushui County.

Zhangwenbin speaks frankly, “Now there are many places claiming to be the Fu Mountain. It is impossible for the cultural relics departments and culture departments to devote so many efforts to verification. We must depend on the local party committees, governments, and folk strength to promote and participate in the issue through combing with experts from academia.”

Mr. Zhang also maintains that the folk force should be absorbed extensively to participate in the study of ancient Chinese civilization. What’s more, the tight combination between folk entrepreneurs and scientists and academic circles indicates that the research power is rising. “The study of Fushan culture is a kind of strength generated by the integration between folk force and experts and scholars who have walked out of the ‘Ivory Tower’.



Where is Fu Mountain on which the Yellow Emperor united Totem


Various myths and legends have been a controversial topic in academic research all the time. As a matter of fact, like other peoples in the world , Chinese civilization has its own fairy tale times and legend times at the beginning . Because at that time, there was no characters to record and the best way to hand down civilization from generation to generation was speaking and listening.

Zhangwenbin states clearly that we can not take the national nihilistic attitude toward the myths and unifying totem on Fushan which just rely on the legends. Nor can we be absolutely affirmative. Instead, as for fairy tales and historical mysteries, we should consciously conduct research with a scientific attitude. 

Most importantly, the Shiji (Records of Historian) has a high credibility. Both the excavation of the Yin Ruins in Anyang, Henan Province and the bronze inscriptions unearthed in Tianma ancient ruins in Shaanxi Province are fairly accorded with the records in Shiji. “This also shows that Simaqian (the author of Shiji) actually maintained meticulous scholarship. The topic of unifying totem on Fu Mountain is worth our continuative further study.” says Zhangwenbin.

From the point of view of Chengguangquan, Vice Dean of the School of Philosophy and Sociology of Beijing Normal University, the greater significance of researching the culture of Fu Mountain is to continue the cultural memory of the Chinese nation.“There exists a viewpoint in the international academic circles that peoples are a kind of imagined communities”, says Chengguangquan.  “This imagination is not fancied, but based on a kind of social fact. The social fact is national identity, including psychological identity and linguistic identity”.

Mr. Cheng also thinks that in the age of globalization, a people will be flooded by the time if it does not have its own historical context and characteristics. “If we want to strengthen our national cohesion, we must do an important job to continue our national memory.” But the reality is that it is pretty difficult to fix up in a short time the history through archaeology between 5,000 B.C and 3,000 B.C.  So it is a great significance for the present development of the Chinese nation to collect and arrange our national memories; such as, myths and legends which have come down from that period.

Chengguangquang reminds us that “With the changes of modern society, some of these memories will break off, and some even vanish.”   “It is necessary to do more such work as the study on Fu Mountain culture to continue our national memory, allowing the Chinese nation to further establish its position in the world’s nation community in the present atmosphere which stresses identity.






























孙大午, Sun Dawu, 刘会茹,Dawu Group, 私营企业主立宪制度, 大午农牧集团有限公司,河北省,徐水县郎,五庄,2020年11月11日,November 11,2020,1911,辛亥革命,孫德明, 三民主义,Unirule,天则经济研究所,茅于轼,土地扣押,农民,农业集体 伦理资,本主义,D.Carlton Rossi,拆迁,寻衅滋事,709案,709大抓捕,警察,保护伞.

Sun Dawu, Sun Dawu, Liu Huiru, Dawu Group, Private Entrepreneur Constitutional System, Dawu Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Group Co., Ltd.,Langwuzhuang, Xushui County, Hebei Province, November 11, 2020, November 11,2020,1911,Xinhai Revolution,Sun Deming,Three Principles of the People,Unirule, Tianze Economic Research Institute,Mao Yushi,land seizure,farmers,agricultural collective,ethical capitalism,D. Carlton Rossi,demolition and relocation,picking quarrels and provoking troubles,709 case,709 crackdown,police,protective umbrella.