D. Carlton Rossi

China's Greatest

The Academicians


Coronavirus: outspoken academic blames Xi Jinping for 'catastrophe' sweeping China

Xu Zhangrun says culture of suppression and ‘systemic impotence’ have created the crisis that has killed more than 1,000 people

Xu Zhangrun (Chinese: 许章润; pinyin: Xǔ Zhāngrùn; born October 1962) is a Chinese jurist. He is a professor of Jurisprudence and Constitutional Law at Tsinghua University, and a research fellow with the Unirule Institute of Economics.

A prominent Chinese intellectual has become the first high-profile public figure to lay the blame for the coronavirus crisis at the feet of the country’s leader, Xi Jinping, saying the spread of the deadly virus has “revealed the rotten core of Chinese governance”.

As the crisis expands across the country, Xu Zhangrun, a law professor from one of the country’s top universities, lambasted the government under Xi in an essay titled: Viral Alarm, When Fury Overcomes Fear. In it, Xu blamed the current national crisis on a culture of suppression and “systemic impotence” that Xi has created. The virus has now killed more than 1,000 people inside China.

“The cause of all of this lies with The Axelrod and the cabal that surrounds him,” Xu writes, referring to Xi, according to a translation of the article by historian Geremie Barmé published on Monday by the website ChinaFile.

“It is a system that turns every natural disaster into an even greater man-made catastrophe. The coronavirus epidemic has revealed the rotten core of Chinese governance; the fragile and vacuous heart of the jittering edifice of state has thereby shown up as never before.”

A group of Chinese academics, including Xu, have signed an open letter calling for the government to issue an apology to the deceased doctor, Li Wenliang, and for freedom of speech and rights guaranteed by the constitution to be protected. Over the weekend, a woman was photographed in Shanghai holding a sign calling for freedom of speech.

Xu, who was suspended from his position last year after publishing a similarly critical essay of Xi, does not refer to the leader by name but uses other terms to refer to him. In his essay he urges citizens to call for “five demands”, a reference to anti-government protesters in Hong Kong.

The demands he lists relate to freedom of speech and assembly, as well as the right to vote in open elections and an independent body to investigate the response to the coronavirus crisis.

“The ancients observed that ‘it’s easier to dam a river than it is to silence the voice of the people’. Regardless of how good they are at controlling the internet, they can’t keep all 1.4 billion mouths in China shut. Yet again, our ancestors will be proved right,” he wrote.

Quoting the poet Dylan Thomas, Xu wrote in closing: “I join my compatriots – the 1.4 billion men and women, brothers and sisters of China, the countless multitudes who have no way of fleeing this land – and I call on them: rage against this injustice; let your lives burn with a flame of decency; break through the stultifying darkness and welcome the dawn.


China’s age of anxiety

Rowan Callick

 August 07, 2018

Chinese lawyer with a higher degree from the University of Melbourne has issued a rare, powerful critique of China’s “New Era” — the period of increasing centralisation, control and personalisation of power since Xi Jingping became president. Xu Zhangrun, a law professor at Tsinghua University, one of China’s half dozen top higher-education institutions, published the powerful 10,000 character essay, “Our Dread Now, and Our Hopes,” on the website of the Unirule Institute of Economics, a liberal think tank that has challenged the return of authoritarianism.

“Yet again,” Xu writes, “people throughout China — including the entire bureaucratic class — are feeling a sense of uncertainty, a mounting anxiety both in relation to the direction the country is taking as well as in regard to their personal security. These anxieties have generated something of a nationwide panic.”

The feelings are prompted by the fact that China’s recent “national orientation” has betrayed the principles of the reform-and-opening period (1978–2008) initiated by Deng Xiaoping following the Cultural Revolution. For Xu, these principles “reflected a minimum consensus that was understood by the entire populace for the sake of peaceful co-existence.”





Hello everyone, welcome to the special program "Internet Game" of Radio Free Asia. I am the host of the show, Xiao An.

Audience friends, recently, Professor Xu Zhangrun, a well-known liberal jurist of Tsinghua University, has been widely concerned by international public opinion because of the repression of his speech. 57-year-old Xu Zhangrun published an article in July last year, listing various signs of retrogression in Chinese society, such as revising the constitution and canceling the term of office of the supreme leader. On March 25 this year, the news that Xu Zhangrun was withdrawn from all positions by Tsinghua University and suspended for investigation was spread overseas. Tsinghua University has set up a working group to focus on investigating his articles published after July 2018, which is widely reported by overseas media in recent days.

mp3 audio in Mandarin 15 minutes


The Activists


                                               Liu Xiaobo

Liu Xiaobo: China tells US not to interfere over jailed dissident

The political activist, who is serving an 11 year term on subversion charges for calling for greater democracy, has been moved to hospital after being diagnosed with terminal liver cancer.

His wife Liu Xia, who is under house arrest, says it is beyond treatment.

The Nobel laureate was diagnosed with cancer on 23 May, lawyer Mo Shaoping told the South China Morning Post. He was released days later and is now being treated in the northern city of Shenyang.

"We call on the Chinese authorities to not only release Mr Liu but also to allow his wife Ms Liu Xia out of house arrest," US embassy spokeswoman Mary Beth Polley said.


This picture released by the family of Liu Xiaobo taken on March 14, 2005 shows 2010 Nobel peace laureate Liu Xiaobo (L) and his brother Liu Xiaoxuan in Guangzhou in southern China.

(Handout/AFP/Getty Images)

Chinese Nobel Peace Laureate Liu Xiaobo released from prison, suffering from liver cancer

The Washington Post

Emily Rauhala Simon Denyer

June 26, 2017

BEIJING — China’s only Nobel Peace Prize winner and most famous dissident, Liu Xiaobo, was released Monday from prison on medical grounds to treat his advanced liver cancer, his lawyer told The Washington Post.

Liu, 61, who participated in the 1989 pro-democracy Tiananmen Square demonstrations, became the first citizen of the People’s Republic of China to win the Nobel Prize in 2010 for advocating greater freedoms in his country — and is the only laureate currently serving a prison sentence.

He was arrested in 2008 and subsequently sentenced to 11 years in prison for “inciting subversion of state power.” China has held him incommunicado since — in hopes of erasing any memory of him, according to colleagues and rights activists.


                                                       Liu Xiaobo  刘晓波

Liu Xiaobo (Chinese: 刘晓波; pinyin: Liú Xiǎobō) (born 28 December 1955) is a Chinese literary critic, writer, professor, and human rights activist who called for political reforms and the end of communist single-party rule. He is currently incarcerated as a political prisoner in Jinzhou, Liaoning.

Liu's writing is considered subversive by the Chinese Communist Party, and his name is censored. He has called for multi-party elections, free markets, advocated the values of freedom, supported separation of powers and urged the governments to be accountable for its wrongdoings. When not in prison, he has been the subject of government monitoring and put under house arrest during sensitive times.

On 1 December 2009, Beijing police transferred Liu's case to the procuratorate for investigation and processing; on 10 December, the procuratorate formally indicted Liu on charges of "inciting subversion of state power" under and sent his lawyers, Shang Baojun and Ding Xikui, the indictment document. He was tried at Beijing No. 1 Intermediate Court on 23 December 2009. His wife was not permitted to observe the hearing, although his brother-in-law was present. Diplomats from more than a dozen states – including the U.S., Britain, Canada, Sweden, Australia and New Zealand – were denied access to the court to watch the trial and stood outside the court for its duration. Amongst these included Gregory May, political officer at the U.S. Embassy, and Nicholas Weeks, first secretary of the Swedish Embassy.


                                                             SHENG Hong

An Explanation on Confucianism by Economics

Published by Economic Press China

Professor SHENG Hong

An Explanation of Confucianism by Economics (《儒学的经济学解释》), the latest work of Professor SHENG Hong, Director of Unirule, is published by Economic Press China (中国经济出版社). This book compiles some of the Professor SHENG’s most recent research on Confucianism and provides an alternative illustration of Confucianism in economic terms.


                                       FANG Shaowei

Biweekly Symposium No. 551:
Illustrating the Logic of Political Collapse.
Lecturer:  FANG Shaowei
Host: QIN Sidao
Commentators: LEI Yi, WU Si, JIA Xijin

Mr. FANG Shaowei started his presentation by introducing the lack of an argument on how political collapse happens in the neo-institutional economics which is established by theories such as Buchanan’s public choice, Olson’s collective action, Kaplan’s collective faith, De Mesquita’s political loyalty, North’s open opportunity, and Acemoglu’s inclusive system. Mr. FANG’s new book The Logic of Political Collapse aims to explain how political systems collapse whatsoever. Mr. FANG dismissed many traditional theories that tried and failed to illustrate how political systems came into collapse following the evolution of political institutions.


                                         XU LIANGYING


Physicist Liangying Xu has been awarded the 2008 Andrei Sakharov Prize by the APS for his efforts to promote human rights in China. Inspired by Albert Einstein, Xu has been a lifetime advocate for democracy, free speech, human rights, and academic freedom.

Throughout his life, Xu continued to advocate for human rights.  In 1981, he cited Einstein on the need for freedom of speech for scientific progress. Xu felt the government was not adequately supportive of basic science, and that more academic freedom was needed both for scientific progress and for human progress.

In 1989, astrophysicist Fang Lizhi wrote an open letter calling for the release of political prisoners. At the same time, Xu and friends wrote an open letter calling for democracy, protection of human rights, and free speech. The letter was signed by prominent dissidents, including many scientists. This and Fang’s letter served as inspiration to the students who gathered in Tiananmen Square in 1989 to protest against the Chinese government and to call for democratic reforms. (Xu did not attend the demonstration due to a recent heart attack.).

Xu continued to appeal for human rights, and has written several letters calling for democracy, civil rights, and protection of dissidents. These letters resulted in several periods of house arrest.






                                                      He Weifang 贺卫方

He Weifang 贺卫方 is a Chinese law professor affiliated with Peking University (PKU). Before being given tenure at PKU in 1992, he was the editor at Comparative Law 比较法研究 and Peking University Law Journal 中外法学, both published by the university. Aside from his academic life, He is also a popular essayist and social commentator.

He Weifang made his first mark in the judicial reform scene with an article published in Southern Weekly in 1998. In the article, ‘Decommissioned Servicemen Find Their Way to Court’ 复转军人进法院, he criticized the practice of the state assigning demobilized army officers with no legal training to work as judges at courts. The article, which likens the practice to deploying untrained soldiers to perform surgery, drew strong criticism from PLA publications. The resulting political pressure was so intense that Southern Weekly was forced to issue an apology. However, He’s view was subsequently vindicated when the government released a policy denying ex-officers the privileges he had criticised and stipulated that those of them who wished to pursue careers in the judicial system undertake the national law exam.

He Weifang is a consistent and bold advocate for democracy. He was a signatory of Charter 08, a manifesto drafted by Liu Xiaobo 刘晓波 and initially signed by over 350 Chinese intellectuals and human rights activists. During the heyday of Bo Xilai (for more details, see The China Story Yearbook 2012), He Weifang published an open letter criticizing the Chongqing Model.

He’s hopes for China’s future were best expressed at what was later dubbed the ‘New Xishan Meeting‘ 新西山会议, a closed-door meeting attended by some of the country’s most distinguished intellectuals. At the meeting, He Weifang expressed a belief that China should follow the model of Taiwan, that the Chinese Communist Party should split into different alliances or factions according to their various political inclinations and that Party control over the military should be terminated. He’s speech, which was supposed to be off record, was later leaked and provoked the ire of the ‘leftists’. They denounced the lawyer as ‘One of China’s Ten Biggest Traitors’ as well as being a trojan Party member whose clandestine mission was to sabotage the organisation.



The Artists


Ai Weiwei: How Censorship Works

The Stone

MAY 6, 2017

Credit: Jon Han

BEIJING — In the space of a month in 2014, at separate art exhibitions in Beijing and Shanghai that included my work, my name was blotted out — in one case by government officials and by exhibitors themselves in the other case. Some people might take such treatment in stride, as nothing to get huffy about. But as an artist, I view the labels on my work as a measure of the value I have produced — like water-level markers at a riverbank. Other people might just shrug, but I can’t. I have no illusions, though, that my unwillingness to shrug affects anyone else’s willingness to do so.

Life in China is saturated with pretense. People feign ignorance and speak in ambiguities. Everyone in China knows that a censorship system exists, but there is very little discussion of why it exists.

At first glance, the censorship seems invisible, but its omnipresent washing of people’s feelings and perceptions creates limits on the information people receive, select and rely upon. The content offered by the Chinese state media, after its processing by political censors, is not free information. It is information that has been chosen, filtered and assigned its place, inevitably restricting the free and independent will of readers and viewers.

The harm of a censorship system is not just that it impoverishes intellectual life; it also fundamentally distorts the rational order in which the natural and spiritual worlds are understood. The censorship system relies on robbing a person of the self-perception that one needs in order to maintain an independent existence. It cuts off one’s access to independence and happiness.



                                     Anastasia Lin

Barred from China and silenced in the US,
this beauty queen isn't backing down

By James Griffiths, CNN

Hong Kong

January 10, 2017

Hong Kong (CNN)Anastasia Lin just wanted her father to see her face.

Prevented from taking part in Miss World 2015 when China refused to allow her to enter the country, where the final was being held, she tried again this past December.

The Canadian was under no illusions about coming home with the 2016 crown. Getting on stage would be enough: the Miss World final is broadcast around the globe, including in her native China, where her father has been harassed and prevented from leaving.

She also began receiving distressing messages from her father, who still lives in China. Lin said he was approached by security officers and told that if she didn't "stop her political and human rights activities" her family members would be arrested.

In June, a report by former Canadian lawmaker David Kilgour, human rights lawyer David Matas, and journalist Ethan Gutmann claimed, based on publicly reported figures by hospitals, that China was engaged in the widespread and systematic harvesting of organs from prisoners, including prisoners of conscience.



“I’m very honoured to be invited by the Speaker of the House of Commons to screen The Bleeding Edge in the United Kingdom Parliament,” says Ms. Lin. “The film tells the incredible story of the victims of human rights abuse in China, whom I had the honour of interviewing in preparation for the role, and who revealed the most profound vulnerability and courage that human beings can possess. Everyone involved, from the cast to the crew, has taken a personal risk to create this film. This screening will hopefully bring awareness to the issue of forced organ harvesting in China which deserves urgent attention from the international community.”


                                    Anastasia LIN

Miss World Contestant Who Challenged China
Is Allowed to Speak Once More



DEC. 14, 2016

Anastasia Lin, Canada’s Miss World entrant, spoke out about murky, government-sanctioned organ transplant programs in China. Credit Pablo Martinez Monsivais/Associated Press
Anastasia Lin, the Miss World contestant whose advocacy for victims of human right abuses in China has infuriated Beijing, appears to have regained her voice.

On Wednesday evening, pageant organizers gave Ms. Lin, a Chinese-born Canadian, the green light to speak to the news media, ending a three-week standoff in Washington that had drawn unflattering attention to a storied beauty pageant that has become increasingly dependent on Chinese corporate sponsors.

Ms. Lin sought to focus the interview on her project, which aims to raise awareness about Beijing’s persecution of Falun Gong, a spiritual movement that is banned in China. Adherents face imprisonment, and those who refuse to renounce the movement are often subjected to torture.

Ms. Lin and other critics of the Chinese government say Falun Gong practitioners who die in custody are unwilling providers of organs for the nation’s lucrative transplant industry. “China does not have a viable voluntary transplant system, so someone has to die,” she said. “It’s not like the organs grow on plants.”



杰安迪 2016年12月16日


Pablo Martinez Monsivais/Associated Press

因支持中国境内人权遭受侵犯者而激怒北京的世界小姐(Miss World)大赛选手林耶凡(Anastasia Lin)似乎重新获得了发声的机会。



The Entrepreneurs


                                                             ZHAO Faqi

Shaanxi 100 billion mineral rights case tracking: the file is lost, the plaintiff’s whereabouts are unknown

The New York Times

Chu Bailiang

March 11, 2019

Zhao Faqi, 52, signed a coal exploration rights contract with the government in 2003, and the government tore up the agreement. He used to fight back and now he has disappeared.

The process of Zhao Faqi from a self-proclaimed victim to an officially identified villain is surprising even in China. Here, the Communist Party controls the court, and the merchant may suddenly lose grace. Zhao Faqi’s trajectory – and possibly missing – illustrates the risks entrepreneurs face in confronting powerful Chinese officials.

Zhao Faqi said in an interview in Beijing a few weeks ago. He said that Chinese entrepreneurs are eager to replace the capricious power with the rule of law. "You can't say that one person is protected one day, and the next day is gone."










                                                        WANG Gongquan

Outspoken Chinese Businessman Reappears After Long Hiatus

The Wall Street Journal

Apr 21, 2015

One of China’s best known and most politically outspoken businessmen has started appearing in public, a year and a half after his arrest sent chills through the ranks of the country’s liberal-minded business elite.

Wang Gongquan has taken pains to stay out of the public eye since he was released from police custody in January 2014 after admitting he helped finance protests linked to prominent legal activist Xu Zhiyong. But that now appears to have changed, with the venture capitalist venturing forth to speak on business topics.

“The first question an entrepreneur has to consider is, are you walking the correct road,” Phoenix quoted Mr. Wang as saying.

Mr. Wang might have been addressing the question of how to survive in such a political environment when he urged his audience to take the long view and be clear about bottom lines. “One important question is whether you can make sure your company never risks suddenly collapsing as the result of some unexpected problem,” he said.



                                              SUN Dawu

Chinese leaders face pressure for economic change

By Joe Mcdonald (Associated Press)

November 8, 2013

The leadership under President Xi Jinping that took power last year has issued a flurry of piecemeal changes including easing controls on bank lending and announcing a free-trade zone in Shanghai. But Beijing has yet to tackle fundamental reforms the World Bank and other advisers say are critical to keeping growth strong.

That would require politically difficult upheaval of a system that spent the past decade building up state-owned corporate giants in energy, finance and other industries. Their monopolies, access to low-cost credit and other privileges would have to be cut to improve conditions for private industry that creates China's new wealth and jobs.

"They have to make room for entrepreneurs," said Sun Dawu, chairman of a conglomerate with interests in agribusiness, education and food processing in Baoding, 150 kilometers (100 miles) southwest of Beijing.

Sun's career highlights the hurdles facing China's private business pioneers. Once lauded by the state press for his success, he received a suspended jail sentence in 2003 on charges of improperly raising money from investors after he was unable to get bank loans.

"The obstacles are systemic — the ideology of public ownership," Sun said. "They think state-owned companies are the foundation of the country's economy."

"The corporatization of China's state-owned sector created the powerful individual vested interests that oppose reform now," said Lombard Street researcher Diana Choyleva in a report.

In the '90s reforms, "China's politicians had much less to lose individually," said Choyleva. "This time around both their personal wealth and their own political power are on the line."


Note: The reporter is revisiting this issue after a decade. He wrote an important news report at the time of the trial in 2003.


The Lawyers


Interpol rescinds arrest warrant for dissident Chinese judge living in Canada, calling it politically motivated

Interpol ruled there is evidence to back up Xie Weidong’s contention that the prosecution was instituted for over his criticism of China's legal system

Tom Blackwell

August 23, 2019


                                      XIE Weidong

Interpol has taken the rare step of quashing its arrest warrant for a dissident Chinese judge living in Toronto, saying the “red notice” was likely issued for political reasons and could undercut the organization’s neutral stance.

China had requested the notice in 2014 after charging Xie Weidong, 62, with accepting a bribe to favour one party in a civil dispute he adjudicated.

But the “Commission for the control of Interpol files” ruled there is evidence to back up Xie’s contention that the whole prosecution was instituted for political reasons related to his outspoken criticism of the country’s legal system.

His application for permanent resident status here, based on marriage to a Canadian woman, was initially rejected because of the red notice [of Interpol], but is now being reassessed, said Fon.



                                     MENG Hongwei

Meng Hongwei 孟宏伟, head of Interpol, is under investigation for "violating the law. In November, 2016 he was appointed president of Interpol, the first Chinese to hold this role in an international police body. Former Interpol chief Meng Hongwei pleaded guilty at a trial in China to accepting USD 2.1 million in bribes.


                                   Jiang Tianyong     Human Rights Lawyer

China Finds Lawyer Who Exposed Torture Allegations Guilty of Inciting Subversion


NOV. 21, 2017

BEIJING — A Chinese human rights lawyer who has supported the families of other lawyers and activists detained in a sweeping crackdown since 2015 was declared guilty on Tuesday of inciting subversion by a court in southern China and sentenced to two years in prison.

The defendant, Jiang Tianyong, told the court in Changsha, capital of Hunan Province, that he would not appeal. But his family, human rights groups and other supporters have condemned his trial in August as a carefully staged sham, and rights advocates called the verdict a vendetta after Mr. Jiang helped bring to light another lawyer’s allegations that he had been brutalized in custody.


人权律师江天勇被判颠覆罪,获刑两年 纽约时报中文网 2017年11月21日





                                            Jiang Tianyong’s ( 江天勇)

Last Interview

Chinese Lawyer Jiang Tianyong’s ( 江天勇) Last Major Interview Before His Disappearance

Very recently, Chinese human rights lawyer Jiang Tianyong went incommunicado after a work trip to south central China. Jiang was in Changsha, the capital of Hunan Province, to look into the detention of fellow rights lawyer Xie Yang.

Once, I asked my interrogator: “You’re human, and so am I. So why would you do such an inhuman thing?” He stared blankly for a couple of seconds, then struck me again in the face. “You are not human,” he said. I stood up and looked at him. He hit me again, but I continued to stand back up. My mouth was full of blisters from that beating… I was also interrogated in the evenings to deprive me of sleep; for five days, I wasn’t allowed a wink. As a Christian, however, I felt all along that God was by my side.

Beatings and verbal abuse aren’t the worst to endure. Forced indoctrination is. They compel you to say that black is white; I nearly suffered a mental collapse! What you believe to be white, they will eventually make you yourself proclaim it to be black. It’s not even a simple matter of admitting that something is black; you are required to, at a deep, fundamental level, state the logic of why black is white. Neutral terms aren’t allowed, only their terminology. The entire process of forced ideological conversion could drive one insane.



Activist Confesses to Subversion in Chinese Show Trial


AUG. 22, 2017

Jiang Tianyong 江天勇, a Chinese human rights lawyer, confessed to subversion at a trial on Tuesday.

BEIJING — A Chinese human rights attorney, who rose to prominence defending other activists, confessed to trying to overthrow the Communist Party on Tuesday, in a trial reported across the country and choreographed as an attack on liberal political ideas.

The attorney, Jiang Tianyong 江天勇 was well known for his vociferous support of dissidents amid a nationwide crackdown on dissent. But at his trial in Changsha, the capital of Hunan Province in southern China, which was streamed live on the internet and shown on television news, a soft-spoken Mr. Jiang appeared defeated.

He pleaded guilty to inciting subversion of the state, voiced contrition in a calm, practiced voice, and asked for mercy. His wife and supporters said his confession was forced and possibly the result of torture after nearly a year in secret detention.

At trial, Mr. Jiang said he had been led astray by indoctrination in Western notions of the rule of law.


                                      Xie Weidong

Guilty by association: China targets relatives of dissident exiled in Canada

Nathan VanderKlippe
BEIJING — The Globe and Mail

 Jan. 11, 2017

Moments later, the young man was gone. The family was told he was taken nearly 1,300 kilometres south to Hubei province, although they have not been able to locate him at detention facilities there. Police say he is suspected of embezzlement.

His family believes his real crime in the eyes of Chinese authorities is being the son of Xie Weidong, 60, a former Supreme People’s Court Justice who moved to Canada in 2014 and has been an outspoken critic of China’s justice system. Chinese authorities accuse the elder Mr. Xie of corruption. But bringing him back from Toronto would also silence him.

But Chinese authorities appear to be employing a tactic that has become increasingly common during sweeping recent campaigns against dissidents and officials accused of corruption – campaigns whose reach has often, like with Mr. Xie, extended far beyond China’s borders. “They’re using these cruel measures to force me to go back for questioning,” Mr. Xie says.


         Crime and Punishment of China's Rights Lawyers

In the eyes of those in power, concessions in the area of rights would have only a minor effect on promoting the continued economic development upon which the legitimacy of their rule ultimately depends. But once the civil society that is now developing by leaps and bounds gains possession of these rights, it will significantly increase the capacity to organize and mobilize, civil society will have a much higher level of integration, and it will be much harder to curb progress toward political liberalization. For precisely these reasons, the rights defence movement--particularly rights defence activity in the area of civil and political rights--has become a focus of the authorities, something that must be vigorously suppressed.

Rights lawyers occupy a core position in the rights defence movement. They are direct participants in rights defence cases, and they also act to disseminate information about these cases and explain their significance. Rights lawyers thus play a pivotal role as bridges drawing links between specific cases and the wider social environment. Individual rights cases can take on broader legal and political significance and become part of the rights defence movement only through the efforts of rights defence lawyers. Of the "New Black Five Categories" only rights defence lawyers work with all groups participating in rights defence actions, including petitioners, followers of underground religions, dissidents and Internet leaders. Naturally the authorities cannot overlook this important, central role played by rights defence lawyers. Therefore, ever since the rise of the rights defence movement, the authorities have met that movement with repression each step of the way.

Mo Zhixu
China Change
July 23, 2015

Scores of rights lawyers arrested after nationwide swoop in China

By Ivan Watson and Stephen Jiang

July 13, 2015      CNN

Chinese authorities have detained and interrogated scores of human rights lawyers and activists nationwide, according to a Hong Kong-based rights group, prompting condemnation from the U.S. government and international advocacy groups,

At least 146 lawyers, activists and their relatives have been taken into custody or questioned by police in 24 Chinese cities and provinces over the past few days

China Arrested More Than 100 Human-Rights Lawyers and Activists Over the Weekend

by Nash Jenkins  

July 12, 2015   CNN

One of the first lawyers arrested was Wang Yu, a prominent Beijing civil rights attorney. She went missing early Thursday morning after she returned home from dropping her family at the airport to find her electricity and Wi-Fi shut off.

“Everyone knows that they have detained Wang Yu because she is an outstanding example of … a human-rights lawyer in China,” attorney Chen Jianggang told Radio Free Asia.

Beijing Locks Up the Lawyers  China’s tactic: If you can’t beat them, abduct them.

The Wall Street Journal

July 12, 2015

The real reason for this crackdown is a rising rights consciousness among ordinary Chinese. Though they know the legal system offers scant protection, many Chinese citizens are willing to file a lawsuit when their civil or property rights are violated. And though they know the result could be prison or worse, they often make a fuss using the Internet and every other means at their disposal.

The stubborn lawyers who defend these stubborn clients represent a challenge to the Party’s claim to stand above the rule of law. And that is why extralegal methods are used against them. Most of the families of the detained lawyers have not even been notified, also in violation of Chinese law. They have simply disappeared into secret prisons.

She was a quiet commercial lawyer. Then China turned against her.

By Anna Fifield

The Washington Post

July 18, 2015

But several months later, it was Wang Yu — not the men who beat her — who was charged with “intentional assault.” After a lengthy and questionable legal process, she spent 21/2 years in jail.

There, she saw how prisoners were forced to work for no pay and heard their tales of being mistreated and tortured, her friends and associates say. When she emerged in 2011, Wang had transformed into a human rights advocate, taking on some of the most high-profile cases in China.

                              Sentences of Civil Rights Lawyers

August 5, 2016


Hu Shigen had pleaded guilty to "subversion, damaging national security and harming social stability" at the start of his hearing before the Tianjin No. 2 Intermediate People's Court.  He was sentenced to 7 ½ years in prison on subversion charges.


Zhou Shifeng who is the founder of a Chinese law firm known for representing cases against the government has been sentenced to seven years in prison for subversion.  He also "played a major role in a group of activists who attempted to manipulate public opinion and damage national security by spreading subversive thoughts," state media quoted the verdict as saying.                            

How Chinese rights lawyer’s courtroom mea culpa went off script

South China Morning Post

August 22, 2016     Jun Mai

Zhou Shifeng was supposed to express little beyond regret for his “subversive” acts and gratitude towards the prosecutors and judges, who sent him to jail for seven years, for handling the case “fairly”. It was also supposed to hit the headlines the next day.
In a 10-minute final statement, the Peking University law school master’s degree holder praised China’s legal system, saying it was “so much beyond the Western rule of law”, and that the trial would “stand the test of the world”.


Guo Hongguo  was originally held on suspicion of “creating a disturbance,” but in mid-August 2015, authorities denied Gou a visit from his lawyer on national security grounds, saying the charge had been changed to “inciting subversion of state power.”  On August 5, 2016 he was sentenced to three years (suspended) for three years for subversion of state power. 


                                                          Wang Yu

A jailed Chinese human rights lawyer who was due to receive the ABA’s first International Human Rights Award in absentia has reportedly been released on bail after delivering a videotaped “confession.” However, the confession seemed coerced. No one  has seen Wang Yu since her supposed release. Her husband is still under arrest. Is she free in any sense when her husband is still under arrest and child under detention?


Wang told Oriental Daily she "won't acknowledge, won't recognize and won't accept" the award, a word-for-word echo of China's terse and much-repeated promise that it "won't acknowledge, won't recognize and won't accept" the recent ruling on the South China Sea.

If defence and human rights lawyers are incarcerated for subversion then why should Canada negotiate with Chinese trade lawyers for a China-Canada Free Trade Agreement?  If Freedom of Navigation may be lost then is free trade considered to be free? Does Canada really have to redefine the word "Free" to bind itself to a China-Canada Free Trade Agreement?


                                                                 Xia Lin

September 23, 2016

Xia Lin, whose clients include artist Ai Weiwei, was found guilty of fraudulently obtaining $700,000 (£550,000) to pay off gambling debts.
But supporters say he is innocent and that the move is designed to intimidate human rights lawyers.

Last year, China detained hundreds of rights lawyers, in what critics described as an organised crackdown.

Many lawyers have since been released - but several remain in detention, with their wives and families denied access to them.

Chinese Human Rights Defenders
Empowering Human Rights and Empowering Grassroots Activism in China
Chinese artist Ai Weiwei’s lawyer sentenced to 12 years for fraud

September 25, 2016  


Originally published by CNN on September 24, 2016 (CNN)A lawyer for the renowned Chinese artist and government critic Ai Weiwei was sentenced to 12 years jail on Thursday, in a case his supporters say was politically motivated. Beijing No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court found Xia Lin guilty of almost 10 million (read more…)

China jails prominent rights lawyer for 12 years
September 25, 2016 


                   China: Subversion Charges Target Lawyers 

January 14, 2016 

The families of the 11 formally arrested received arrest notices from the police dated January 8 and 9, 2016. Seven were arrested for the crime of “subversion of state power,” while three were arrested for “inciting subversion of state power.” The 11 formally arrested are:

Hu Shigen, a veteran rights activist, was arrested for “inciting subversion.” 

Zhou Shifeng, a lawyer and the director of Beijing Fengrui Law Firm, which has hired lawyers undertaking human rights work. He was arrested for “subversion”.

Wang Yu, a lawyer and employee of Fengrui, was arrested for “subversion.” 

Wang Quanzhang, a lawyer and employee of Fengrui, was arrested for “subversion.”

Li Shuyun, a trainee lawyer at Fengrui, was arrested for “subversion.” 

Zhao Wei (known as Kaola), the assistant of Beijing-based human rights lawyer Li Heping, was arrested for “subversion.” 

Liu Sixin, administrative assistant of Fengrui, was arrested for “subversion.”

Bao Longjun, a citizen legal representative who is applying to become a trainee lawyer and husband of Wang Yu, was arrested for “inciting subversion.”

Xie Yang, a Hunan-based lawyer, was arrested for “inciting subversion.”

Xie Yanyi, a Beijing-based lawyer, was arrested for “inciting subversion.”
Gao Yue, the assistant of Li Heping, was arrested for “assisting the destruction of evidence.” 

The Scholars


  茅于轼     Mao Yushi


Mao Yushi   茅于轼  who is seated to the right is a guest of the Dawu Group at it's 30th anniversary in October 2014. The author takes the picture.

孙大午:  茅于轼      Sun Dawu:  Mao Yushi

茅于轼先生是我非常尊重的老人。 几年以前,到茅老家做客,我曾经说过:茅老,你真是我们国家的国宝1当时他回答说:我可不是。你们才是呢1他非常谦虚,谦和。但在我心目中,一直敬他 为国宝。我尊敬他,不仅是因为他学识渊博,更主要的是他孜孜不倦地追求真理的精神,和积极实践、在实践中不懈努力的毅力和魄力



几年以前,到茅老家做客,我曾经说过:茅老,你真是我们国家的国宝!时他回答说:我可不是。你们才是呢!他非常谦虚,谦和。但在我心目中,一直 敬他为国宝。我尊敬他,不仅是因为他学识渊博,更主要的是他孜孜不倦地追求真理的精神,和积极实践、在实践中不懈努力的毅力和魄力。

我尊敬他,起源于2003年大午集团的非法吸收公众存款案。2003731日,茅老主持的天则经济研究所为此案组织召开了研讨会,主题是孙大午案 看民营企业融资的法律环境,并出具了法律意见书。茅老还在他写的一篇文章中说,大午错就错在干了一件违法好事觉得,他救我,不是出于 私心、私情,而是出于一种公义。我觉得他是在为民营经济呐喊,在为改革鼓与呼。

我从监狱里出来,曾经去看茅老,我对他说:虽然你支持了我,但是你说我干了一件违法好事,我仍然不认可。我就是在干好事,没有干违法好事,你才是在干违法好事呢。他就乐了,我说:你在山西搞的小额信贷,才是违法的,那才是违法的好事。茅老承认了,给我讲述了他在 山西搞小额信贷遇到的难处,尤其是在山西遇到的法律困境。我跟他讲我的问题,我说:实我没有触犯现行的法律,我搞的是真正的合法的民间借贷。

我的意思是,非法吸收公众存款罪,目的是通过放贷来盈利,而茅老搞的小额信贷就有放贷,我没有放贷,仅仅是因为贷不到款才向职工和当地的农民借钱。也就是 说,大午集团从来没有向社会吸收公众存款,而是向特定人借款,是向内部职工和乡亲、业务户借款。民间借贷就是把他人的钱借来用于生活消费或生产经营,而银 行(金融业)业务的行为模式是把他人的钱借来用于放贷,从中赚取利息。大午集团名副其实地把所借款项用于生产经营上,好借好用,好借好还,双方自愿,没有 讲诚信的记录,而且企业经营得很好,是完全符合民间借贷的合法行为。总之,大午集团的行为主观上没有违法犯罪的故意,客观上没有犯罪的行为及后果。


近年来,不断从媒体报道上看到茅老很多惊世骇俗的言论,给我的感觉是,只要是真理,他不会计较名利得失,总是敢说敢做,敢担责任。他是讲是非、不讲成败 的。比如他说的替富人说话,替穷人办事,他认为,替富人办事的很多,替富人说话的很少,替穷人说话的很多,可替穷人办事的很少。我由衷地佩服。在一个 大家普遍仇视官商勾结、认为富人都不是好富起来的社会心态下,茅老敢为富人说话,不能不说是惊世骇俗。我想在茅老心中,只有公义,没有其他东西,真是一个 大丈夫!




我常常想到,茅老是国宝,但这并不意味着是一种单纯的美誉或者吉兆,在某种意义上,国宝常常带有悲悯性。由此我想到卞和怀玉的故事,匹夫何罪,怀璧其 ,但是我仍然要这样称他。因为茅老对这个国家、对这个社会,是在真真切切地关注着、付出着,他愿意这个社会好起来,愿意国家富强起来,简直已经剖开了 自己的胸膛,让人们看到了他的心。但是有些人似乎视而不见、闭目塞听,甚至不愿意让他发出声音。我在他身上看到的是那种传统的古代士大夫的影子,就是 谏,武死战的那种为国为民的精神:你们可以不理解我,但是我必须竭尽我的忠诚。









2009-01-16 07:47:20  aisixiang.com/data/24317.html



Food Security and Farm Land Protection in China
By Mao Yushi ,Zhao Nong ,Yang Xiaojing

In modern China, food insecurity or great famine only happened in a planned economy. To link tightly farm land size and grain yield and even food security is baseless both in theory and practice. The previous red line of 21 hundred million mu was already broken through. The current red line of 18 hundred million mu will also be broken through, in view of the process of industrialization and urbanization. In fact, farm land protection should focus on protecting the employment right of peasant in land. 


Fighting Poverty from the Trenches:

Micro Finance in China 

Mao Yushi

For more China-focused interviews visit ichinaforum.com 
China's economic boom has raised hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. In rural areas, widespread poverty remains a challenge. Fuping Development Institute began operations in 1993 with a RMB 500 budget, and since then, has become a major vehicle for poverty eradication in China. Today, Fuping manages a micro-loan portfolio worth tens of millions of RMB, with an impressive 97% repayment rate. Through their home care service training schools, Fuping has also empowered tens of thousands of rural women to obtain the skills necessary to gain employment as domestic assistants in nearby urban centers and provide a better future for their families. Fuping is also involved in many grass-roots social responsibility programs to help disadvantaged people.

uploaded on Jul 29, 2011




“Business Ethics Declaration of Chinese Entrepreneurs” aims to provide answers to the anxiety over identity for Chinese entrepreneurs, to re-identify them by providing authentic and orthodox conceptions, to help them mature their thoughts and corporate social responsibilities. 


Mao Yushi:  The Implications of Reading Sun Yat-sen’s Wills

Mao, Yushi, Honorary President of Unirule Institute of Economics

The aim of Sun Yat-sen’s revolution was to secure “liberty and equality” for China, nothing else. However, he did not make it specific about whose “liberty and equality” he was talking about, which we would never know. If we try to understand what he said in today’s context, the “liberty and equality” may well be the liberty of individuals, and the equality of every man and woman.



"I have to say that Taiwan has moved ahead of the mainland.  It has successfully transformed itself from an authoritarian state to a democracy over the past 64 years," Mao said.  For this reason, Taiwan is an example that democracy can function in a Chinese society and this is the reason why Taiwan is so important to the future political development of mainland China, Mao said. 

"What I think is wonderful is that the virtue of traditional Chinese culture still remains in Taiwan while it was totally wiped out by Mao Zedong during the Cultural Revolution.

Taiwan Will Guide China to Democracy and Progress:  Mao Yushi

Samuel Hui    July 22, 2013




October 17, "2015 Cross-Strait Thought Seminar" was held in Hebei Taiwujituan.

The seminar was organized by China Taiwan Network, Sun Yat-sen Institute, Taiwan and China Culture Promotion Association, China Association of Outstanding Young Economic Development organized Dawujituan and Chinese Culture Park Sun contractors. Coordinators of the seminar invited more than 40 experts in universities and research institutions of Zhongshan University, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Donghua University, Shandong University, Hebei University, National Taiwan Chinese Culture University, National Chung Cheng University, I-Shou University, Hong Kong, Zhuhai College, University of Macau Scholars to participate in and expand the discussion.  The People's Daily, Xinhua, China Network, People's Daily, Xinhua News Agency, China News Agency, Radio International, China Central Television, Southeast TV, Channel TV, Xiamen TV, Voice of the Straits, Ta Kung Pao, Wen Wei Po, "Taiwan Voice" magazine International online, China Daily, CCTV, China Youth Network, China Economic Net, China National Radio, China Tibet Network, Guangming Wang, China News overseas, Sina, Sohu, Netease, Phoenix, Tencent, the World Wide Web , Baidu, 360 and other media were also included  to observe the seminar.


The poet has some understanding of the Taiwan issue with his fourteen visits to the Republic of China.  The most notable visit may have been during a pro-democracy demonstration. However, a powerful earthquake experienced in Taipei probably came in a close second. He has visited several cities on the main island, the Penghu Islands and Kinmin Islands.  Fortunately and fortuitously, he was able to extend his stay at Dawu Village during the visit of Lily Sui-fong Sun 孫穗芳 .

Isn’t it curious that Sun Shuo, son of Sun Dawu, was granted an American visa in the summer of 2015? Isn’t it more curious that  Lily Sui-fong Sun 孫穗芳 who is the granddaughter of Sun Yat-Sen (founder of the Republic of China) was granted a Chinese visa to attend the 30th anniversary of Dawu Group, the unveiling of a statue to her grandmother and grandfather and the celebration of a new temple in their honor. Currently, she resides in the United States. Isn’t it most curious that Sun Dawu was refused a visa to the United States in 2008 and December 2014 to visit the State of California. What would a reasonable person conclude in regard to the refusal of Sun Dawu’s two visas?

It is estimated by the poet that he has visited the United States about 300 times.  If this seems like an exaggeration then one only need to consider that he has lived within twenty minutes of two border crossings. He has also visited other parts of the United States such as the State of California. However, if he is not able to meet friends in California because one of them faces a visa restriction then other arrangements have to be made.


Ironically, the year 2014 also marked the 30th anniversary of The Mathematical Foundation of Economics: Principle of Optimal Allocation which was first published in 1985.

"I worked out the principle of optimal allocation in 1979.  I took a specific example, that is, how should I allocate 100 kilograms of chemical fertilizer on two fields so as to gain the largest output increase?"




Since the time of the Sun Dawu case a decade ago the crime of illegal fund-raising has ruined an indeterminate number of good businesses. It has caused investors to lose everything. The fundamental reason is not a question of business, but is to entirely to draconian laws. This law was originally intended to protect investors, but instead it has harmed countless, ordinary citizens.  We should hasten the end of this draconian law.



Mao Yushi: "the crime of illegal fund-raising," it is a draconian law



Recently, MAO Yushi, honorary President of Unirule was interviewed by Global News which is a major news organization in Canada.

Firstly, Mr. MAO Yushi expressed his opinion on the slowdown of China's economy. He thought it was difficult to maintain a 7% GDP growth. The main threats to the economic stability come from the real estate bubble and the bad loans from the banks. However, it is acceptable to have a 5% GDP growth compared to the economic situations in other countries. Should China's economy embrace a hard crash as the "Chinese government handles massive resources, it can be dealt with, although there will be seminal influences".

June 17, 2015

english.unirule.org.cn/    (Website removed by censors)



Sparrows were in short supply that summer, which meant that locusts were abundant. Mao Yushi would go to the fields, catch them and eat them. He had no choice. His stomach compelled him.

"China has become a different country, a new China," said Mao, 86, from his apartment in Beijing. But even as the world transformed around him, Mao's mind could never quite escape the memory of one year: 1960.

For 12 months, Mao would witness, and live through, one of the greatest man-made tragedies of all time. China's Great Famine claimed millions of lives during a time of peace, and yet, talking about it remains taboo.


China's Great Famine: A mission to expose the truth

An economist who survived one of the greatest man-made tragedies is determined to reveal how policies killed millions.

Allison Griner  11 Jan 2-2016




As China's Cultural Revolution descended into mob violence, teenage Red Guards dragged Mao Yushi and his father, two proud and bookish engineers, out of their home to sweep a boulevard as a crowd watched and jeered. The pair were then lashed with a copper-flecked whip until their backs were flayed. When Mao later stumbled into work, he didn't know blood was still seeping through his shirt until colleagues pointed it out.

"I was whipped through my skin, but I didn't feel pain because in my heart I was so scared I would be beaten to death," Mao recalls. "Every day they pulled dead bodies through ... the market on flat-bed tricycles. A piece of cloth covering every tricycle, just like that."


Critic of Mao persists in documenting China's turbulent past

By GERRY SHIH Associated Press  June, 2016





During the Cultural Revolution did not guarantee anyone's life and property, to the President and provincial cadres, down to the black five, feel insecure. Thousands of people were massacred without trial at least. Not to mention the confiscation of property. Cultural Revolution decade to clean up the class ranks has officially shot hundreds of thousands of class enemies. After the reform is the biggest advance not to kill political prisoners….


Mao Yushi:   May 17, 2016

Blog     http://t.qq.com/maoyushi/


                                         Mao Yushi 茅于轼轼                    


Mao Yushi compares the Socialist core values and universal values. One main difference is that the former are patriotic, the latter are not. Patriotism may cause conflict between countries. Love does not. Sun Yatsen advocated universal fraternity. China is a big country, and should be more caring or loving in the first place, or any other country is not assured.

September 19, 2016



如果实践是检验真理的标准,几何学就没有用了。证明两个三角形相等,实践一下,把两个三角形重合一下,如果三个顶点都重合,肯定是相等的。当时这句话的确 对解放思想起了很大的作用。人是生活在现实中不是在文件中。但是以后对我国科学的发展起了阻碍作用。实践非常重要,真理是从实践中被发现的。

If practice is the standard for testing truth then geometry is useless.To prove through practice that two triangles are equal then overlap them. If the three vertices are coincident then the triangles are certainly the same. These statements do play a great role in emancipating the mind. Man lives in reality and not in a file.

However, with the development of China's science this circumstance was hindered. Practice is very important. The truth is found through practice. 

September 19, 2016


                                   Economist Mao Yushi   茅于轼    

MAO Yushi: The Logic of China’s Economy

Author: Unirule 

2018-11-25 23:16:38

Hits: 402

If the logic does not stand then the hypothesis can’t possibly be right. Therefore, the only test stone for truth is logic, instead of practice. If truth can be verified by practice then even Newton's First Law, or Law of Inertia, would not have been discovered. We cannot find any object on planet earth that is not acted upon by an external force, where Newton’s First Law states that an object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force. It has hindered China’s scientific development to a large extent when the importance of practice is exaggerated and overestimated to even test the truth. Chinese scientists are good at analyzing by resorting to practice instead of logic. I am not denying that practice is important. It is right that truth is uncovered by practice. However, whether this truth is in line with the nature of truth should be tested and verified by logic, instead of practice.

The following essay appeared roughly two years ago in response to what the author regarded as Professor Mao's assertion that truth can be arrived at through logic. It seems that practice may only confirm conclusions reached by logic regarding the truth.



Keep in mind though that the purpose of this short analysis is not to contest another person's opinion regarding how to test the truth, but rather to clarify my own point of view. The relationship of a whole to its constituent parts has been of long term interest to the poet.
By definition, a whole must consist of at least two proper parts. Achille Varzi, in his outline of Mereology, concedes that it is possible to construct a model in which a whole can be broken down into several proper parts all of which overlap one another. However, the full meaning of 'proper part" is not met. The reason is that if a proper part is removed then it is unclear what would be left. However, a proper part should be left. According to Varzi a full formulation of the idea that a whole cannot be decomposed into a single part holds that every "proper part must be 'supplemented' by another, disjoint part, and it is this last qualification that captures the notion of a remainder". 

                                       Far side of the moon

                                     Near side of the moon

It seems that a test of truth through practice may be rather complicated. It should be expected that a test of beauty through practice would be equally so. However, it may be that there are rare individuals for whom a test of beauty can be solved instantly and intuitively. The poet once asked Sun Dawu "Why does the moon always show the same face?" He had expected a long answer regarding Tidal Locking or scientific observations deduced from the Russian probe Lunar 3 on October 7, 1959 which showed the far side has a battered, densely cratered appearance with few maria. Instead, he answered in the following way. "It's more beautiful." Oh Ohm

The question for me though is how does one arrive at the ideal of truth or for that matter the highest truth? The poet requires more than three words. The test for truth is based on both material ideas of reality and virtual ideas of reality which can be arrived at through practice. Can a convention center exist with materials alone or does it equally depend on the practical geometry of square, triangle and ellipse? Can a Confucian temple exist without the practical application of geometrical form such as the rectangle? Blueprints expressing geometric forms must be consulted to build these structures whether the usage is secular or sacred. 

Police officers take away a supporter of rights lawyer Pu Zhiqiang
near the Beijing Second Intermediate

China rights lawyer Pu Zhiqiang's trial ends amid scuffles
14 December 2015

A large group of aggressive plain clothes policemen - many of them wearing yellow smiley-face badges - pushed, punched and harassed reporters, camera crews and diplomats away from the front of the court.

If one bases the test of truth solely on practice then one may err, for example, if the practice is heuristic. Trial by error may describe the proceedings in a civil rights case in China based on the arguments of the prosecution and the final judgement. However, practice does not make perfect a legal process conducted through right by law rather than Right of Law. In other words, if one refers to Confucius' Analects through Rule by Law then the Way of Heaven is lost.                               
In another example, a less than ideal doctor in the moral sense of the Dao still practices at his practice. He learns from his mistakes. However, it is not recommended that a doctor treat himself, but rather that another doctor practices on him. Keep in mind though that every doctor should hold to the Hippocratic Oath. This ideal states "Do no harm".


                           Sun Simiao, King of Medicinals 藥王

                               (courtesy of Paul U. Unschuld)

A doctor that gets closer to the ideal such as Sun Simiao helps to define through the Dao the moral responsibilty of medical professionalism. “凡大醫治病,必當安神定志,無欲無求,先發大慈惻隱之心。誓願普救含靈之苦。
Whenever eminent physicians treat an illness, they must quiet the spirit and settle the will, they must be free of wants and desires, and they must first develop a heart full of great compassion and empathy. They must pledge to devote themselves completely to relieving the suffering of all sentient beings. ”

— Sun Simiao, Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang I.2

What is a material idea? It is based on the practice of material reality. For example, a material idea allows one to reduce complex things or ideas into simple things or ideas. In other words, it is a system that can be understood with respect to its isolated parts--even down to the atomic level. The material idea is quantitative.

The virtual idea serves practical purposes of practicality, pragmatism and utilitarianism, though, neither in name or strict definition. It allows one to construct more complex things or ideas. This idea consists of the attributes or characteristics of the material idea. The virtual idea is qualitative.



                       CAE 7000 Series Full-Flight Simulator

In the distant past, pilots learned through practice. They either flew or they crashed. In the present age, pilots learn on a flight simulator through virtual reality. If they virtually crash they neither hurt themselves nor others. If they fly without crashing then they may learn through practice on a real plane. Experienced pilots with thousands of hours of flying time can also renew or upgrade  their licenses through a flight simulator.

The ideal of truth is created from two ideas. One idea is material reality while the other idea is virtual reality. In order to achieve sameness or congruence they unite.

                                              The Sun 

Our Sun was undoubtedly the most important archetype of ancient peoples. In terms of material reality, it was composed of one of the basic elements or fire. It warmed the Earth and allowed for seeds to sprout and crops to grow. With respect to virtual reality the Sun as a circle contained the other shapes. When these two realities or parts were fused then the archetype (whole sameness) or wholesomeness in the moral sense was composed. It may be that the archetype fused the material reign and the virtual realm. 

"The Sun is the most perfectly round natural object known in the universe, say scientists who have conducted precise measurements of its dimensions. Now a team led by the University of Hawaii's Dr Jeffrey Kuhn have made the first precise measurement of the sun's equatorial bulge, or its "oblateness". The results were a big surprise. "We were shocked," says Kuhn. The sun doesn't bulge much at all. It is 1.4m kilometres across, but the difference between its diameter at the equator and between the poles is only 10 kilometres."

                      Thuban (11 Draconis) and 10 Draconis
                   were the polestars five thousand years ago.

The highest material reality of natural order and virtual reality of geometric form are the ancient polestars. In the past, at around the time of Huangdi, the polestars were a binary system which were composed of the stars 11 Draconis and 10 Draconis. They served a practical purpose of natural order since they showed due North for those who were lost or wanted to confirm their position.

Yet, the old polestars also represented a virtual reality with respect to geometric form. John C. Didier observed that the rectangle is not a geometric form found on Earth. It was seen by various civilizations to represent the sacred. As such, the virtual rectangle was  reflected in the shape of altars and temples constructed on Earth.

Professor Didier comments  that the polestars (representing Tàiyī 太一 ("Great Oneness" and Tianyi 天一) were at the top and middle of the North Circumpolar Rectangle. On the left were two stars of the Big Dipper while on the  right were two stars of the Little Dipper. The binary Dipper asterisms revolved around this binary star system.

In actuality, they are a binary system of polestars that revolve around each other in about 51.4 days. It may have appeared to ancients though that the larger polestar revolved around the smaller one as the Sun was believed to have revolved around the Earth in 360 days. Coincidentally, it may have been observed that there would be 7 revolutions of the polestar per Earth year or 51.4 (weeks) X 7 (days) = approximately 360 days. The number of 360 as it pertains to days in a year also corresponded with the number of degrees in a circle.

El Enclavamiento Pirámides Celestes

D. Carlton Rossi  copyright  2014


The Interlocking Celestial Pyramids


Die Himmlischen Fundamente der Pyramiden

D. Carlton Rossi  copyright  2014


The Celestial Foundations of the Pyramids

                                        The Cosmic Egg

 "In the myth of Pangu (Pángǔ  盘古), developed by Taoist monks hundreds of years after Lao Zi, the universe began as an egg. A god named Pangu, born inside the egg, broke it into two halves: the upper half became the sky, while the lower half became the earth. As the god grew taller, the sky and the earth grew thicker and were separated further. Finally, Pangu died and his body parts became different parts of the earth." Wikipedia 
                                     Rooster (Gallus gallus)


                                        Hen (Gallus gallus)

In a sense, this story corresponds to the practice of the material reality of the natural order of a thing. There is a decomposition of the whole into two parts. This is followed by more differentiation. The earliest chicken was Gallus gallus which was feral. However, 10,000 years ago, in Xushui County, Gallus domesticus emerged. DNA results show that animals found buried beneath a peat bog in China's Xushui County, Hebei (near Kenneth City of Dawu Group and Fushan) are the oldest examples of domesticated chicken by several thousand years according to Professor Michi Hofreiter, a palaeogeneticist at the University of York and the University of Postdam in Germany.


                          Sun Dawu and Prof. Jiang Ping discuss
                  which came first--the chicken or the egg (yoke)

The virtual reality aspect of geometrical form concerns the egg or ellipse. An ellipse is traced by point moving in plane so that the sum of its distances (from two other points) is constant. The domestic chicken of today in Xushui County is Gallus domesticus. The author recalls a promotional program of the poultry and egg subsidiary of Dawu Group.  It was in front of the Sports Complex (convention center). The center itself has an elliptical frontage. Countless generations of the Sun Family have eaten countless generations of Gallus domesticus and their eggs. It seems that the natural order and geometric form correspond to the will of Pangu.


D. Carlton Rossi

D.卡尔顿 罗西      D. Kǎ'ěrdùn Luōxī

October 15, 2016


John C. Didier, Victor Mair , "In and Outside the Square: The Sky and the Power of 
Belief in Ancient China and the World, c. 4500 B.C.—A.D. 200." Sino-Platonic Papers 192 (September 2009) China Review International Vol. 16, No. 4 (2009), pp. 491-493 Published by: University of Hawai'i Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23734291 

Geraint Jones, Sun is the most perfect sphere ever observed in nature, The Guardian Thursday 16 August 2012 

Antonio Rosmini Serbati, Psychology Vol. III, London: 1988, Keagan, Paul, Trench and Company 

Achille Varzi 
Achille Varzi, "Mereology", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), 

URL = 
 Congruence (geometry) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

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                         Dr. Xu Zhiyong (许志永)


  许志永 赵常青       XU Zhiyong ZHOU Changqing


China Releases Legal Scholar Xu Zhiyong After Four Years in Jail

Bloomberg News

July 15, 2017

Xu Zhiyong, 44, founder of the New Citizens’ Movement, was released Saturday after completing a four-year prison sentence for gathering a crowd to disturb the public order, according to a statement on the Beijing Municipal Administration of Prisons website. The legal scholar was detained in July 2013 after calling for the release of fellow activists who’d urged top officials to disclose their assets.

Xu and Liu were among more than 1,400 political and religious dissidents imprisoned in the country as of October, according to the U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, which said “considerably more” cases have probably not been reported. Liu is the first Nobel laureate to die under guard since pacifist and Nazism critic Carl von Ossietzky’s death in Germany in 1938.



On January 26, 2014, the Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People's Court announced via Weibo that it had sentenced Xu Zhiyong to 4 years' imprisonment for "gathering a crowd to disturb order in a public place". Authorities had confined Xu, a leading rights advocate and proponent of the New Citizens' Movement, to his home in Beijing municipality for 3 months prior to criminally detaining him on July 16, and formally arresting him on August 22 (NYT, 17 July 13, 23 August 13). In a December 13 indictment, authorities alleged Xu was a "ringleader" of incidents that took place in 2012 and 2013 during which individuals called for education equality and government transparency (China Change, 21 December 13). Xu formally appealed the verdict on February 3, 2014 (China Change, 8 February 14). On April 11, 2014, the Beijing Municipal High People's Court rejected Xu's appeal and upheld the original sentence (NYT, 11April 14). Authorities reportedly transferred Xu to Liulin Prison, located in Tianjin municipality (Hu Jia, Twitter, 2 December 14). Xu is a former law lecturer and founded the legal aid NGO, Open Constitution Initiative.

(China Change, April 04 2014)

                                         Dr. Xu Zhiyong (许志永)



                                       Dr. Xu Zhiyong (许志永)

In 2003, Xu Zhiyong volunteered to be the lawyer of Sun Dawu upon his arrest. His lawyers disputed the charges of fostering financial disorder, pointing to the general disarray of China’s finances.  Harvard Law School educated Xu Zhiyong, one of China’s leading lawyers, published an article titled “Why We Should Defend Sun Dawu.”


Opening statement of defence lawyers in 2003

The full defence team consisted of Dr. Xu Zhiyong, Zhang Xing and Zhu Jiuhu


The formal arrest of one of China's most well-known civil rights advocates underscores how unnerved the country's new leaders are by any independent, vaguely organized political action--even if it is as mundane as gathering for a dinner party.  

Beijing activist Xu Zhiyong was arrested. He is one of the founders of a loose network of campaigners known as the New Citizens Movement who among other things have called on people to get together on the last Saturday of each month for dinner to discuss China's constitution and other legal issues.



"No matter how utterly defeated or absurd this society is, this country needs brave citizens who can stand up and hold fast to their convictions, who can take their rights, responsibilities and their dreams seriously".


                    2004 Year   Dr. Xu Zhiyong   Sun Dawu   Zhang Xing

Xu Zhiyong, a legal scholar, has been at the forefront of campaigns for rights in China for the past decade. He cofounded the Open Constitution Initiative, an independent center, which brought together rights lawyers, liberal intellectuals, journalists and citizen activists to work for rule of law in China from 2006-2009. Dr. Xu’s landmark article in 2012, China Needs a New Citizens’ Movement, helped define and encourage hundreds of initiatives to help citizens assert their rights and demand accountability. Dr. Xu and dozens of others involved in the New Citizens’ Movement have been detained since 2013. Dr. Xu received a four-year prison sentence in January 2014, after a closed-door trial found him guilty of “gathering a crowd and disturbing public order.”  Xu Zhiyong  received the Democracy Award  in Washington,  D.C. from the National Endowment for Democracy in May 2014.


National Endowment for Democracy



                                  Xu Zhiyong (许志永)     right side

The “new” in New Citizens’ Movement refers to new historical conditions, new forms of behavior, and a new liberal order. The counterpart of the new citizen is not the citizen, but the subject, of the past. The new historical conditions include technological advancement, market economies, ideological pluralism, and the common democratic trend in human society. The new forms of behavior are the lawful defense of citizens’ rights, citizens’ non-violent non-cooperation, and peaceful democracy movements, all under a new system of ideas and discourse. The new liberal order is the constitutional order of democracy, rule of law, republicanism. The social background of the New Citizens’ Movement is new, the model of behavior is new, the movement’s goal is new, and thus it is called the New Citizens’ Movement.                   


                            Anniversary of Imprisonment
                            of Civil Right's Lawyer Xu Zhiyong

Xu Zhiyong: For freedom, righteousness, love - my court.

Author: Xu Zhiyong New Citizen Movement (Authorized)



发表时间 22-01-2014 更改时间 22-01-2014 发表时间 18:43



Xu Zhiyong

Short Summary

On January 26, 2014, the Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People's Court announced via Weibo that it had sentenced Xu Zhiyong to 4 years' imprisonment for "gathering a crowd to disturb orderin a public place". Authorities had confined Xu, a leading rights advocate and proponent of the New Citizens' Movement, to his home in Beijing municipality for 3 months prior to criminally detaining him on July 16, and formally arresting him on August 22 (NYT, 17 July 13, 23 August 13). In a December 13 indictment, authorities alleged Xu was a "ringleader" of incidents that took place in 2012 and 2013 during which individuals called for education equality and government transparency (China Change, 21 December 13). Xu formally appealed the verdict on February 3, 2014 (China Change, 8 February 14). On April 11, 2014, the Beijing Municipal High People's Court rejected Xu's appeal and upheld the original sentence (NYT, 11April 14). Authorities reportedly transferred Xu to Liulin Prison, located in Tianjin municipality (Hu Jia, Twitter, 2 December 14). Xu is a former law lecturer and founded the legal aid NGO, Open Constitution Initiative (China Change, 10 April 14).

Congressional - Executive Commission on China

Personal Details

CECC Record Number 2005-00199      Ethnic Group Han

Detention DET                                 Sex M

Issue Category civil/assoc/rol/spch    Age at Detention 40

Main Name Xu Zhiyong                     Religion Protestant

Chinese Characters 孠⽿㯠                  Occupation Law Professor

Affiliation                                          Beijing Univ. of Posts 

Residence Prov. Beijing Shi Muni         Urb area (Prefecture)

Residence Country                             Haidian District

Imprisonment or Detention Details

Date of Detention                              2013/07/16

Current Prison                                   Liulin Prison

Sentence Length (Years)                     4

                                                      Tianjin Shi (prov.)

Prefecture Where                              Tianjin Shi Cty. (pref.)

Imprisoned (or Detained)

County Where Imprisoned                  Ninghe Cty

 (or Detained)

Legal Process

Legal Process chg/tri-close/sent-close

Trial Court Beijing No.1 Intermediate People's Court

Sentence Court Beijing No.1 Intermediate People's Court

Appeal Court Beijing High People's Court

Appeal Ruling Court Beijing High People's Court

Charge Statute CL97-art291

Formal Arrest Date 2013/08/22

Trial Date 2014/01/22

Sentence Date 2014/01/26

Appeal Date 2014/02/03

Appeal Ruling Date 2014/04/11



                              Teng Biao Yu Jiang and Xu Zhiyong

« Le Parti communiste chinois est confronté à une série de crises »
L’avocat chinois Teng Biao, contraint à l’exil, dénonce la mise en place d’une « dictature personnelle » autour du président Xi Jinping.

Le Monde.fr | 16.03.2016 | Propos recueillis par Harold Thibault

L'avocat Teng Biao au Congrès américain (Washington), le 18 Septembre, 2015, peu avant la visite du président chinois Xi Jinping aux États-Unis.

Figure de la lutte pour le respect des droits fondamentaux en Chine, Teng Biao a défendu entre autres des victimes d’expropriations illégales, des activistes mobilisés contre le sida, des membres du mouvement spirituel Falun Gong et des dissidents tibétains. Il s’est engagé contre la peine de mort. Il a reçu en 2007 le Prix des Droits de l’homme de la République française. Pour son engagement, il a été détenu à trois reprises, torturé, et s’est vu retirer sa licence.


Ses confrères subissent une campagne de répression d’une ampleur inédite dans la Chine d’après les évènements de Tiananmen. Le secrétaire du Parti communiste et président, Xi Jinping, ne laisse aucune place à la critique et à la société civile. Depuis que ses confrères, Pu Zhiqiang et Xu Zhiyong, respectivement avocat et activiste du mouvement de vigie citoyenne ont été arrêtés, Teng Biao présume qu’il le serait à son tour s’il rentrait en Chine. Actuellement en résidence de recherche à Harvard et New York University, il était de passage à Paris, mercredi 16 mars, et critique la campagne de répression menée contre les avocats chinois depuis juillet dernier.

En savoir plus sur http://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2016/03/16/le-parti-communiste-chinois-est-confronte-a-une-serie-de-crises_4884087_3210.html#A8eRbmhse1dpF04C.99




Xu Zhiyong, l'avocat tranquille qui demande des comptes à Pékin

Tom Mitchell, FT - Le procès de Xu Zhiyong, militant chinois des droits du citoyen, constitue un test pour Pékin et sa volonté de réformes

Ce mercredi matin, la réputation à l’étranger de Monsieur Xu a connu la même envolée. Son procès constitue un test pour jauger la détermination du Parti Communiste Chinois à promulguer des réformes audacieuses, dont sa promesse de protéger les droits des citoyens en “respectant la constitution et les lois”. Comme les militants américains des droits civiques des années 50 et 60, Monsieur Xu exige que la loi soit respectée telle qu’écrite et qu’elle s’applique de façon égale à tous les citoyens. C’est un rêve qui, s’il se réalise, changerait la Chine en profondeur.

Dans les jours suivant la comparution de M. Xu au tribunal, trois autres personnes associées au Nouveau Mouvement des Citoyens ont été arrêtés, et quatre autres procès vont avoir lieu cette semaine. Leur campagne pour la publication du patrimoine des fonctionnaires du gouvernement a été particulièrement mal reçue en haut lieu, après une série de reportages de médias étrangers révélant les richesses accumulées par certaines des familles chinoises les plus puissantes en politique. Il n’en faut pas beaucoup pour que le parti traite de telles enquêtes, tout comme l’intérêt des médias étrangers pour le Nouveau Mouvement des citoyens, comme un “complot international”.

Le Global Times, un média d’Etat chinois à la ligne dure, a averti les magistrats qui traitent le dossier de M. Xu de prendre garde aux “ingérences de l’Occident”. Mais c’est son objectif à long terme, défini globalement comme le “constitutionalisme”, qui rend son mouvement si dangereux aux yeux de l’establishment chinois. Brièvement, il affirme que la Constitution chinoise, c’est tout simplement ce qui y est écrit.

Que les droits civiques qui y sont inscrits, dont “la liberté d’expression, la liberté de la presse, de rassemblement, d’association, de manifestation” sont inaliénables. “J’appelle chacun à être un citoyen, un citoyen actif qui exerce ses droits civiques garantis par la constitution, et remplit les devoirs civiques d’un citoyen, qui promeut l’égalité devant l’éducation…et qui appelle à la publication.




                            The Advancement of Rights

Xu Zhiyong ( 许志永) may be best known for his foundation in May 2012 of the New Citizens' Movement (新公民运动). However, the founding of the NCM may be regarded as June 2010. This corresponded with the Open Letter called The Citizens' Pledge regarding civil rights' awareness. One of the key components of the pledge was "Equal Rights for Education". One specific campaign was to abolish the hukou restriction in gaokao (college admission exam) for migrants' children in large cities.

Scholarism (學民思潮)in Hong Kong developed independently from the New Citizens' movement on the mainland. It defended the autonomy of Hong Kong's education policy from Beijing's influence. It then participated in the Umbrella Movement (雨傘運動).

Ironically, one thing that both the New Citizens' Movement and Scholarism had in common was educational policy. While certain individuals in both groups were prominent one might say that both groups were leaderless. However, they differed in the maturity of their members. The NCM was composed of an assortment of older and more mature scholars, lawyers, journalists and activists. Scholarism was composed of younger secondary students. This meant that the NCM in terms of educational policy was an inclusive movement. They wanted peasants to have an equal opportunity with the wealthy. Scholarism can be defined as being exclusive or independent of the mainland's educational system.

There is another difference in thought though in evolution of the two movements with regard to education. Generally speaking, members of the NCM had completed their education and had begun their careers. As a result, they were oriented to practical ways to meet their goals. On the other hand, demonstrations interrupted the education of the participants of Scholarism to pursue higher education. They were successful in forcing the government to retract indoctrination through moral and national education.To be summarily succinct, NCM sought "for" something to be enacted while Scholarism fought "against" something to be redacted; namely, inclusion and exclusion respectively. This meant that the defining trait of Scholarism was reactive while NCM was constructive.

However, the antecedent and precedent of the NCM with respect to Xu Zhiyong was his legal defence of the two Suns; namely Sun Zhigang and Sun Dawu. The former was a graduate of Wuhan University of Science and Technology. He went to Guangzhou to work for Daji Garment Company. He had been detained after being unable to produce his temporary living permit (暫住証) and his identity card when he was stopped by the police. He had not applied for the former and had forgotten the later in Wuhan. Within three days of his arrest he was savagely beaten by police and died. As a result, it was argued by the defence team on his behalf that the C&R law for migrant workers was unconstitutional on the grounds that it violated citizens' rights articles of the Constitution.

Xu Zhiyong was also part of the legal team that defended the private businessman Sun Dawu. This was another case that made international headlines. Sun was accused of establishing an illegal credit co-operative at the village of Langwuzhuang, Hebei. To paraphrase Sun, though, there is no legal means to raise funds. However, corporate executives among whom were his brothers were also arrested and the whole business was shut down. The author also was put under house arrest for three days beginning May 28, 2003. He was establishing a college at the site during the SARS crisis.

The Sun Zhigang and Sun Dawu incidents marked the beginning of the civil right's movement in China. There were two achievements of the movement. The first was The Open Constitution Initiative (公盟) which spoke up for rule of law and constitutionalism. The most lasting achievement was the establishment of China's first Private Entrepreneurial Constitutional System in 2004 by the Dawu Group. All workers are potential leaders whose responsibilities are to manage the business. It provides free elections every two years. Everyone must vote.

D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi




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